Teaching in an intercultural environment. Teaching in an. Athlone Institute of Technology

43 

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Teaching in an

intercultural environment

intercultural environment

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Aim

o

To discuss and explore strategies for

improving the international student

experience in a teaching and learning

i

hil

i

l

l

environment, while simultaneously

improving interaction between home and

i t

ti

l t d

t

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Teaching in an intercultural setting means using strategies to work creatively with different cultural worldviews, and bringing an

international perspective into the curriculum.

Objectives

Therefore, at the end of the course you will be able to:

R i d di th lit t il bl t hi

{ Review and discuss the literature available on teaching international students;

{ Plan for and offer better support to international students and those involved in teaching;

involved in teaching;

{ Identify the main barriers in terms of teaching, e.g. language

awareness, non-verbal behaviour, learning styles, communication skills, academic writing etc;

Id tif d l bl ith th h l f th i th { Identify and solve problems with the help of others in the

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Wh t

ti

l i

d

d t b

f

What practical issues do we need to be aware of

in the intercultural classroom?

{

Cross-cultural awareness and communication issues

{

Teaching methodology, curriculum design and content

{

Different learning styles of culturally diverse students

g

y

y

{

Balancing the needs of ‘home’ students and international students as

learners

{

Managing expectations of academics and international students.

g g

p

“Betty Leask (2004) likens students’ arrival at university to learning

how to play a new game where success depends on figuring out the

y

g

g

g

new rules, applying them, and ‘winning’ rewards’ such as good

grades, positive feedback and a sense of confidence and

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Opening Exercise:

{

How did the exercise make you

{

How did the exercise make you

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

International Students in Ireland

{

Increasing numbers of international students. In

2007 numbers of international students in

2007, numbers of international students in

recognised colleges exceeded 27,275 and

contributed an estimated €372 million to the

economy

economy.

Why?

{

Internationalisation of educational institutions and

{

Internationalisation of educational institutions and

educational programmes linked to Government

internationalisation strategies

{

International recruitment strategies (in Ireland

{

International recruitment strategies (in Ireland,

linked to falling numbers of ‘home’ students)

{

Increased international mobility in a globalised

ld

world

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

At heart of the intercultural classroom is the question

of

culture

and how it affects:

{

How we teach and what we teach (Teachers)

(

)

{

How we learn and how we demonstrate that

learning (Students)

{

Awareness of ‘our’ and ‘their’ cultural values and

practices in an academic environment (Teachers

and Students)

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Visible aspects of culture/consciously aware of:

{ Literature - Manners – Customs - Language - History - Folklore –

Religious Rituals – Gestures – Eating Habits - Art - Style of Dress - Facial g g y Expressions

Invisible aspects of culture/less consciously aware of:

C i ti t l W f L i d h t k l d

{ Communication style – Ways of Learning and approach to knowledge -Religious Beliefs – Work Ethic – Values – Nature of friendships – Concept of leadership/authority – concept of fairness – role expectations – non-verbal communication – order of priorities – ways of carrying out tasks –y y g importance of time – concepts of personal space – negotiating styles – rules of social etiquette – concept of self – concept of beauty – attitude toward commitment – what motivates people – tempo of work –

formality/informality – perceptions of professionalismy y p p p

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

What do international students do that

What do international students do that

you don’t expect from home students?

Are there any unexpected behaviours?

(Pair work)

(Pair work)

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Cultural Values:

Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede

Teekens (2003) says that ‘‘by the time … students go

to university – the most important cultural values and

norms have been deeply ingrained in their attitudes

norms have been deeply ingrained in their attitudes

and emotions” (p.113)

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Intercultural Awareness Training

Cultural Dimensions

Cultural Dimensions

o

Individualism – Collectivist

o

Individualism – Collectivist

o

Power Distance

Masculinity

Femininity

o

Masculinity – Femininity

o

Uncertainty Avoidance

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

C ll ti i I di id li St d t M ti ti d P ti i ti

Collectivism vs Individualism: Student Motivation and Participation

In practice:

{ Class participation and group work { Class participation and group work

Collectivist: Reluctance to give opinions and to interrupt. Participation in the Chinese classroom for example – a more teacher-centred academic culture where students do not speak without being asked to first.

