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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016

504

Design of Multipurpose space saving seating

arrangement using Finite Element Analysis

Dhiraj V. Astonkar

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg., Dr. Rajendra Gode Institute of Technology & Research,

Amravati, Maharashtra, India.

dhirajastonkar@gmail.com

Dr. Sanjay M. Kherde

Principal-Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg., Dr. Sau. Kamaltai Gawai Institute of Engineering &

Technology, Darapur, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.

sanjaykherde@gmail.com

Abstract—In India majority of Indian middle class populations are living in small flats and homes this is mostly because of their economy scale as well as the lack of space availability for living. But in the present scenario furniture occupies a majority of the space. To overcome this problem the seating arrangements of the furniture should be multipurpose, space saving than their primary functions. Moreover, high population density leads many other problems such as high gap between rich and poor, not proper comfort due to Ergonomics. These are common problem in now days. Space saving seating arrangements is one of the options to solve these problems. In this paper, we will introduce the innovative designs for space saving seating arrangements with design calculations of load bearing capacity on space saving seating arrangements and compare calculations with finite element analysis results using ANSYS tools. User study was conducted to understand the lifestyle, need and comfort as well as different shapes with waste material. This paper will help people to understand the importance of multipurpose, space saving seating arrangements with compare calculations and finite element analysis results.

Keywords: Space saving, Seating arrangements, Furniture’s

I. INTRODUCTION

Furniture is built to make people live easier and more comfortable. The furniture industry divides them into various board groups. One way of grouping furniture is according to where and how it used. Furniture that is used at home makes up another large group and can be classified by its style.

Seating arrangements and tables are occupy some area so, foldable as well as movable are easily transported from one place to another and used in variety of outdoor conditions. It is also convenient to provide seating arrangements and tables that may be reduced to small size for ease of carrying and storage. All types of seating arrangements and tables have some advantage and disadvantage. The customer buys the seating arrangements and tables according to their requirements like study table, dining table, office table etc. The choice of furniture material affects the look surrounding and load capacity. In Computer Aided Design (CAD) software are used for modeling the objects with different design of CAD Model as well as the Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS tools with different loads applicable then compare calculations and finite element analysis results development and procedures of space saving with product prepared from waste material of rubber tubes for easily transported from one place to another and used in outdoor conditions also.

II. RESEARCHANDANALYSIS

 Observations from Market Study & User Survey are,  Majority of Indian middle class populations are living

in small flats & homes.

 To understand the lifestyle, need and comfort

 Requirement of foldable as well as movable space saving seating arrangements

 Multipurpose, Modular, Flexible and Space -Saving  Ergonomically perfect product

 Low Cost of product so used some waste material or recycle material.

III.SEGMENTS FOR SEATING ARRANGEMENTS Chairs can be categorized in many ways depending on what properties that are emphasized. Some examples are color, price, properties, quality, weight, chairs for different ages or chairs for different kinds of use. For this report, chairs are developed into segments after different kinds of use. These categories can also be divided in many ways but there are some common names for chairs for the same kinds of use. The segments chosen to be investigated in this report are office chairs, lounge chairs, conference chairs and transport chairs. These decisions are based on recommendations from the brainstorming session.

Fig.01 Chair segments, the green dots are the segments investigated

IV.CAD MODELING SEATING ARRANGEMENTS

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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016 A. Seating arrangements from rubber tubes:

Fig.02 Assembly of seating arrangements from rubber tubes

B. Seating arrangements from rubber tyres:

Fig.03 Assembly of seating arrangements from rubber tyres

V. A GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Certain steps in formulating a finite element analysis of a physical problem are common to all such analyses, whether structural, heat transfer, fluid flow, or some other problem. These steps are embodied in commercial finite element software packages (some are mentioned in the following paragraphs) and are implicitly incorporated in this text, although we do not necessarily refer to the steps explicitly. The steps are described as follows.

A. Preprocessing :

The preprocessing step is, quite generally, described as defining the model and includes

 Define the geometric domain of the problem.  Define the element type(s) to be used.  Define the material properties of the elements.  Define the geometric properties of the elements

(length, area, and the like).

 Define the element connectivity (mesh the model).  Define the physical constraints (boundary conditions).  Define the loadings.

The preprocessing (model definition) step is critical. In no case is there a better example of the computer-related axiom “garbage in, garbage out.” A perfectly computed finite element solution is of absolutely no value if it corresponds to the wrong problem.

