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Ladder Training Program


Academic year: 2021

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Ladder Training











Vertical Carry ... 9

Shoulder Carry ...10

Horizontal or Suitcase Carry...10



4:1 Ratio ...12

4:1 Ratio process seem too complicated?? ...13




Always Maintain Three points of Contact ...15

Carrying a Dish up the Ladder ...15

Please Remember to Keep Your Belt Buckle between the Ladder Rails at all times. ...16


Please Remember to Keep Your Belt Buckle between the Ladder Rails at all times. ...17


To Raise the Ladder: ...17

A-Frame Ladder Climbing Techniques: ...18


Ladder Training Completion ...20

REVIEW ... 21

Issue #1- Setting up the ladder improperly. ...21

How can you avoid an injury? ...21

Issue #2- Improperly ascending and descending the ladder. ...21

How can you avoid an injury? ...21

Issue #3- Reaching outside of the ladder rails. ...21

How can you avoid an injury? ...21





Ladder Use

Many injuries are caused by improper handling/use of ladders. The typical 28 foot fiberglass extension ladder used by our industry weighs in the neighborhood of 70-75 pounds. Add levelers, and you can easily have 100 pounds that you are trying to “horse around” with. It is important that you handle ladders with proper leverage and lifting techniques. It is also important that you are made aware of the correct setup/climbing techniques to help prevent any/all accidents and injuries. This course is designed to provide each employee the fundamentals of proper ladder use. Each employee must demonstrate that they have learned and are able to employ the correct ladder handling fundamentals.

Site Survey

Before any ladder is used it is important to conduct a site survey. A site survey will help you identify what tools (including ladder) you will need for the job at hand. Each customer’s home is different; so performing a site survey will enable you to plan your installation and check for any potential obstacles that may arise. During the site survey you should perform the following steps:

Greet the customer.

Conduct a walk through with customer to get general idea of install. Start at front and walk the perimeter of the house.

Scan the ground to identify any obstacles such as uneven surfaces, snow, ice, mud, and other potential hazards.

Check for the presence of dogs, children or other potential hazards. Check for existing home damage.

You should also scan for electrical wires; never place yourself or ladder within 10 ft of overlying electrical wires. Ladder safety is all about making the right decisions and choosing the right ladder for the right job; by conducting site surveys you will now be able to obtain more information when making those decisions.


Unloading the Ladder From a Top Ladder Rack

When removing the ladder from the rear of the rack, pull it only to the point

where the ladder’s weight will allow it to gravitate to the ground.

Set the feet of the ladder on the ground and then using proper body mechanics (keep back straight and ladder close to body); lift the ladder to the shoulder or vertically (demonstrated below) to remove it completely off the vehicle.

Inspecting the Ladder

OSHA (and LinkUs) requires that ladders be inspected before each use and periodically thereafter.

After the ladder is off the vehicle, and being used for the first time during the day, place it on the ground and conduct a visual inspection of the ladder.

Inspections will be conducted on a monthly basis by each areas Local Area Trainer or Field Service Manager.

Each employee will perform a ladder inspection each and every day prior to use of ladder(s).


Fiberglass Ladder Components

Review the guidelines for Fiberglass Ladder Inspections on the next page, and consider the following after inspecting your ladder.

♦ If you find a problem that makes the ladder unsafe to use, DO NOT USE IT.




Side Rails Cracks

Dents Fractures Gouges Splits

Missing safety tags-if safety tags are missing, worn out or painted over they should be replaced.

Surface crack - 6 inches long Fracture (web) - 3 inches long Fracture (flange) – 2 ½ inches long Gouge (web) - 5/8 inch square by 1/8 inch deep

Gouge (flange) - 3/8 inch long by 1/8 inch deep

See through gouge (web) - 1/2 inch square

See through gouge (flange) - 1/4 inch square

Crack (web) – 1 ½ inches long Crack (flange) - 3/4 inches long Open crack (web) - 3/8 inches long Open crack (flange) - 1/4 inches long

Rungs Cracks (note 4) All of the following are unacceptable:

- cracked - severely bent - loose - excessively worn Rung Braces/ Rivets Cracks Missing parts