I di id li F l h A i l i l

Individualist: For example, the American classroom – active oral participation is key part of the academic culture.

{ Learning through discussions and interactions with classmates/teacher { Learning through discussions and interactions with classmates/teacher

in the classroom does not exist in some cultures and is alien to certain categories of students.

Pinheiro (2001) points out that students from certain Asian countries thought that American classroom discussions were ‘a matter of students reading articles and saying disconnected things in class’, preferring instead structured discussions initiated and chaired by the teacher (quoted in Tatar, structured discussions initiated and chaired by the teacher (quoted in Tatar, p.340).

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

o Issue of silence - viewed as normal and positive behaviour in many o Issue of silence - viewed as normal and positive behaviour in many

cultures:

‘Maybe it is something that originates from our own culture. Listening is

better than speaking; I mean we are listening-oriented people, not speaking’. T ki h t d t tli i h il i l d t lk i l

Turkish student outlining why silence is valued over talk in class room participation in his culture (quoted in Tatar, 2005, p.343)

o Perception by some students that you talk only when you have enough o Perception by some students that you talk only when you have enough

information or knowledge about your subject, otherwise the lecturer is the authority or expert. Silence and not speaking in class does not necessarily mean lack of participation but a different concept of participation.

o Reliance on teacher for ‘direction’ – ‘which books should I read’, ‘what is

the ‘correct’ answer’, ‘which essay would you recommend that I do’ etc. Written texts seen as the ‘authority’, issues of plagiarism may arise.y , p g y

o Culture of independent and self-directed learning in Western cultures

(individualist) very different to that of teacher-led focus in certain Asian and African cultures (collectivist)

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Power Distance: Student / Teacher Relationship

In practice:

{

Respect for Teacher as ‘expert’

p

p

– e.g. Confucian learning

g

g

model – lack of questioning of the teacher.

{

Little critical engagement

with texts or contrary to opinion

of teacher.

of teacher.

{

Formal relationship with lecturer

, particularly in form of

address e.g. using titles

{

Raises conceptual questions of ‘

what is a teacher

’ and

{

Raises conceptual questions of

what is a teacher

and

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Collectivism/High

Individualism/Low

Examples

g

Power Distance

Power Distance

o

Asian Countries

o

African Countries

S

th A

i

o

US

o

Northern Europe

o

South American

Countries

o

Arab countries

o

o t e

u ope

o

Australia

o

Ireland

o

Arab countries

o

Greece

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Masculinity vs Femininity

Distribution of roles between the genders:

Masculine

Distribution of roles between the genders:

Masculine

society - social gender roles are clearly defined and

separate.

Feminine

cultures - social

gender roles

overlap and men and women can take on the same

p

roles without problem.

In practice –

R l t

t

t d

t

t ti

b

t

lit

o

Relates

to

student

expectations

about

equality,

leadership, figures in authority and gender roles.

o

May also affect attitudes towards female lecturers or

women in authority from students from high masculinity

women in authority from students from high masculinity

cultures.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Masculine

Feminine

Examples

o

Arab countries

o

Northern Europe –

Fi l

d S

d

o

Greece

o

Austria

Finland, Sweden,

Netherlands, Denmark

o

Chile

o

Italy

o

Japan

N

Z

l

d

o

Chile

o

East African cultures

o

Portugal

o

New Zealand

o

Switzerland

o

Portugal

o

Thailand

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty Avoidance

Relates to a culture’s tolerance for uncertainty or ambiguity. High

Uncertainty Avoidance cultures try to minimise uncertainty by having

Uncertainty Avoidance cultures try to minimise uncertainty by having lots of written laws, rules etc. Low Uncertainty Avoidance cultures, people are more tolerant of risk and difference and try to have as few rules as possible.

In practice –

{ Students from High Uncertainty Avoidance cultures will want clearly defined tasks and e pect lect rers to pla a dominant role in the

defined tasks and expect lecturers to play a dominant role in the

classroom. Belief in absolute truth, need for written and explicit rules.

