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Section 3 - Gender-Based Conflict (Teachers Handbook) v1.0.1.pdf


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Peace Clubs

Section Three:

Gender-Based Conflict

A Teacher’s Handbook

Written by:

Maria Krause


Contact Information:

Mennonite Central Committee, Zambia


Version 1.0.1

October 2012

Additional Guidance provided by:

Jimmy Juma

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter


Section Three Overview: Gender-Based Conflict

Unit Five: Issues of Gender

Lesson 1: Gender Versus Sex ... 4

Lesson 2: Gender, Power and Discrimination... 7

Lesson 3: Gender Stereotypes ... 12

Lesson 4: Gender Roles ... 15

Lesson 5: Transforming Gender Roles ... 18

Lesson 6: The Gender Gap ... 21

Lesson 7: Friendship ... 28

Unit Six: Gender-Based Violence

Lesson 1: Gender-Based Violence in the Public Sphere ... 31

Lesson 2: Gender-Based Violence in the Private Sphere ... 35

*Lesson 3: Sexual Abuse, Part 1 ... 38

*Lesson 4: Sexual Abuse, Part 2 ... 42

Lesson 5: Relationship Violence ... 46


Refer to Appendix A for Lesson 3 and 4, “A Teacher’s Resource for Sexual Abuse”

Unit Seven: Case Studies and Stories on Gender-Based Conflict

Priests and Nuns ... 52

Alice and Mr. Banda ... 52

The Liberian Women’s Movement for Peace ... 54


Lesson 1: Gender Versus Sex

Teachers’ Introduction

As the Oxfam Gender Training Manual states, “People are born female or male, but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. They are taught what the appropriate behaviour and attitudes, roles and activities are for them, and how they should relate to other people. This learned behaviour is what makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.”1 In this way, gender is something that our society and culture determines - it is not

determined by the way we are born. Because gender is socially constructed, we have both the ability and the

responsibility to ensure that the gender roles we are teaching our children and students are positive ones that promote justice. As Peace Club leaders, it is your responsibility to help students understand what limitations they are born with, and what limitations are constructed by their culture and society. These constructed identities can be challenged and need to be challenged when they create injustices and when they limit someone’s freedom. Girls should not feel limited to work in the home and should not feel that they can never achieve roles of authority, such as becoming a doctor or lawyer. Boys should not feel that they have the right to not do household work, and should feel that the are free to become chefs and nurses.

When our gender limits our freedom and creates injustice, it becomes a form of violence and needs to be addressed and transformed. This section will help students think about gender, conflict transformation over issues of gender, and it will also help them identify the ways that they may limit themselves and others because of gender. Peace Clubs seeks to empower students to set and achieve goals based on their own strengths, skills and hopes, and to limit themselves because of ideas of what is “right” and “wrong” for their gender.

This section will be challenging and difficult at times, but it is always important to remember that working for peace is a process that takes time and constant effort. Peace is not about arriving at a destination, but about journeying on a path of justice, grace and right relationships. When we step off that path of peace, we can always step back onto it.


In the last two sections of Peace Club, we learned about conflict, justice, power and violence. In this section, we will learn about how gender is connected to each of these things, and learn how as Peace Club members, we can work for justice and peace when it comes to gender-related conflicts and violence.

1 Fisher, Simon, et al. “Working with Conflict: Skills and Strategies for Action”, London and New York: Zed Books, 2000, p. 47.

Objective: Students will understand the difference between ‘gender’ and ‘sex’.


Definitions and Discussion

Today, we will learn about two new words: sex and gender.

Sex: This is a biological and natural term. We are born either male or female, and this does not change throughout our lives. Sex is the same all around the world, and it is the same through time.

Gender: This is a term that depends on our culture and society. Gender is constructed by our society, and as we are growing up, we are told that there are specific roles and expectations that our society has about girls/women and boys/men. For example, men are told not to cry, because crying is a sign of weakness, but it may be okay for women to cry because they are seen as being softer-hearted.

• Gender changes from place to place. For example, in Zambia, farming is seen as both a woman and a man’s role, but in the western world, it is usually seen as a man’s role.

• Gender changes through time. For example, before 1970, most people in Zambia thought that girls should not go to school. But if you look around you today in our class, you will see that there are many girls here. This is because our society’s ideas about gender have changed.


“Gender Role or Sex Role?”2

This activity will help us learn the difference between a sex role and a gender role. As we already learned, our sex is the way we are born, while our gender is made by our culture and society. The following ideas are either determined by our sex or by our gender. After I read the line out loud, we need to determine if it is a gender role (something that our culture tells us to do) or a sex role (a role determined by the way we are born and the way our bodies naturally are).

1. Read out the following lines one-by-one.

2. After each sentence, have the class decide if it determined at birth - a ‘sex’ role, or made by our culture and society - a ‘gender’ role. If it is a ‘gender’ role, ask the students to stand. If it is a statement about a ‘sex’ role, have the students remain seated. If there is any disagreement over whether to stand or sit, have a discussion with the class.

(a) Women give birth to babies, men don’t. (b) Men all have short tempers.

(c) Men are the sole income earners in the home. (d) Women are naturally good cooks.

(e) Little girls are gentle and timid, boys are tough and adventurous. (f) Women can breast-feed babies, men use bottles for feeding babies. (g) Boys’ voices break at puberty, girls’ voices do not.

(h) Men can grow beards.

(i) Women have longer hair than men. (j) Men are aggressive.


(k) Men can impregnate women. (l) Women are caring.

(m)Women are poor decision-makers. (n) Women are in-charge of raising children. (o) Men are decision makers.

(p) Women go through menstrual cycle.

(q) Women do not make good political leaders.

(r) Girl children are a better source of income than boy. (s) Men should not work as nurses.

(t) Boys are better at maths and science than girls.


Why is it important to know the difference between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’? (Because it helps us not to limit ourselves or other people by things that are not biological - for example, if everyone realizes that women are just as good at leading others as men, they will have the opportunity to have more positions of leadership in the church, school, and government).

What can we do as Peace Club members to help educate others about the difference between “sex” and “gender” roles?

What can you do this week to help educate your friends and family about the difference between sex and gender? (You can set this question as homework and have the students share about what they did during the week to help educate others at your next Peace Club meeting).