All of the following are unacceptable: - missing - cracked - defective Hooks/Locks/ Flippers/Pulley Cracks Security Freedom of operation (notes 5 & 6) Distortions Bends

All of the following are unacceptable: - cracked - broken - bent - defective - distorted Rope Fraying Rotting (especially at pulley)

All of the following are unacceptable: - excessively frayed or worn

- rotted Leveler Cracks Looseness Dents Missing parts Freedom of operation Bends

All of the following are unacceptable: - cracked - loose - dents, gouges - missing - defective - severely bent

Foot Pads Missing parts

Pad wear

All of the following are unacceptable: - missing

- badly worn

Note #1: A ladder having a condition exceeding these limitations shall be removed from service.

Note #2: Defective hardware exceeding these limitations may be repaired or replaced. If not corrected, the ladder must be removed from service.

Note #3: Cracks, splits and fracture defects can be identified by stressing with the hands.

Note #4: Rungs may have longitudinal cracks along ribbing, or they may have cracks around the crimping joining the end plates. Note #5: Lock springs shall function to keep the hook in position to engage the rung.

Note #6: The pulley sheave shall revolve freely.






Chip Fiberglass Small piece of resin broken off an edge or surface.

Crack Fiberglass A separation of the laminate, visible on opposite surfaces, and extending through the thickness. Open Crack Fiberglass See-through separation of material. Surface Crack Fiberglass A line-type crack in the resin not

penetrating the subsurface glass layer.

Crazing Fiberglass A pattern of fine hairline-type cracks on the surface or just below the resin surface with the

appearance of a random spider web.

Delimitation Fiberglass Separation of layers or strands of material exposing loose "white" glass fibers - when internal it could resemble a blister.

Flange Fiberglass Part of channel shaped fiberglass rail.

Fracture Fiberglass Rupture of the laminate surface without complete penetration to opposite side.

Gouge Fiberglass Deep groove penetrating the laminate and visible from the opposite side.

Open Gouge Fiberglass A see-through gouge. Scratch Fiberglass A shallow groove in the resin

surface not penetrating the subsurface glass layer.

Scuff Fiberglass A mark in the surface resin caused by rubbing or scraping.

Toe Fiberglass Narrow area at ends of channel adjacent to flange.

Weathering Fiberglass Erosion of the surface resin due to environmental exposure.

Web Fiberglass Wide section of channel between flanges.


Selecting the Right Ladder

The most important factors to consider when choosing the right ladder for a job are its type, length, strength (Duty Rating), and material used to manufacture it.

Duty Rating

Duty Rating is an often ignored consideration in your ladder choice, it relates to the ladder's strength and durability. According to OSHA standards, ladders must be rated to support the combined weight of the user, plus tools, and materials. In other words, if you and your tool pouch weigh 180 pounds and you're carrying a 70-pound bundle of shingles up a ladder, you need a ladder rated for at least 250 pounds, which would be a Heavy Duty Industrial Type I ladder. The Duty Rating also takes into account whether a ladder will be receiving harsh or more moderate use on a

construction site. This is where proper selection can either augment to or diminish jobsite safety, and where trying to save money by buying a lower-cost lighter-duty ladder can backfire.

Moving and Carrying your ladder

Many ladder injuries/accidents occur before the ladder is even set up. Lower back injuries can result form improper handling of ladders. There has also been numerous damage claims associated with ladders damaging customer property. Outlined below are the three methods as to which ladders should be carried:

Vertical Carry

Involves maintaining leverage and does not require extraordinary strength. The vertical carry is the preferred method, as it is the safest.

Raise the ladder to the completely vertical position.

Maintain control and position yourself in front of the fly section. Reach down, bending at your knees.

Grasp the rung of the bed section with one hand and raise your opposite arm to gain leverage.


Lift straight up using your legs and proceed to the desired location. Pay particular attention to overhead and other hazards.

Shoulder Carry

Easiest to use when you are pulling the ladder from the truck or van. Keep the ladder in the angled position once off the rack

Position yourself in the center of the ladder facing the bottom.

Place the ladder on your shoulder and raise it to the horizontal position. Keep your shoulders square while carrying and do not twist at the waist.