During the solution phase, finite element software assembles the governing algebraic equations in matrix form and computes the unknown values of the primary field variable(s). The computed values are then used by back substitution to compute additional, derived variables, such as reaction forces, element stresses, and heat flow. As it is not uncommon for a finite element model to be represented by tens of thousands of equations, special solution techniques are used to reduce data storage requirements and computation time. For static, linear problems, a wave front solver, based on Gauss elimination, is commonly used. While a complete discussion of the various algorithms is beyond the scope of this text, the interested reader will find a thorough discussion in the Bathe book.

C. Post processing:

Analysis and evaluation of the solution results is referred to as post processing. Postprocessor software contains sophisticated routines used for sorting, printing, and plotting selected results from a finite element solution. Examples of operations that can be accomplished include:

 Sort element stresses in order of magnitude.  Check equilibrium.

 Calculate factors of safety.  Plot deformed structural shape.  Animate dynamic model behavior.  Produce color-coded temperature plots. While solution data can be manipulated many ways in post processing, the most important objective is to apply sound engineering judgment in determining whether the solution results are physically reasonable.

VI. ANALYSIS ON SEATING ARRANGEMENTS FROM RUBBER TUBES & TYRES:

A. Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes & Tyres:

In Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes analysis first import model in ANSYS software in .iges file format then material is selected for analysis, in rubber tubes there are two materials are used Nylon 6/6 for belts & ropes used in seating arrangements & Elastomers (Natural & Synthetic Rubber) for tube (vehicle tube) used in seating arrangements after selecting material a seating arrangements divided into a small number of solid finite element, this process is known as meshing, then applying load on upper portion of seating arrangements then analyzing result of Analysis.

B. Loads apply on Seating Arrangements:

Normal Person Weight = 70 kg = 70 × 9.81 = 686.7 N

Assume Force on seating arrangements 70% of Weight = 0.70 × 686.7

= 480.69 N

Heavy Person Weight = 100 kg = 100 × 9.81 = 981N

Assume Force on seating arrangements 70% of Weight = 0.70 × 981

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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016

506 C. Material Properties:

Table 01 Material Property for Analysis

Property Nylon

6/6

Elastomers (Natural & Synthetic Rubber)for

tube

Elastomers (Natural & Synthetic Rubber)for

tyre

Young’s Modulus (Pa)

3.6

e+009 5.e+006 5.e+006

Poisson’s Ratio 0.4 0.48 0.48

Density (kg/m3) 1150 1250 1350

Tensile Yield Strength (Pa)

8.2

e-002 2.e+007 2.e+007

D. Comparisons of Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes & Tyres:

Table 02 Comparisons of Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes & Tyres

Material Seating Arrangements from

Rubber Tubes

Seating Arrangements from

Rubber Tyres Load (N) 480.69 686.7 480.69 686.7

Total Deformation

(Max.) m

0.164 0.2335 1.9469 e-002

2.6242 e-002

Equivalent (Von-Mises)

Stress (Max.) Pa

8.2322 e+007

1.1722 e+008

2.4681 e+006

3.3664 e+006

Normal Stress (Max.)

Pa

6.6516 e+007

9.4706 e+007

2.8291 e+006

3.8795 e+006

E. Result of Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes & Tyres:

Table 03 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tyres for 70 kg

Analysis

Results for load 70kg

Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tyres

Meshing Model

Total Deformation

Equivalent (Von-Mises)

Stress

Normal Stress

Table 04 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes for 70 kg

Analysis Results for load 70kg

Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes

Meshing Model

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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016

Equivalent (Von-Mises)

Stress

Normal Stress

Table 05 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tyres for 100 kg

Analysis Results for load 100kg

Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tyres

Meshing Model

Total Deformation

Equivalent (Von-Mises)

Stress

Normal Stress

Table 06 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes for 100 kg

Analysis Results for load 100kg

Analysis on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes

Meshing Model

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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016

508 Equivalent

(Von-Mises) Stress

Normal Stress

VII. MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS:

A. Dimensions and cross sectional area of seating arrangements from Rubber Tubes:

Dimensions:

Outer diameter of tube, D1= 660 mm

Inner diameter of tube, D2= 360 mm

Thickness of two tube, t = 360 mm

Outer diameter of belt & nylon r

ope, d

1

= 360 mm

Inner diameter of belt & nylon r

ope, d

2

= 140 mm

Thickness of belt & nylon r

ope, t

1

= 10 mm

C/s Area = [(π/4) × (

D12– D22) ×t] +

[(π/4) × (

d12– d22) ×t1]

= [(π/4) × (

6602– 3602) ×360] +

[(π/4) × (

3602– 1402) ×10]

= [86.519×106] + [863.93×103]

= 87.382×106 mm2

Normal Stress:

Stress = [Load /

C/s Area]…………

(70 Kg)