Closing Comments

In this lesson we learned about the difference between a sex role and a gender role. Our sex, either male or female, is the way we are born, while our gender is made by our culture and society. When sex and gender are seen as the same thing, it can lead to discrimination because our gender, which is made up by our culture, may be used to justify injustices and to justify some people having more power over other people. We will learn more about this in our next lesson on gender and power.


Lesson 2: Gender, Power and Discrimination

Teachers’ Introduction

Often, as we learned during the lessons on conflict, conflict begins because of misunderstandings or

miscommunication between two or more people. Conflict that occurs because of gender is no different. Often, the simplest solution - better communication - is all one needs to resolve conflict over issues of gender. This improved communication allows each party involved in the conflict to voice their views, needs and hopes. When we combine this with attentive and responsive listening by the other party, we can often resolve the conflict.

Where issues of gender conflict differ is over the issue of power distribution. As we learned, injustice is created when there is not equal power distribution or resource distribution between two or more parties. Injustices over gender are different in this area because for the most part, it is females (women and girls) who do not receive their fair share of power and resources. Females often bear the heaviest work loads in the home and community, while at the same time do not have equal opportunity to rise to positions of authority in schools, communities and even in the home. What is more, because of this unequal power distribution, women are the main victims of sexual and physical abuse. This is in part because they tend to be biologically smaller, but it is mainly caused by unequal power sharing between men and women.

In this section, we will explore conflict as it is connected to gender. As teachers, your main goal is to emphasize that the students should feel free to become the people they want to be and achieve the goals they want to achieve no matter what their gender is. If a female student wants to become a doctor, she should know that she is just as capable as a male student. Male students should recognize that they need to be just as involved in household chores and raising the children as females are, and that this should not be a point of shame or embarrassment, but a point of pride.

Respect and good communication should be at the forefront of all solutions that you discuss with your class.

Be open-minded to the topics discussed, and encourage your students to be likewise. Social change takes a long time, but when we are working to create a more peaceful world, the work is worth the effort!

Opening Activity

To start the class, say to the students: “Before we start, we need all of the boys in the classroom to sit on the floor. Girls, please stay in your seats. We will discuss why I’ve asked you to do this later.”

Objective: Students will review ‘power,’ ‘discrimination,’ and injustice. They will explore how unequal distribution of power between genders is a form of discrimination and injustice and some of the consequences of this power imbalance.



Let’s review some terms from the last section. (Allow the class to answer each of these questions before giving them the following definitions):

Do you remember what conflict is? Do you remember what power is?

Do you remember what justice and injustice are?

Conflict: conflict is a relationship between two or more parties (individuals or groups) who have, or think they have, incompatible goals. Conflict is a normal part of life, and can even have positive outcomes, such as teaching us new things or creating positive changes in a community or society.

Power: The ability, skill, or capacity to do something. Control and influence over other people and their actions. Power is neither positive nor negative. It can be used constructively or destructively, used to build ourselves and others up, or to destroy.

Justice: Justice is achieved when power and resources are fairly distributed among all people.

Injustice: When people use their power to hurt themselves, others or groups of people, they are using their power for violence and injustice. Injustice is keeping certain people or groups of people from their share of power and resources. This is a form of violence.

In the last section, we talked about discrimination.

Do you remember what discrimination means? (Discrimination is the practice of using power to treat one person or group of people less fairly or less well than another person or group of people. Discrimination is a form of violence that can lead to physical, emotional, and economic harm.).

Do you remember what types of differences lead to discrimination?

When discrimination is based on someone’s sex or gender, this is called gender discrimination.

Gender discrimination: Thisis when expectations about someone’s gender are used to justify treating that person less fairly than another person.



Boys, how do you feel about sitting on the floor? Girls, how do you feel?

Is it fair for the boys to be sitting on the floor?

What does our culture say about the way our classroom is arranged right now? Is there gender discrimination in our classroom right now?

Boys, you may return to your seats. Thanks for participating in this activity!


“Nurses and Doctors”

Refer to the two pictures attached to the end of the lesson. Show the pictures to the class one at a time, and ask them the following questions, starting with the first picture, and then the second picture.

What do you notice about this picture? Does anything stand out to you? (Picture 1: the nurse is female, the doctor is male. Picture 2: The nurse is male and the doctor is female).

Why do you think that this is? What does this tell us about gender and power?


Consequences of Gender Discrimination

What do you think some of the consequences of gender inequality are? (Write these answers on the chalkboard in the form of a brainstorm).

Gender discrimination hurts the people being discriminated against. The people who are facing the gender discrimination might not have the chance to go to school, to have a job, and might not have access to many material resources. People who are discriminated against because of their gender might also have psychological pain, that is, they might begin to see themselves as not worth as much as someone from the other gender, they might suffer from depression and so on. This psychological pain might result because they are harassed and excluded, and it robs people of their rights to live a free and full life and to do the things they enjoy and are good at. This inequality can even kill women in the form of domestic violence. One of the leading causes of unnatural death of women in many countries is being murdered by their partner.3


Gender inequality hurts families. Because women are the main victims of gender inequality, and may be denied an education, this hurts their ability to raise healthy children, which hurts the whole family.

Gender discrimination hurts everyone in a society. Gender discrimination affects the growth of a country because it holds back half of the population from reaching their full potential. It also ignores

contributions that women have to make to leadership, the workforce and innovation. This directly hurts the economic growth of a country.

Gender discrimination creates cycles of gender inequality. Do you remember learning about the cycle of violence? If we are not working for peace and if we face violence with more violence, like in the case of revenge, then we create a cycle of violence, where it keeps growing. In the same way, gender

discrimination creates cycles of inequality. For example, when a girl is made to do all of the housework and is kept from an education, she is more likely to keep her daughters at home doing the housework instead of going to school and getting a job. She may also teach her sons that their place is not in the kitchen. These boys will then go on to demand a wife who only has a role in housework, not in the workplace. This is one way that gender inequality can lead to even more inequality.

Closing Comments

In this lesson, we learned that sometimes someone’s gender determines how much power someone has and how many resources that person has access to. When someone has less power and fewer resources because of their gender, this is called gender discrimination, and is a form of injustice. As members of Peace Club, we need to educate people about gender discrimination in our efforts to bring about justice and peace.

In our next lesson, we will learn that sometimes ideas about what a gender is supposed to be like or is like are used to describe all women and all men. When one idea is used to describe all men or all women, this is called a gender stereotype.

Recognition of the inherent dignity and of

the equal and inalienable rights of all

members of the human family is the

foundation of freedom, justice and peace in

the world.