{ Students from Low Uncertainty Avoidance cultures may find rigid rules difficult if they are not used to this, belief in relativisim/empiricism, rules difficult if they are not used to this, belief in relativisim/empiricism, higher acceptance of dissent. Impact on participation and discussion in classroom.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Orientation to Time

Orientation to Time

Monochronic vs Polychronic

In practice: In practice:

{ Students from polychronic cultures will have different attitude towards meeting times, making appointments, class start-times, may be flexible meeting times, making appointments, class start times, may be flexible and being late is relative.

{ Linked to culture of independent learning in our educational institutions,

W t lt l l h i i id ttit d t ti

Western cultures are largely monochronic, more rigid attitude to time-keeping, appointment making etc.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Communication Stylesy

{Direct vs Indirect – harmony and saving face may be more important than “honesty”. Use of third party to convey message

{Formal vs Informal - use of titles and positions; observance of ritual

I t ll t l l ti l f f t th th

{Intellectual vs relational - more concern for facts than the person

{Abstract vs concrete - problems approached by rules/theories/principles rather than by details of each case

rather than by details of each case

{Attached vs detached - level of emotional involvement and degree to which emotion is expected/acceptedp p

When working with international students, we need to be aware of our own communication style and to make self-conscious adjustments depending on the context to avoid miscommunication and misunderstandings

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Non Verbal Communication

o

Eye Language (Oculesics)

o

Use of space (Proxemics)

o

Body language, gestures (Kinesics)

o

Touch/contact (Haptics)

o

Accent, pitch, tone, interpretation of

, p

,

,

p

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Becoming an effective teacher of

i t

ti

l t d

t

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

{ Background: ‘Deficit’ model, popular up until the early 90s.

International students coming into a western academic setting were seen as having a ‘problem’ that needed to be ‘corrected’ and that their way of thi ki d d ‘ dj t t’ E li lit t i t ti l t d t thinking needed ‘adjustment’. Earlier literature on international students stressed their need to adapt to our academic cultures as quickly as

possible in order to succeed.

{ Over time, there has been a move towards valuing different views and

abilities, different ways of thinking and learning that international

students bring to the classroom – utilising their strengths and valuing their ‘cultural capital’ (Bourdieu, 1984 in Carroll and Ryan: 2005 : 14)

{ Lawrence (2001) suggests ‘many academics are still teaching to the ‘ lit ’ th th th ‘ t l’ th t th li it th l t ‘ ’ t hi ‘elite’ rather than the ‘actual’; that they limit themselves to ‘pure’ teaching rather than a ‘value-added’ style of teaching which supports students in the learning process’ (Lawrence, 2001: 4 in Carroll & Ryan (2005: 62)).

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Teaching & learning: barriers & suggested solutions

Specific issues:

1

Assessment

(essays assignments

1.

Assessment

(essays, assignments,

presentations, writing skills etc.)

2

Language

‘yours’ and ‘theirs’

2.

Language

– yours and theirs

3.

Course content and design

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Critical Incident 1

You are an Irish academic grading the first assignment you have set for a student, Joseph, from Ghana. You have agreed to meet him to give him your feedback on the first draft of his project. However, you have had great difficulty with his draft and you intend to give Joseph a lot of

i f db k J h b hi i f l

negative feedback. Joseph wrote about his topic from a very personal viewpoint, did not structure an argument or use any critical thinking or reference current literature or research in his assignment. Towards the

d f th J h t f t th t h d t

end of the essay, Joseph wrote a few sentences that showed some type of critical engagement with the essay topic. Overall you are very disappointed with his effort especially as he has been quite participative in class You are unsure how he will progress in your course if his writing in class. You are unsure how he will progress in your course if his writing skills do not improve dramatically. You tell Joseph this and he seems very surprised.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

What academic issues are being expressed in this

What academic issues are being expressed in this

critical incident?

How do you think the student feels?

Have you ever tackled a similar issue before and

how did you resolve it?

