(2) Contents (click to go straight to each chapter). Introduction Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four. 2 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(3) Unit introduction In this unit we will be looking at the novel Lord of the Flies written by William Golding. There are three presentations in this unit and in each you will be completing a variety of activities to develop your knowledge and understanding of the characters, themes and language of the text. Before we begin looking at the novel itself, it will be useful to first explore the background to Lord of the Flies, finding out about William Golding and the context of his novel.. 3 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(4) Historical and political background Lord of the Flies was written in the early 1950s. Do you know anything about this period? In the early 1950s Britain was living in in the aftermath of World War II. Following the war, the full extent of the horrific Nazi regime was being revealed. This was a time of political unrest – the USSR and the Western powers were engaged in The Cold War. This war (called a ‘cold’ war because there was no direct fighting) started because of a fear of the communist USSR dominating all of Eastern Europe and developing nuclear weaponry. A popular slogan at the time was ‘Better Dead than Red’. The ‘Reds’ was a nickname for communists. 4 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(5) About the author Name: William Golding Dates: Born in 1911 in Cornwall, England. Died in 1993. Career: Published a book of poetry in 1934 and went on to work as a schoolmaster and then serve in the Royal Navy during World War II. Following the war, Golding began writing again and Lord of the Flies, his first novel, was published in 1954. Golding wrote twelve other novels, and a play. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1988, and was knighted in 1983.. 5 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(6) Novel background Having witnessed the true horrors of war, Golding lost faith in the idea that humans are inherently good and innocent. He believed that even children could be evil and thought: Wouldn’t it be a good idea to write a story about some boys on an island showing how they would really behave, being boys and not little saints as they usually are in children’s novels.. Based on Golding’s idea for Lord of the Flies, what do you predict might happen in the novel? 6 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(7) Literary context. 7 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(8) Chapter One summary. 8 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(9) Setting From reading Chapter One, what do we know about where and when Lord of the Flies is set? We are not told anything specific about the place and time of year in which events of the story happen. But what basic things do we know? • There is a queen in England. • The enemy are the “Reds”. • Nuclear war has destroyed much of the world. • They are on a tropical island with a coral base so it is probably in the Indian or Pacific oceans. Are we told anything else about the setting?. 9 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(10) Setting Golding does not provide a map for his readers to show us what the island is like. We learn about the setting as the boys move about the island exploring their new surroundings. Draw your own map of the island, adding on all the significant places so far. You will be able to add to this map as we read the novel.. 10 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(11) Ralph and Piggy Ralph and Piggy are the first people we meet in the novel and are very different in background and character. We can see this in their contrasting reactions to being stranded on the island: ‘…the delight of a realised ambition overcame him…“No grown-ups!”’ Piggy repeats himself, indicating he is very anxious. Ralph’s excitement suggests he is adventurous and fearless. ‘ “They’re all dead,” said Piggy, “an’ this is an island. Nobody don’t know we’re here. Your dad don’t know, nobody don’t know…’’’. Now select two more quotes which show us Piggy and Ralph’s feelings about their situation. How would you feel if you were stranded on an island? 11 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(12) Ralph profile Appearance Tall, blonde hair, athletic.. Relationships with others Piggy and others look up to him, friendly with Jack.. 12 of 39. Character Confident, seems to be a good leader.. Background Father a Naval officer.. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(13) Piggy profile Appearance Fat, asthmatic and shortsighted.. Relationships with others Fears Jack, is taunted by others because of nickname.. 13 of 39. Character Intelligent and sensible – teaches Ralph how to blow the conch, suggests making a list of names. Background Orphan, lives with aunt. Different accent to others. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(14) Foreshadowing What is foreshadowing? • It is a technique of suggesting to the reader that something will happen later in the story. • This is usually something bad, and therefore foreshadowing creates a sense of tension and anticipation. At the end of Chapter One, Jack has failed to kill the pig: ‘He snatched his knife out of the sheath and slammed it into a tree trunk. Next time there would be no mercy. He looked round fiercely, daring them to contradict.’ • What does this tell us about Jack? • What could this event be foreshadowing? 14 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(15) Jack profile Appearance Thin, red hair and freckles, mean expression.. Relationships with others Dominates the choir. Likes Ralph but takes an immediate dislike to Piggy. 15 of 39. Character Bossy and rude – orders the choir about.. Background Leader of the choir boys.. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(16) Choosing a leader What qualities do you think a good leader should have? Ralph is elected as leader on the island. • Why do the boys choose him? • Would Jack or Piggy make better leaders? Now you can cast your vote!. 16 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(17) Chapter Two summary. 17 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(18) Piggy By Chapter Two we can already see tensions developing between the boys, particularly Jack and Piggy. • What is Piggy’s attitude towards the behaviour of the other boys? • What do you think his role will be on the island? ‘Acting like a crowd of kids!’. Piggy is established as something of an outsider because of his appearance and sensible outlook. • Can you think of any other figures from books or films who don’t fit in? 18 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(19) The beast It is in Chapter Two that we first hear of the beast. Read again the passage which begins ‘He wants to know what you’re going to do about the snake-thing’ and ends ‘The assembly was silent.’ Do you think a beast really exists? On the next slide match the characters to their reactions when they are told of the beast, and consider what their reactions reveal about them.. 19 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(20) The beast. 20 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(21) The conch In Chapter One Ralph blows the conch to bring everyone together. In Chapter Two he decides that anyone who wishes to speak in assembly must first be holding the conch: ‘ “I’ll give the conch to the next person to speak. He can hold it when he’s speaking…And he won’t be interrupted.”’ What does the conch represent, or stand for? Because of its two important functions on the island, the conch is more than simply just a shell. As the item which is used to call assembly and determine who can speak, the conch is powerful. It is symbolic of authority and democracy on the island. 21 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(22) Democracy What is a ‘democracy’? A democracy is a society in which everyone is entitled to a say, and decisions are reached by majority rule. Fairness and freedom of speech are key aspects of a democracy. Think about Ralph’s decisions as chief, and the way in which he was elected as leader in the first place. • Would you say that the ‘society’ on the island is a democratic society? • If Jack had been voted as leader, do you think he would try to rule the island in a fair and democratic way?. 22 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(23) Language in Lord of the Flies. 23 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(24) Language In Chapter One, Ralph examines his surroundings: The palm trees seem like people lazing in the sun, giving us a sense of how peaceful the island is.. A metaphor is used to make us think of the leaves as light and soft.. The shore was fledged with palm trees. These stood or leaned or reclined against the light and their green feathers were a hundred feet up in the air…The lagoon was still as a mountain lake – blue of all shades and shadowy green and purple. Imagery is used to create picture in the reader’s head of a beautiful island, full of many colours.. Simile is used to emphasize just how calm and serene the lagoon is.. What impression of the island do you get from this description? 24 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(25) Language In Chapter One we get an impression of the island as beautiful and calm, but there is also a dark side to the island. This is suggested in Chapter Two by the possible presence of a beast on the island and also by the raging fire. Here is part of Golding’s description of the fire: ‘Small flames stirred at the bole of a tree and crawled away through leaves and brushwood, dividing and increasing. One patch touched a tree trunk and scrambled up like a bright squirrel.’. • Can you identify the language devices that Golding has used here? • What is the effect of Golding describing the fire in this way? 25 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(26) Which language device?. 26 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(27) Chapter Three summary. 27 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(28) Conflict. 28 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(29) Leadership Jack and Ralph have very different priorities and are both strong minded characters who fight to get their points across. Who do you agree with? Should the fire and shelter really be the main priority as Ralph says, or is hunting and having fun just as important, as Jack believes? Up to this point in the story, do you think Ralph has been a successful leader? Think of three strengths and three weaknesses of Ralph’s leadership so far. Use evidence from the text to support your points. 29 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(30) Ralph’s strengths and weaknesses Strengths Tries to be fair and democratic, for example when he made Jack leader of the hunters. Responsible – remains focused on the rescue mission. Works hard – is building shelters for everyone.. 30 of 39. Weaknesses Often struggles to make decisions and needs Piggy’s help. Sometimes loses his temper. As the leader he should remain calm. Single-minded – ignores the importance of hunting because he is so focused on the fire.. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(31) Simon Ralph and Jack clash over most things but do seem to agree over their opinion of Simon, whom they deem “funny”. What are your impressions of Simon from Chapter Three? Do you agree with Ralph and Jack that he is strange? Look again at the description of Simon in his secret den in the jungle. How does Simon’s attitude towards nature differ to that of the other boys? Golding’s description of Simon’s den is effective because it appeals to a number of senses, enabling the reader to really picture the scene. Pick out some examples of this sensory imagery. 31 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(32) Simon profile Appearance Small, physically frail, black hair and bright eyes.. Relationships with others Loyal towards Piggy and Ralph. Looked on as strange by the other boys. 32 of 39. Character Kind and helpful. Introverted – doesn’t like to speak in assemblies. Likes nature.. Background Choirboy.. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(33) Chapter Four summary. 33 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(34) Roger Read again from ‘Roger stooped, picked up a stone and threw it at Henry’ to ‘Then Henry lost interest in stones…’. • What does this passage tell us about the character of Roger? • Why does Roger not actually intend to hit Henry?. Roger’s behaviour here foreshadows later events. What could Golding be trying to prepare his readers for?. 34 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(35) Roger profile Appearance Black hair, gloomy face.. Relationships with others Allied with Jack.. 35 of 39. Character Quiet and secretive. Cruel – enjoys picking on the littluns.. Background Is a choirboy.. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(36) Quiz. 36 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(37) Chapter Four questions • In this chapter we again see Ralph and Jack in conflict with one another. Why does this happen? • How does Simon come to Piggy’s aid in this chapter? What do his actions reveal about him? • How does Jack feel about having killed the pig? Is it purely excitement and pride he feels?. 37 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(38) Changing appearances The title of Chapter Four – ‘Painted Faces and Long Hair’ is a reference to the way the appearances of the boys have altered since they have been on the island. • In what ways do the boys look different to when they first arrived on the island? Jack’s appearance has changed most dramatically. • How does he feel when he wears his ‘mask’? • How do the changes in Jack’s physical appearance reflect his character?. 38 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.
(39) Character match. 39 of 39. © Boardworks Ltd 2005.