Picture 1:


Lesson 3: Gender Stereotypes

Objective: Students will learn what ‘gender stereotypes’ are, learn to identify them, and learn how to work towards undoing the injustices that they cause.

Materials: Chalk board and chalk.


In the first section of Peace Club, we learned about stereotypes. Do you remember what a stereotype is? (Allow the class to answer this question before providing the following definition).

A stereotype reduces a group of people into one idea, usually negative, and does not see that there is diversity in a group.

In today’s lesson, we will learn that stereotypes are used by society to define what males and females are. Our communities say that females are this way, while males are that way. We make the mistake of mixing up someone’s sex (the way they are born) with their ability, personality, and skill set.

Definitions and Discussion

Gender Stereotype4

: Set of expectations and beliefs that our culture or society tells us are appropriate to either males/men (masculine) or female/women (feminine). Like other stereotypes, gender stereotypes generally are not true.

Sometimes, gender stereotypes are used to justify ideas that are not true. Here are some common myths about genders:5

(a) Women are passive while men should be aggressive. (b) Girls are too shy while boys are not.

(c) Boys should not spend time in the kitchen or assist their sisters with house chores. (d) Boys or Girls in their teens should not have friends of the opposite sex.

(e) As the head of the homes, Men are breadwinners and Women should be dependants.

Can you think of any other gender stereotypes that you have heard? What words would you use to describe a girl? A boy?

When you see advertisements or watch television or read a story, how are women portrayed (In other words, what do they wear, how do they talk, what activities are they doing)? How are men portrayed?



“Football is Not for Girls”

One day, Gracious was playing with her friend, Jipego. They were playing with stones, seeing who could push the most out of the circle they had drawn in the dirt, when some other boys from their class came over. These boys spoke only to Jipego, asking him if he would like to come and play football with them. Jipego looked at Gracious, who seemed to be unhappy. Jipego said to the boys, “I will come play, but only if Gracious can come too.” The boys replied, “But she’s a girl! She will slow down our team. Everyone knows girls are no good at football. They can’t run as fast or kick the ball as hard.”

Gracious became upset. Why would the boys never let her play? Why did they think that she was no good at football? She was allowed to play with them when they were younger, but ever since they started secondary school, she was no longer invited. She loved playing football. Jipego saw that Gracious was deep in thought over these things, and that they were making her upset.

Why do the boys think that girls are not good at football? Is this based on how girls are born or on the gender roles that our society makes up?

How can we finish this story so that there is justice? What should Jipego say? What should Gracious say?


Here are some common stereotypes: (Read the following stereotypes to the class - you do not need to draw this chart on the board)6

Female Stereotype Male Stereotype

Gentle Rough

Caring Individualistic (only thinks about himself)

Less intellectual (not as smart) More intellectual (better at making decisions, smarter)

Physically weak Strong

Meek (shy, reserved) Courageous

Quiet Noisy

Submissive (follows other people’s orders) Assertive (says what he thinks)

Sometimes we even use stereotypes to judge who is better at certain subjects in school.

Which subjects do you think boys are better at? Girls? (Allow the class to answer these questions. They are trick questions, because in reality, it does NOT matter what your sex is - no sex is better at certain subjects).


Subjects like chemistry, physics, maths, building, woodwork, metalwork, and history are often seen as subjects that only boys are good at, while local languages, religious education, biology, fashion and fabrics, food and nutrition and commerce are seen as subjects that only girls are good at.7 But this is NOT based on how we are born. Instead, these are gender stereotypes, and may become true over time because we are told over and over that these stereotypes are true. When we think we can’t do math because we are girls, or we

think that we cannot be good in languages because we are boys, we start to believe that it is true.


When we make comments like, “girls are no good at kicking footballs and are good cooks,” and “men are tough and better at Maths than girls,” we are using genderstereotypes. These are not based on how our bodies are made, but are made up by our society. They are not all bad, but they can become unhealthy and create injustice when they limit us from becoming the people we want to be and when they take away our freedom.

Have you ever not done something you wanted to do because of a gender stereotype?

Can gender stereotypes be used to commit injustices? (Yes, when they are used to insult someone, when they are used to make someone do more than their fair share of work, when they are used to limit someone’s freedom, etc.)

How can Peace Club help to get rid of these gender stereotypes? (Educate other students and our parents and brothers and sisters, not use or say gender stereotypes, not limit our activities and actions because of gender stereotypes).

Closing Comments

Gender stereotypes can be harmful to our society because they may take away someone’s freedom to do something that they are good at and want to do. They also are used by some people to justify having power over others. As Peace Club members, we need to work together to stop the use of gender stereotypes in our work for peace and justice. This week, pay attention to what you say and what others are saying. Ask

yourself, am I saying anything that is helping to make gender stereotypes stronger? What can I say or do that will help break gender stereotypes? Be ready to share your experiences and thoughts at our next Peace Club meeting!


Lesson 4: Gender Roles

Objective: Students will learn about different gender roles and learn about the effects they can have on our society.

Materials: None.

Teachers’ Introduction

In this lesson, we will be discussing how our society and community use stereotypes and gender roles to instruct us on what different jobs, responsibilities and rights we have because of our gender as either a girl/woman or a boy/man. It is important to link this lesson to the previous three lessons that helped us learn the difference between sex and gender, helped us learn about stereotypes connected to gender, and helped us understand how discrimination is often based on ideas about gender.

For today’s lesson, we invite you to take the initiative and look for some role models in your community, city or country who go against society’s expectations for either gender. For example, if there is a female teacher teaching science or maths in your community, this would be helpful to point out. Likewise, if there is a man acting as a nurse, or a woman in government, these would also be helpful to point out to your students. Using these role models helps students realize that other people are already at work to change stereotypes and expectations based on gender, and provide them with people to look up to.

Challenge your students to act as role models in their own homes, schools and communities. The end of this lesson invites students to find ways to challenge stereotypes and gender roles for the week. In the following lesson, ask the students to share about how they worked to challenge these roles this week.

This lesson is greatly based on discussion. It is important that everyone feels free to share their ideas and that everyone is given an opportunity to speak. If several students are dominating the conversation and discussion, try to draw on those students who are remaining quiet.


In our last few lessons, we learned about the difference between “gender” roles and “sex” roles, and about gender discrimination.

Do you remember what the differences are between sex and gender? (Gender is determined by our culture and society, while sex is determined by the way we are born).

We also learned that sometimes expectations about gender, like gender stereotypes, are used to discriminate against women or men, and this is a form of injustice and violence.