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

1

Assessment

1.

Assessment

{ Explain methods of assessment (essays, assignments, presentations) to

international students. Link the learning outcomes of the course with the methods g that you will use to assess in order to demonstrate to your students why you are using certain methods to assess. Once they realise the purpose, it may make it easier for them.

{ Assignments – different critical approaches and writing styles – construction of

t th t f th i i t d ti i W t d l ( d i argument, the concept of the overview introduction is a Western model (used in UK, US, Australia, Ireland) seen by many international students e.g. Chinese, as spoiling the rest of the essay because the key points are usually revealed in the opening paragraphs unlike in the Chinese essay where the art is to hint at what you want to say and to support the revered academic or ‘expert’ viewpoint; and the you want to say and to support the revered academic or expert viewpoint; and the French essay – padding, elaboration of argument slowly – might be seen as

waffling but this is standard good practice.

{ Give students examples of good and bad essays to show them how you expect

them to write and to critically evaluate Explain all the technical language used to them to write and to critically evaluate. Explain all the technical language used to ensure maximum clarity. Explain the instructional terms you use in essay

questions, Give clear and early feedback to students. Bear in mind cultural issues in giving direct criticism.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

W iti

kill

i ht b

d d

l

d

th

i ht b

d

{

Writing skills

– might be underdeveloped as they might be used

to other methods of assessment e.g. shorter writing assignments

than the 3000-4000 word essay.

{

Clarify the reading list

– what is

essential

reading, what is

recommended

etc.

{

Explain plagiarism

p

p g

–what it is, show how to avoid it, show

students how to paraphrase, how to reference, quote etc

{

Exams

– some students may not be adept at written exams

because in some cultures oral exams are more prevalent – also

p

pressure for non-native speakers writing under pressure in exam

situation

{

Explain the marking systems

thoroughly and how many marks

{

Explain the marking systems

thoroughly and how many marks

will be given for each area. Explain what is graded and what isn’t,

explain the grading system.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Example of good practice Example of good practice

In Steve Hills/Viv Thom’s ‘Crossing a Multicultural Divide: Teaching Business Strategy to Students from Culturally Mixed Backgrounds’ they examine what a teaching team did in order to improve teaching and learning outcomes for student and teachers alike on a business

to improve teaching and learning outcomes for student and teachers alike on a business Master’s course:

They made their expectations about outcomes as explicit and clear as possible in the course module guide in a way they would not have done so before outlining the following and

e plaining explaining:

z What is Master’s-Level Work?

z Critical Appraisal

z Guidance of the Task

z Plagiarism

z The UK’s Academic Culture

{ During follow-up interviews and focus groups, students said that the changes made by the g g g y lecturers in their strategies had been beneficial to their learning.

Hills, S. & Thom, V. (2005), ‘Crossing a Multicultural Divide: Teaching Business Strategy to Students from Culturally Mixed Backgrounds’ in Journal of Studies in International Education, vol 9, no 4, pp.316-336.

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Teaching in an intercultural environment

Critical Incident 2

You are a Course Director in an academic department. You have overheard a number f P ki t i t d t l i i b t l t d h diffi lt it i t d t d of Pakistani students complaining about a lecturer and how difficult it is to understand him. You approach the students and you ask them to meet you in your office later that day to try to resolve the problem. When they arrive, they are very reluctant to speak so you ask the questions directly to one of the students who appears to be the spokesperson They say this particular lecturer speaks too fast and they also find it spokesperson. They say this particular lecturer speaks too fast and they also find it difficult to understand his accent. The lecturer is Irish but has a very strong accent. They are extremely worried because they are going on work placement soon and wonder if they will have similar problems with accents. They ask you what they should do. You agree to set up a meeting between the students concerned and the lecturerg p g and you agree to attend to act as a facilitator if necessary. You set aside an hour to solve the matter, however, after 10 minutes the meeting seemed to finish without the issue being addressed despite your attempts to bring the matter up. You find this odd as you thought the students were eager to have the matter resolved. You leave the meeting feeling very frustrated

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

What teaching and learning issues are being

expressed in this critical incident?

p

How do you think the students feel?

y

Have you ever tackled similar issues and what

Have you ever tackled similar issues and what

happened?