= [480.69 /

87.382×106]

=

5.501×10

-6

N/

mm2

Stress = [Load /

C/s Area]…………

(100 Kg)

= [686.7 /

87.382×106]

=

7.858×10

-6

N/

mm2

B. Dimensions and cross sectional area of seating arrangements from Rubber Tyres :

Dimensions:

Outer diameter of tyre, D1= 540 mm

Inner diameter of tyre, D2= 360 mm

Thickness of two tyre, t = 360 mm

Outer diameter of nylon r

ope, d= 360 mm

Thickness of nylon r

ope, t

1

= 10 mm

C/s Area = [(π/4) × (

D12– D22) ×t] +

[(π/4) ×

d2 ×t1]

= [(π/4) × (

5402– 3602) ×360] +

[(π/4) ×

3602 ×10]

= [45.804×106] + [1.017×106]

= 46.821×106 mm2

Normal Stress:

Stress = [Load /

C/s Area]…………

(70 Kg)

= [480.69 /

46.821×106]

=

1.026×10

-5

N/

mm2

Stress = [Load /

C/s Area]…………

(100 Kg)

= [686.7 /

46.821×106]

=

1.466×10

-5

N/

mm2

Result In Mathematical And Software Are At Approximately Same Value.

VIII.COMPARATIVE STATEMENT:

Mathematically:

Normal Stress=1.026×10-5 Pa

From ANSYS Report:

Mathematically:

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Volume 3, Special Issue 1, ICSTSD 2016

Mathematically:

Normal Stress=

1.466×10

-5Pa From ANSYS Report:

Mathematically:

Normal Stress=

7.858×10

-6Pa From ANSYS Report:

IX.CONCLUSION:

In the present scenario furniture occupies a majority of the space. To overcome this problem, the seating arrangements of the furniture should be multipurpose. In this paper we have introduce innovative designs for space saving seating arrangements with design calculations. This will help people to understand the importance space saving seating arrangements with compare calculations and finite element analysis results.

X.REFERENCES:

[1] Dhiraj V. Astonkar, Dr. Sanjay M. Kherde,” Determination of multipurpose, space saving seating arrangements with CAD & CAE Software”, on IJRISE, Volume2(1), e-ISSN:2394-8299,p-ISSN:2394-8280,Dec.2015,pp 88-94.

[2] Dhiraj V. Astonkar,Dr. Sanjay M. Kherde, “Design & Development of multipurpose,space saving seating arrangements using Ergonomics”,on IJERA,ISSN:2248-9622 & NCERT,2nd

[3] Dhiraj V. Astonkar, Dr. Sanjay M. Kherde, “Development in various multipurpose furniture’s by using space saving approach”, on IRJET 2015, volume 2(6), Issue 6 Sept. 2015, pp 257-264. [4] Dhiraj V. Astonkar,Dr.Sanjay M. Kherde, “Modeling and Analysis

of multipurpose, space saving seating arrangements using CAD Approach”, on IJPRET 2014, volume 2(9), Issue 1 May 2014, pp 504-520.

[5] Emil Varghese,Sudhindra Kumar, Lohit H. S, “Design of Multipurpose Modular, Flexible and Space Saving Dining Table”,on SAS TECH,volume10,Issue 2 sept.2011,pp103-111. [6] Amol M. Kolhe, Samir J. Deshmukh,”Development of a Foldable

Seating Device Useful in Public Places”,on IJTARME,ISSN:2319-3182,volume-1,Issue-2,2012,pp 9-13.

[7] Sreerag C.S.,Gopinath C.,Manas Ranjan Mishra,”Design and Development of Conceptual Wheelchair cum Stretcher”,on SASTECH,volume10,Issue2 sept.2011,pp78-86.

[8] Shiyao Wang, “An Analysis of Transformable space saving Furniture”, on WOOD 493, Issue 8 April 2013.

[9] Tan Boon Chai.”New concept of furniture design by using space saving approach” at University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

[10]Dr. Tim Springer, President HERO, Inc.”The Future of Ergonomic Office Seating”, on Knoll Workplace Research, 2010.

[11]A Textbook of Introduction of Ergonomics by R.S.Bridger, pp 58-120.

[12]Lise Abrahamsen Kratter,”Development of environmentally friendly chair concept”at Norwegian University of Science & Technology, June 2012.

[13]A Textbook of Finite Element Method by Daryl L. Logan, pp 15-20.

[14]A Textbook of CAD/CAM:Computer-Aided Design and

Figure

Table 04 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes for 70 kg
Table 06 Comparisons of Analysis Result on Seating Arrangements from Rubber Tubes for 100 kg

References

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