Do you remember what a gender stereotype is? (Set of expectations and beliefs that our culture or society tells us are appropriate to either males/men (masculine) or female/women (feminine). Like other stereotypes, gender stereotypes generally are not true).

Do you remember what gender discrimination is? (Gender discrimination is the practice of using one’s power to treat one person or a group of people from one gender less fairly and justly than another person or group of people from another gender).

Did any of you see or hear any gender stereotypes or gender discrimination this week? What did you do or say when you saw or heard these things?


Discussion and Definitions

Sex Roles: These are the roles that females and males play because of their biology. Females play the role of childbearing, while males play the role of insemination. They are determined by the way we are born, and they do not change because of our culture, and they do not change over time.

Gender Roles: These are the roles that our community and society tells us we should be doing as girls/women, and boys/men, and what our responsibilities and rights are.

What roles do women play in the household? (examples: cooking, sweeping, washing, taking care of sick)

What roles do men play in the household? (examples: slashing, home repairs, reads and watches the news)

What types of jobs do women you know have? (examples: maid, secretary, teacher, nurse)

What types of jobs do men you know have? (examples: doctor, head teacher, scientist, soldier, businessman)

In southern Africa, women and men usually are assigned the following roles:8

Female Gender Role Male Gender Role

Care of children Discipline of children

Household cook Wage employment cook

Household washing Household repair

Passenger in vehicles Driver of vehicles

Subsistence Farmer

(farming food for yourself and family)

Commercial farmer

(farming food to sell for money in the market)

Teacher Headteacher / Headmaster

Typist Clerk

Secretary Soldier

Singer Scientist

Interested in music, but not in sports Interested in Sports

Not good at technical things Good at technical things

What do these positions tell us about the role of men in our societies? What do they tell us about the role of women in our societies?

How do we feel about these gender roles? How do we experience these gender roles? How can these gender roles promote injustice?

What jobs and activities that are typically seen as being “for girls and women” can also be done by boys and men? What jobs and activities that are typically seen as being “for boys and men” can also be done by girls and women?



Consequences of Gender Roles:

 Feelings of inferiority - girls feeling like they can not do as well in science as boys because they are girls.

 Bullying - girls being bullied by boys because they are seen as weaker and inferior, and boys being bullied for wanting to do something that is seen as a ‘girl’s job.’

 Someone’s wants and needs being limited - for example, a girl not taking science because she assumes she can not be good at the subject.

 Violence against the gender seen as weaker.

 Sense of powerlessness - ex. Not being able to say how one feels if their needs aren’t being met because of the role they are told to play because of their gender.

 Unfair division of workload.

 Unfair distribution of resources and power.

 Abuse of power and injustice.

 Poor school performance, especially in subjects not seen as fitting into one’s gender role (ex. Girls performing poorly in maths and sciences).

 Limited career options - girls and boys seeing themselves as limited only to those jobs that are they are ‘supposed’ to have.

What work and responsibilities do you have in your home?

When you are assigned duties in school, what jobs do the boys do? What jobs do the girls do? Why are the jobs shared this way? (Often, boys push desks, while the girls sweep. If there is just sweeping and mopping, the girls will be made to mop, while the boys sweep. If the duties are outside, the girls often have to pick up the rubbish while the boys do the slashing. This represents

discrimination based on gender).

As Peace Club members, how can we challenge the gender roles in our homes? In our schools? In our societies? (Brainstorm this question on the chalkboard. Encourage the students to think of both short term and long term things, big things and small things. This might be boys helping their sisters with sweeping and cooking, or girls playing football with their brothers and raising their hands to answer questions in science class).

Closing Comments

Today, we learned that our culture and society tell us that we should have certain jobs, responsibilities and rights depending on whether we are girls/women or boys/men. However, as we learned, these are just made up by our society and culture and are not actually based on how we are born (on our sex as male or female). Sometimes these made up roles can lead to discrimination against one gender, creating injustice and

violence. This is why as Peace Club members, we need to work together to try and change people’s ideas about gender so that there is justice and peace in our communities.


Lesson 5: Transforming Gender Roles

Objective: To learn to identify female and male gender roles present in society, and to learn how to transform these roles in positive and peaceful ways.

Materials: None.

Teachers’ Introduction

This lesson will help students identify the specific roles and duties that their society tells them that they are supposed to have. It will help them realize that these roles are constructed by society and are not based upon their own actual abilities. Students will also learn to recognize that what makes a “good man” and what makes a “good woman” are often the same thing - that is, a good man and woman are both just, compassionate, loving and caring people.

Like the last lesson, this lesson is also greatly based on discussion. It is important that everyone feels free to share their ideas and that everyone is given an opportunity to speak. If several students are dominating the conversation and discussion, try to draw on those students who are remaining quiet.

The main goal of this lesson is for students to realize that they should not limit themselves because of their gender and that they need to work together to help promote justice and equality between genders. Help students realize that their gender plays NO role in whether they will be good at a certain subject or good at a certain job. Part of enabling students to realize this is by helping them recognize ways that they limit themselves and others because of

expectations around gender. As with the previous lesson, feel free to bring in your own examples of role-models that students can look up to, such as a female pilot or a stay-at-home father.

It is also extremely important that students do not only realize that they have a right and ability to pursue any job or role that they wish, no matter their gender, but also that they are taking responsibility to help others realize the same thing. Respecting others and encouraging others to become the best people they can be is just as important as gaining their own rights to do so. Emphasize that human rights are not just about rights, but also about responsibilities to other members of our club, school, household, and community.


In our last lesson, we learned the difference between gender roles and sex roles.

Do you remember what these differences were? (Sex Roles are the roles that females and males play because of their biology. Females play the role of childbearing, while males play the role of insemination. They are determined by the way we are born, and they do not change because of our culture or over time. Gender Roles are the roles that our community and society tells us we should be doing as girls/women, and boys/men, and what our responsibilities and rights are).

In last week’s lesson, we also brainstormed ideas for ways we can challenge gender roles in our schools, homes and communities to bring about peace.

Do you remember what was on our list?

What did you do this week to work to challenge gender roles?


Opening Activity

Today we are going to talk about male gender roles and female gender roles. 1. Divide the class into four groups.

2. Have each group answer the following questions: (a) In your opinion, what qualities make a good man? (b) In your opinion, what qualities make a good woman?