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

2 Language 2. Language

International Student

{ Length of time it will take non-native English speaker to read is much slower – therefore their ability to read ‘around’ a subject is reduced due to their actual capacity to skim/speed read in the ability to read around a subject is reduced due to their actual capacity to skim/speed read in the same way a native speaker can do so.

{ Many international students despite passing IELTS/TOEFL with acceptable grades will have a substantially smaller vocabulary (4000-10,000) than a native English speaker (c. 40,000).

{ Translating constantly from native language to English takes effort and students may miss wordsg y g g g y

{ Fears about language ability may impact on international students’ class participation

Minding ‘your’ language

{ Teachers’ use of language – slang, jargon (academic & cultural), acronyms, culturally specific g g g, j g ( ), y , y p references, potentially offensive language or stereotypes. Also bear in mind speed of speech and try to finish your words, if a student doesn’t understand something, perhaps repeat what you said using the same words to give them the opportunity to translate once again.

{ Use of ‘Plain English’, use more simple words that have the same meaning e.g. ‘bleed’ instead of ‘haemorrhage’haemorrhage .

{ Think about your use of metaphors as they can be confusing and are often culturally biased and based on ‘local’ knowledge that international students will not have.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

{ Allow students to tape lectures so that they can go over what they missed if necessary

{ Give plenty of advance notice about class discussions use pair work to give

{ Give plenty of advance notice about class discussionsuse pair work to give international students time to refine their views before speaking in front of the whole class

{ Give written notes or ‘gapped notes’ with plenty of space for students to take

{ Give written notes or gapped notes with plenty of space for students to take notes during class.

{ Create a frequent word usage glossary for your course – build up a resource that b d i thi d f th f t Al f ilit t t d t t k f

can be used in this course and for the future. Also facilitate students to ask for explanations of unfamiliar language in a way that is not embarrassing for them – this will perhaps be useful for ‘home’ students too – e.g. writing new words on a flipchart as you go along.

What strategies do you use when you don’t understand what a student has said (either accent or content)?

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Critical Incident 3 Critical Incident 3

You are a lecturer on a postgraduate programme. The course is about mid a thro gh The class is largel Irish b t there are some

midway through. The class is largely Irish but there are some

international students on the course also. A few of the international students approach you to tell you that the course is not meeting their expectations They point out that the preliminary course material they expectations. They point out that the preliminary course material they received did not specify that the programme would mainly focus on an Irish context. They are finding the programme quite restrictive and think that they have not been given an opportunity to demonstrate their

that they have not been given an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge of international systems and policies, particularly those of their home countries. They also mentioned to you that they has

expected to be able to focus on their home country for their thesis but expected to be able to focus on their home country for their thesis but they have been told by a tutor that this will not be possible. They are quite unhappy about the situation and one of them tells you that he is considering leaving the programme.g g p g

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

What

academic

issues

are

being

expressed in this critical incident?

expressed in this critical incident?

H

d

thi k th f lt?

How do you think the felt?

What strategies in general could you try to

ensure that

course content is more

relevant?

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

3

Course content and design

3.

Course content and design

{ Consider your ‘audience’ and whether internationalisation of your course content and materials is required.

content and materials is required.

{ Use teaching materials that are appropriate for a culturally diverse audience (including diverse images). Be aware of using culturally inappropriate

t t t d f b i ht b ff i t

course content e.g. a case study of a brewery might be offensive to some. { Aim to be inclusive: Include a range of international perspectives and allow

students to bring their own experience to the table Emphasise the benefits students to bring their own experience to the table. Emphasise the benefits of alternative viewpoints. Use international case studies, examples and think about applying knowledge in different cultural contexts.

{ Give explicit information on course objectives, what students will learn, and what skills they are expected to have and develop as student.