3. After everyone is finished, have each group share what they came up with to the class by answering the following questions at the front of the class:

(a)What qualities did your group come up with to describe a “good man?” (b)What qualities did your group come up with to describe a “good woman?” (c)Were there many similarities between these two? (The goal of this activity is for

students to realize that being a good person is the same, no matter if we are a male or a female).


In most societies in the world, boys and men are called on to be violent and tough. They are supposed to have many sexual partners, be fighters and dominate over women.

What harm do you think this stereotype causes for boys and men? For girls and women?

In most societies, women are seen as keepers of the home and of children. This is because they are seen as being more compassionate and caring than men, and because they are seen as needing to serve and be submissive to men.

What harm do you think this stereotype causes for girls and women? For boys and men?

In past lessons, we learned that there are different expectations for students depending on their gender. What subjects are you told that boys are better at? What subjects are you told that girls are better at? Why is it not true that boys and girls are better at certain subjects?

There are other gender roles for boys and girls within the classroom.

What gender roles do you see in your classroom and school for boys and girls?

Often, in our schools, boys are called upon to be leaders - to lead discussions, supervise activities and to be class leaders. Girls, on the other hand, are called on to be followers. In our textbooks, we also find these gender roles. Boys are often shown as strong leaders, rescuers, unafraid, and clever problem solvers, while girls are shown as being helpless and dependent, easily fooled, scared, and needing to be rescued by boys.9 Why do you think these gender roles and gender stereotypes in our classroom are harmful and unjust?

Just like other conflicts, the best way to combat gender inequality and discrimination is through respect and empowerment of each other. When we empower each other to become the best that we can be and to use our own individual power, strengths, skills, and actions to educate others and to build each other up and to break injustices, then we are helping to bring about peace. When we do these things, we are working to transform gender roles.


What are some other ways that we can transform gender roles as Peace Club members and break gender stereotypes?

 We can educate others to see these gender roles and stereotypes in our homes, schools and communities.

 We can respect each other and stop using gender stereotypes. One way to do this is by not making fun of someone because they are not “fitting in” as a girl or a boy. Instead, we can say nice things to them.

 Boys and girls should listen actively to each other.

 We can respect and show appreciation for the ideas and perspectives that girls and boys have (even when we don’t agree).

 We can value contributions made by both girls and boys - we all want our contributions to be valued!

 We can let both girls and boys be involved in making important decisions in our homes, school and community.

 We can encourage each other to use our skills and pursue activities that we like, and pursue challenging subjects in school, even if these activities are seen as being meant for the “other gender.”

 We can encourage both girls and boys to be leaders. For example, elect both girls and boys for leadership positions in schools.

 We can share responsibilities, and not split up chores and tasks based on our gender.

Closing Comments

Often, we are not even aware of how gender roles affect our daily life, but as Peace Club members, it is important that we think about gender and how it affects our goals, relationships, activities and conflicts. This is also important because our misunderstandings and ignorance about gender roles can often cause injustice. But the great news is that because gender roles are made up by our societies and cultures, they are constantly changing and can be transformed. This means that we can work to change them.

This week, keep an eye out for gender roles being acted out around you. Ask yourself: What positions are women and men shown in on television? What are they saying about women and men on the radio? How are boys and girls shown in our textbooks? As you notice these things, try to think about how you feel about these gender roles and stereotypes and about how you can transform them.

If many threads are bound together,

they can tie up a lion.


Lesson 6: The Gender Gap

Objective: Students will learn what the “Gender Gap” is, learn why it is unjust, and discuss ways that they can work to eliminate it.

Materials: Picture 1: State Leaders from Around the World Picture 2: Zambia’s Cabinet of Ministers

Teachers’ Introduction

In the previous lessons, we have been discussing the various qualitative components of gender inequality. Today’s lesson focuses on the gender gap that exists in our society. The gender gap is an important concept because it illustrates gender inequality not only in a qualitative way, but also in a quantitative way, that is, in numbers and percentages. This quantitative analysis can help students recognize the direct and visible impact that gender inequality has on society.

On its own, the gender gap may not be very helpful because it may be wrongly used to justify misconceptions about gender roles. For example, people may say that there are fewer women in leadership roles because they are not as capable of leading as men are. However, as we have learned in previous lessons, the reason women are not as prominent in roles of leadership is because our society and culture tell us that they are not as capable. However, there is no biological reason that females are less capable of leading than males. Thus, we can conclude that there are fewer women in leadership roles because our society has not made room for women in these types of roles and because girls and boys are raised to believe that women cannot lead as well as men can. This is a very unjust and dangerous idea. Gender gaps help us visualize the inequality in our society and help to prove that this inequality exists and is very prevalent.


In this section, we learned about gender discrimination.

Do you remember what it is? (Gender discrimination is when someone from one gender receives fewer resources or power than someone from the other gender).


Opening Activity

“Equality Brainstorm”

What does equality between girls/women and boys/men look like to you? Think about what it looks like in your home, in your school, in your community, in your country and in the world. (Teachers, write this brainstorm on the board - in the middle write, “Gender Equality,” and around this word, write the ideas that the students suggest. Do not forget to write every answer given by the students - brainstorms are meant as a way to generate new ideas, not about finding the ‘right’ answer).

Definitions and Discussion

A Gender Gap 10 is a quantitative difference between women and men, boys and girls in terms of access and control of resources and power. Another way to say this is that there is a gap between the amount of power and resources that women and girls have compared to men and boys.

Do you remember what injustice is? (Injustice occurs when there is inequality in the distribution of power and resources between people).

When there is a gender gap - a difference in the power and resources that one gender has compared to another - then there is injustice.

We find gender gaps in all areas of our life. We can look at three main places: in our home, in our customs and culture, and in the laws of the government.11 We will also look at the gap in schools and in positions of authority.

1. In the Home:

For example, girls and women do the cooking, cleaning, raise the children, while boys and men do the slashing and are the breadwinners for the family.

In your home, who does the cooking and cleaning?

The different roles in the home create many types of gaps:

Gap in number of hours worked: Because of gender roles, women do much more, if not all, of the work in the home. This creates a gap in the amount of work that each gender puts towards building a home and raising children. Also, hours of work spent inside the home are not set. This means that women tend to work longer hours (inside the home) than men (working outside of the home). What is more, many women who have a job outside of the home must also continue to do the work inside of the home. This creates an even bigger gap between the number of hours that men work and the number of hours that women work.

Gap in work recognition: People may justify the woman’s role in the home by saying that men do most of the work outside of the home. However, because women are not paid for their work in the home, it often goes unrecognized.

Gap in access to material resources: Because they do not earn an income for working in the home, many women do not have any control over the material resources earned by their household, and must rely completely on the males in the home to make decisions about how the income will be spent.

10 Smith, Cheryl. “Gender and Sex”, Youth Forum for Peace and Justice, Mindolo Ecumenical Centre, 2009.


How many of your mothers go to work outside of the home? Those of you whose mothers work outside the home, do they also do the cooking and cleaning?

2. In Customs and Culture:

For example, in Zambia there is a bride price (lobola), but there is no groom price.

What are some other traditions or customs that favour one gender over the other in an unjust way?

(Examples: women trained to please their husbands and not the other way around, boys are not allowed in the kitchen, only boys are allowed in the mphala or insaka, etc.)

3. In Governmental Law:

For example, only women can be victims of rape according to Zambian laws, while men cannot be. Also, women need their husbands’ permission for some governmental services, while men do not need their wives’ permission.

When the law favours one gender over the other, what kind of injustices and violence do you think it can cause?

4.In Schools:

Are there more boys or girls in your classes?

Are there more male teachers or female teachers in your school?

How many female head teachers do you know of? How many male head teachers do you know of?

The answers to all of these questions tell us that there is a gap between the number of males in our school system and the number of females.

Why do you think that this gap exists?

What gender stereotypes might contribute to this gap?

What can we do to work to eliminate this gap in our school system?

Because women are usually the ones facing the most inequality and because women are generally the primary childcare givers, denying women educational opportunities seriously impacts the success and health of their children. One of the best ways to help promote good hygiene and to improve the health of children is by educating the women who are given the responsibility of raising the children. Thus, when girls are denied an education, it hurts their future children too, and thus, the entire society.

5.In Positions of Authority:

Because there is the gender stereotype that males are better leaders than women, there is a big gap in almost every position of authority. For example, there are fewer female managers, doctors, politicians, head teachers, business owners, church leaders, and so on, than males in these positions.

Why do you think that this gap exists? Why is this gap unjust?



“Spot the Gap”

1. Show the class the two pictures found at the end of the lesson, one at a time. 2. While holding up the picture, ask the following questions:

a. Is there anything that stands out to you about this picture?

b. What does this picture tell us when we are talking about gender gaps? c. How do you feel about what you see in this picture?

d. Why do you think that these gaps create injustice? (Examples: men are making most of the

decisions, men are making the decisions for women and may not be able to identify the needs of women, and so on).

We may be tempted to say that because there are more men than women working in these political bodies, that it is up to men to solve these inequalities. However, because we all help to create and perpetuate ideas of gender in our society, we all need to work to eliminate the gender discrimination and injustice that causes the gender gap. For example, men who are already in power can use their power to bring women into

positions of authority. Women who are mothers or teachers can encourage their daughters and female students to pursue positions of authority, such as a doctor or politician.


What are some of the consequences of the gender gap?

How do you think that we can work to eliminate the gender gap?

Some people may be tempted to say that there are fewer women in power because they are not as capable leaders. However, as we discussed in the lessons on gender stereotypes and gender roles, this is not true because these are ideas made up by our society and culture, and are not based on how we are actually born (our sex as male or female). Because of these stereotypes and gender roles, gender can play a big role in the opportunities people get in their lives. Men may have a better chance of becoming a manager or doctor because they are seen to be better at leading and at sciences. These ideas make it harder for a woman to get the same positions as men because they are seen as less capable.

What are some ways that we can work for equality in the workplace? (Example: equal access and opportunity for education between boys and girls).


What are some ways that we can work for equality in the home? (Husbands, wives, brothers and sisters dividing the work in the house in a fair way that takes into account how much time everyone has).

Often when we talk about gender equality, we can make the mistake that males and females need exactly the same things. This is not true. Instead, gender equality is about having equal power, access to resources and freedom. Women may have different needs than men based on their biological differences from men. For example, because women give birth, they need maternity clinics.12

Can you think of other needs that are different between males and females?

Sometimes even our culture and traditions create inequality between genders. This can be very difficult to address because our culture and our traditions are very important pieces of who we are. It is important that we honour our cultures and respect our grandparents’ and parents’ ways of doing things, but it is also important that we work for justice between genders.

Do you think it’s possible to respect our culture while still working for equality between genders? How can we do this?

Closing Comments

In today’s lesson, we talked about how discrimination based on gender can have a big impact on the opportunities that people receive and the roles that they play in the household and workplace, and the benefits they received from the government. We also learned that equality doesn’t always mean getting exactly the same thing, but instead receiving the things that we need and receiving equal opportunity and access to resources and power.

It is important that we remember that the best way to work for gender equality is through respect. Respect doesn’t always mean that we agree with the other person, but it means that we want to hear what they have to say with open ears and minds. When we respect the other gender, we are better able to work together to find solutions to problems of inequality in our homes, in our schools and in our communities, and this will help to close the unjust gender gap.


Picture 2: Zambia’s Cabinet of Ministers (2010)

The President H.E.

Rupiah Banda His Honour George Kunda SC Vice President

Hon K. Mwansa


Hon. M.

Lungu Minister - Home


Hon K. Pande

Minster-Foreign Affairs

Hon Dr. S. Musokotwane


Hon Dr E. Kasonga


Hon D. Siliya

Minster-Education Minister-Works & Hon M. Mulongoti


Hon Dr B. Chituwo

Minister-Local Government &


Hon G. Lundwe

Minister-Lands Hon Prof. G. Lungwagwa

Minister Transport & Communication

Hon B. M. Machila

Minister-Livestock & Fisheries

Hon P. Daka

Minister-Science & Technology

Hon C. Namugala

Minister-Tourism, Environment & Natural Resources

Hon F. Mutati

Minister-Commerce, Trade & Industry

Hon K. Simbao


Hon A Liato

Minister-Labour Minister-Sports & Hon K. Chipungu


Hon M. Mwale

Minister-Mines Hon Lt. Gen. R. Shikapwashya


Hon L. Mukuma

Minister-Presidential Affairs

Hon M. Kaingu


Lesson 7: Friendship

Objective: Students will learn that having different perspectives and viewpoints in a friendship between opposite sexes may lead to conflict, and they will learn the importance of communication in these friendships.

Materials: Each student needs their own piece of paper and something to write with.