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Teaching in an intercultural environment

Critical Incident 4 Critical Incident 4

You are a lecturer in the School of Creative Arts and you have set a group work assignment for your students and divided them into small groups of four. There are 3 Irish students (Aidan, Rory and Aoife) and 1 Chinese student (Derek) in one particular group. After the students have handed) ( ) p g p in their assignment, the three Irish students come to you to say that they had some problems working with Derek, the Chinese student in the group. The Irish students tell you that the whole group met immediately after the assignment was set to discuss what to do and what each person’s task would be. The Irish students took the lead and split the tasks between them, focussing on 4 different elements They asked Derek what section he wanted to do Derek was focussing on 4 different elements. They asked Derek what section he wanted to do. Derek was very quiet and did not give an opinion. The Irish students decided to chose first and leave the remaining task to Derek and agreed to meet up a few days later which each of their sections of the assignment prepared.

When they met up, they exchanged copies of each of their work. The Irish students were really annoyed when they read Derek’s contribution which seemed to have been copied exactly from the course’s core textbook and contained nothing ‘new’. One of the Irish students, Aoife, said she was really disappointed and that they were expected to work as a team and do equal amounts of work The other Irish students tell you that they were not happy with Derek’s contribution and that work. The other Irish students tell you that they were not happy with Derek s contribution and that they are afraid that their overall grade will be lower because of the difficulties working together in this group. They offered to rewrite Derek’s section but Derek looked very upset so said they would talk to the lecturer instead. They also said that they would prefer to work with Irish students on the next group assignment.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

What cultural dimensions and academic issues

are being expressed in this critical incident?

g

p

How do you think both the Irish students and the

y

Chinese student felt about working together?

What strategies in general could you try to

promote good group work?

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

4 Group work 4. Group work

{ Many international students will not have experienced group work before and may not consider it to be ‘learning’. Teachers need to be clear on why group work is used as a methodology and why the task is better done as a group

methodology and why the task is better done as a group.

{ Clarify expectations - how each group member is expected to contribute and that assessment will be as a group not as an individual and that active participation is expected.

{ Composition of groupsp g p – who will decide on membership? Will it be fair to assign one p g international student to a group of ‘home’ students?

Research shows that ‘home’ students are resistant to international students in groups because they think they will not do as well. Also research shows international groups take longer to become effective but can be just as effective as mono-cultural groups over time

time.

{ Set ground rules for the group work and be aware of cultural issues affecting

participation of international students in groups e.g. silence could mean listening/thinking and not disinterest or being non-participative.

{ Consider benefits of intercultural groups for ‘home’ students –’internationalisation at

{ Consider benefits of intercultural groups for home students – internationalisation at home’. Gives good team working skills in group work situations, also gives them cross-cultural communication skills, additional knowledge about other cultures ways of working plus general knowledge, as well as ‘broaden[ing] their global understandings of

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Teaching in an intercultural environment

Skills for effective teaching in an intercultural context:

Skills for effective teaching in an intercultural context:

{

Be very clear and explicit.

{

Create an environment where international students do not feel

disadvantaged but that harnesses their skills and strengths while at

the same time introducing them clearly to the concepts and values

the same time introducing them clearly to the concepts and values

that are common in Western academic life.

{

Facilitate international students to relate the concepts that they’re

learning to practical examples in the own countries – this makes

the learning easier and also benefits home students as they’ll learn

f

th i i t

ti

l l

t

from their international classmates.

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Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

“Teachers can help students best by becoming

more knowledgeable about their own academic

culture. Once teachers can see their own

academic culture as ‘systems of belief,

expectations and practices about how to perform

expectations and practices about how to perform

academically’ (Cortazzi and Jin, 1997: 77), they

can start to offer explicit help to students who

can start to offer explicit help to students who

have chosen to learn in that academic culture”.

(Carroll and Ryan, 2005: 27)

(43)

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Intercultural Awareness Training:

Teaching in an intercultural environment

Evaluation Questions

o

Name one thing that you have learned

from this training?

from this training?

Have you gained any new perspectives ?

o

Have you gained any new perspectives ?

H

ttit d

h

d i

?

Figure

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References

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Related subjects :