In our lessons on conflict, we learned that conflict can occur for a number of reasons.

Do you remember some reasons that conflict occurs? (Someone didn’t hear the whole story, someone was confused or stressed, someone felt that a situation was unfair, someone didn’t communicate clearly, someone has a bad attitude, someone has different beliefs or values, and so on).

One of the reasons we have conflict is that we all have different perspectives on the same thing. In today’s lesson, we will learn how having different perspectives on the nature of a relationship can lead to conflict between boys and girls, and we will learn that communication is a very important tool when we have these different perspectives.

Definitions and Discussion

Do you remember what a perspective is? (Let the class to answer this question before giving the definition).

Perspective: our perspective is the way we see something. It is our view, and often our view of something is different than someone else’s view of the exact same thing.

Having different perspectives than others of the same thing is not bad, and can actually be a very positive thing.

Can you think of some ways that having different perspectives can be a good thing? (It allows us to learn new things about something that we never realized before, it makes life more interesting, it lets different people live with different traditions and cultural practices, and so on).

But sometimes having different perspectives than other people can lead to conflict, this is because we may think that only we are right, while the other person is wrong. In reality, we may both be right, but we just see the same thing in different ways because of different cultures, positions in life, how we were raised, where we live, and so on. When we are in conflict because of having different perspectives, it is important to use good communication so that we can begin to see the situation from the other person’s point-of-view. When we don’t use good communication and our nonviolent conflict resolution skills, this conflict can get bigger and bigger, involve more and more people, and can even lead to violence.

In the same way, when we have a friendship with someone of the opposite sex, sometimes we can have different perspectives about what type of relationship we have. While we may want to be mere friends with someone, our friend may not realize this, and they might think that the relationship is heading towards a romantic relationship.


What does the word friend mean to you?

A friend is a person that one has a mutual bond of affection and appreciation. Being friends with someone generally does not include any sexual or family relations. Trust is a very important part of friendship and is something that we should not take for granted. Trust in a friendship is something that we need to treasure.

What does the word relationship mean to you?

A relationship means a connection or link between two things. When we talk about a relationship between two or more people, this can include family connections, romantic connections, mere friendship, and any other connection between two or more people.

However, because we all have different perspectives of what these words mean, we can sometimes get into conflict with another person over the nature of our relationship.

How do you think different perspectives of the type of relationship we are in (romantic or mere

friendship) could lead to conflict? (We may have different expectations of the other person, we might find ourselves in uncomfortable situations that we do not want to be in, we may get reputations that we do not want).

It is because we have different perspectives than others, including different perspectives over the type of relationship that we are in, that communication is so important for healthy friendships.

How do we know if someone we see as a friend wants to be more than mere friends?


“Letters to Ourselves”

This activity will help us understand ourselves better and help us gather our thoughts on friendship and relationships. While you are welcome to share some things that you have written, you do not need to share what you write in your letter to yourself. It is just for you, and you should take it home with you after our Peace Club meeting. I am going to read you some questions, and on a piece of paper, write your responses to them:

1. What are the things you like the most about friends?

2. Why do you think it is good to have mere friends from the opposite sex?

3. What makes mere friendship with people from the opposite sex hard sometimes?

4. How can you make sure you are communicating your intentions of mere friendship to someone of the opposite sex clearly?

5. What should you say if your friend tells you that they like you as more than a friend, and you don’t feel the same way about them?

Would anyone like to share something that they have written to the class?


As we have already learned in Peace Club, active listening and clear speaking are very important for clear communication and for conflict resolution and prevention.

Do you remember what active listening is? Do you remember some tips for clear speaking?


very important. Here are some things we should keep in mind when we are trying to communicate our answer to this question:13

DON'T be cold or cruel. Always remember to treat others the way you would like to be treated. If you reject someone in a nasty way, it might make you feel good for a little while. But you should remember to think about the other person’s feelings. This person just took a big risk, and we should not make them feel ashamed or embarrassed. There is a good chance that one day you will be in their position, and you would want to be let down gently too.

DON'T make it all into a joke. Making a big joke out of learning that someone likes you is a very cruel and mean way to handle things, and not one you'd like to be on the receiving end of. You may make your friends laugh by telling them all about how a certain person likes you, but that laughter will be over pretty quickly. The person's hurt feelings will last a lot longer.

DO be kind. It can be difficult, but it is possible and important to let someone down nicely without giving the wrong impression. The person trusted you enough to be honest with you and to tell you how they feel. Trust is a very important part of friendship, and is something we need to work hard to keep and something we should treasure.

• To not hurt the person and to keep their trust, think about saying something like:

"I'm really flattered that you feel that way about me, but I just think of you as a friend" "I don't think of you that way, but I'm glad you told me, and I think you're a cool person."

DO be firm. While you're being kind, don't forget to be firm. Make sure the person knows that you don't plan to change your mind about how you feel and that you mean what you say.

• Boys, when girls say “no,” they mean “no.” Girls, when you say “no,” make sure your “no” means “no.” If you say “no” and mean “yes,” you might find yourself in a situation where you mean “no,” but the other person may think that you mean “yes.” You will also be robbing other girls from having their “no” mean “no.”

• Do not enter into a romantic relationship just because the other person has asked you to. Be true to how you feel about the other person, otherwise you may end up hurting them and yourself.

• It might help to say something like:

“Okay, we've talked about this. Let's close the subject for good."

Closing Comments

Today we talked about the importance of communication in preventing and solving conflicts between friends of the opposite sex. We learned that this communication needs to be respectful, but firm and clear. We all have different perspectives and different points of view which can lead to miscommunication, but when we remember to ask questions, listen using our active listening skills, and communicate clearly how we feel and what we think, we are helping to transform these gender conflicts into peaceful outcomes, and working to promote peace in our schools and communities.


Unix 6: Lesson 1: Gender-Based Violence in the Public


Objective: To learn what Gender-Based Violence is, learn about what it looks like in the public sphere, learn

some of its causes, and learn some of its consequences.

Materials: None.

Teachers’ Introduction

Gender-based violence in Zambia is widespread and pervasive. According to a study done by USAID in 2010, almost half (47%) of Zambian women over the age of 15 have experienced physical violence. One in five women have experienced sexual violence in their life. Studies conducted by UNESCO have also found rising levels of sexual harassment for female students in schools across the African continent.14

Gender-Based Violence, also known as GBV, is increasing in all sectors of Zambian life. It is a widespread and tragic issue that touches almost everyone in the nation. According to USAID, GBV includes everything from wife battery and abuse to sexual violence of children and women, to psychological abuse, to property grabbing, to child neglect and sexual cleansing practices.15 For girls below the age of 15 who face sexual violence, almost one in five face this violence from a relative. What is more, almost half of these girls do not go for help or tell someone about the violence.16

Additionally, even though the violence may not be directed towards the girl or boy child, they may still be secondary victims to the violence when they witness violence between their parents. These young people often blame themselves for not stopping their fathers from beating their mothers.17 Children who witness violence in the home are also more likely to violate their own children or to become victims of abuse.

Working for gender equality is one major way of preventing violence, especially sexual violence, against children. As a Peace Clubs leader, you have a unique opportunity to speak about gender equality in the effort to build a more peaceful classroom, school and community.


As we have learned in this section so far, some inequality and conflict in our society is based on gender. Do you remember the difference between gender and sex?

In this lesson, we will learn that some violence is also committed based on gender. Do you remember what violence means and what the different types of violence are?

Violence: Violence involves intentional harm to oneself, another person or a group of people through the use of physical force or abuse of one’s power.

Types of Violence:

1. Physical Violence 2. Economic Violence 3. Emotional Violence

Because gender-based violence is rooted in inequality between genders and sexes, it is important that we ask ourselves how power is playing a role in this type of violence.

14 Wible, Brent. “Making Schools Safe for Girls: Combating Gender-Based Violence in Benin”, Academy for Educational Development, 2004. 15 USAID. “Gender-Based Violence Programming Evaluation”, USAID, DevTech Systems, Inc., 2010.

16 Ibid.



Gender-Based Violence (GBV): violence that is directed at a person or group because of their gender or sex. It includes any abuse or violence that is physical, mental or relational, and caused because of inequality between genders. 18 In GBV, unequal power relationships are exploited or abused through the use of physical force or other forceful means like threats.

Gender-Based Violence occurs in two different places: the private sphere and the public sphere.

Private Sphere: Gender-based violence in the private sphere is violence that occurs within marriage or relationships. We will look at the private sphere in our next lesson.

Public Sphere: Gender-based violence in the public sphere is violence within public institutions and settings.

Examples of GBV in the public sphere are:19 a) Sexual assault

b) Rape

c) Attempted rape d) Trafficking e) Prostitution f) Sexual harassment

g) Manipulation within the workplace or schools h) Pornography

i) Harmful traditional practices - for example, female genital mutilation j) Early/forced marriage

k) Widow cleansing practices

l) Punishments directed at women for defying cultural norms

m) Denial of education, food and clothing to girls/women by virtue of their sex - for example, a girl not being allowed to go to school because she is a girl, and it is assumed that she will just get married or pregnant and the education will be wasted, or that she should stay at home to look after the sick, aged or babies.

One common form of gender-based violence found in the public sphere is sexual harassment.

Sexual Harassment is when people are made to feel “vulnerable, under pressure, or humiliated because of remarks or actions taken against them on the basis of their gender.”20 Sexual harassment is often seen as okay, but in reality, it is not a normal part of society and is a form of sexual violence. This harassment happens both in the street, in school and in the workplace.

18 UNHCR. “Reach Out Refugee Protection Training Project”, United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), 2005. 19 Ibid.


Have you ever experienced sexual harassment?

Causes of Gender-Based Violence:21

 Extreme poverty, including unemployment.

 Gender inequality and gender roles that say that males and females ‘should’ play in the home, workplace, school and community.

 Women depending on men for financial support because of gender roles - Ex. If wages earned by men are not being shared with their wives and children, even when they need money for food and other basic necessities.

 Abuse of drugs and alcohol.

 Desire for power and control - men having more power than women and seeking to control women.

 Collapse of traditional society and family support structures.

 Cultural/Traditional practices or Religious beliefs.

o Common misperception that sex with a virgin child will cure HIV/AIDS.

o Women being taught to accept, tolerate, and explain away beating by their husbands and men being taught that it’s normal (and even proper) to beat his wife to “show love”.

o Sexual cleansing practices.

o Initiation ceremonies which encourage young women to be extremely obedient to men.

o Forced early marriage practices - these stop girls from getting an education and also increase their economic dependency on men and vulnerability.

 Inadequate or lack of laws and legal resources to protect the rights of women and children.

Consequences of Gender-Based Violence:

There are many consequences that result because of gender-based violence.

 Can you think of what some of these consequences might be?

There are four categories that the consequences of gender-based violence fall into:22

1) Health:

Injury, disability, or death

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and AIDS

Unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, infertility

Loss of desire for sex and painful sexual intercourse

2) Emotional/Psychological/Spiritual:

Emotional damage, including anger, fear, resentment and self-hate

Shame, insecurity, feelings of isolation

Mental illness, depression and thoughts of hopelessness and suicide

Problems sleeping and eating

Gossip, blaming, and judgment of victims, treating victims as social outcasts - this re-victimizes the victim of the abuse

Loss of ability to carry out daily activities - may drop out of school or stop going to work

3) Legal/Justice System

 Victim reluctant to report because they fear judgment

 Costs of lawyers and so on that need to be paid by the victim.

 If perpetrators of the violence are not arrested, this can also send a strong message that their behaviour is somehow acceptable, which can lead to further acts of violence


4) Security, Physical Environment of the Community

 Victim feels insecure, threatened, afraid

 Fear of travelling to school and work

 Cycle of violence for future generations - children who grow up in these violent homes have a greater chance of committing violence in their own homes


Have you ever heard of, experienced or seen gender-based violence in your home, school or community?

Gender-based violence is caused largely by unequal access to power and resources between genders (gender inequality). For this reason, when we are working to prevent and address gender-based violence, we need to address the root cause of gender inequality. So far in this section on gender-based conflict, we have talked about some forms that this inequality between genders comes in.

What are some things that cause inequality between girls/women and boys/men? (Expected gender roles,

gender stereotypes, access to resources, etc.)


As a class, we are going to brainstorm the following question on the board:

What can we do as Peace Club members to prevent gender-based violence and to promote gender equality?

Closing Comments

Gender inequality has many consequences for our society - it can limit our education, our opportunities for jobs, our sense of self-worth, our access to resources and power, and so on. Gender inequality can also lead to violence, which we’ve learned is called, ”Gender-Based Violence.” This violence is both emotional, economic, and physical. At the root of this violence, we find an abuse of power, where s


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