Horizontal or Suitcase Carry

Least preferred method as it requires you to twist at the waist.

With the ladder laying flat on the ground, position yourself in the center. Pull the ladder up onto its side; you should be behind the bed section. Place both hands on the ladder; shoulder’s width apart.


Bend your knees into the squat position and lift the ladder straight up, keeping your shoulders square.

Lift with your legs, not your back.

Position yourself so that the majority of the ladder’s weight is on your rear hand. Position your forward arm out for leverage.

When carrying the ladder, do your best to keep your body aligned. Keep your eyes on the destination and walk safely to the location. Scan for the obstacles you identified during the site survey.

Ladder Placement (Extension Ladders)

Now that we have conducted the site survey and have transported ladder, it is time to check the ladder safety labels (all worn or missing labels should be reported to FSM and replaced) to ensure you have the “right” ladder for the job at hand before we place the ladder in suitable and desired location. Once we have determined that we have proper ladder for job at hand, its time to find a stable and secure area as this is key to ladder safety. Once ready for ladder placement please follow the safe practices listed below:

The bed section and both footplates should face the structure.

Clear any debris such as rocks, wood chips or other obstacles to ensure a stable surface for the ladder.

It’s important that the footplates are next to the structure when raising the ladder. It provides a stopping point and keeps the ladder from sliding. This gives you increased leverage when raising the ladder from the ground position.

The only time this is not an option is when a home has an overhang or you are not able to place the footplates next to the structure. When you encounter this, place


the ladder so it will end up in the vertical position, just beyond the outer side of the overhang.

Before raising the ladder, make sure you have at least 18” of solid structure on each side of the ladder.

When mounting dish to roof edge; ladder should be extended three feet beyond roof’s edge.

When not mounting to roof edge, the overlapping section should not be less than 10% of the working length of the ladder.

Do not place the ladder at the corner of the structure. If the ladder were to shift, it may result in a fall. Do not place ladders against rain gutters or in front of doors, as this too may result in a ladder fall. Take the extra time to ensure your ladder will be raised to the safest position and never take chances.

Setting the Correct Ladder Angle

Once the ladder is set up, it is extremely important to set the ladder at the correct angle. Having the correct ladder angle will fortify the stability of your ladder and reduce the risk of falls. When your ladder is extended to the desired height, position it to the safe

climbing angle, which is 75 degrees. Your ladder should always have a 4:1 ratio.

4:1 Ratio

Estimate the ladder extension height and divide that number by four. This is how far away you want the base of the ladder to be from its vertical position.

This is referred to as the 4:1 ratio. For example, if the ladder is extended 20 feet, pull the bottom of the ladder 5 feet away from the structure.

You are required to have the ladder out one foot for every four feet of ladder height.

Pull the bottom of the ladder out to your approximate measurement. Make sure the ladder is level.


If you are having problems estimating the safe climbing angle by site, follow these steps.

First, count each rung once the ladder is extended to the desired height. Each rung is spaced exactly 12 inches apart.

Next, divide the total number of rungs counted by four.

Now, measure from the ladder’s upper support point out to your calculated total. Once your measurement is taken, mark the spot.

Pull the bottom end of your ladder out to your mark.

Note: If the ladder is at or above the roofline, measure the height of the structure to calculate the 4:1 Ratio.

Setting the Correct Ladder Angle (cont.)

4:1 Ratio process seem too complicated??

Try this 'Quick Set' method as an alternative to all that measurement. It is a method that is taught in Fire Academy Training.

Place the foot of your ladder properly and securely.

Place your feet in front of bottom rung with the tip of your work boot touching the foot of the ladder; stand perpendicular to the ground.

Reach out and grab the rung directly in front of your shoulders with both hands. Your arms should be straight and 'locked out' and your body should still be

perpendicular to the ground.

If your arms are not straight and body perpendicular, adjust the foot of your ladder forward or back until they are.


If you were to measure the final results, you would find them right on or very

close to the 4:1 Ratio mandated.


Never leave your ladder unattended.

Lay your ladder flat on the ground when it is unattended.

Before you Climb

4:1 Ratio - Your ladder should always be positioned at the 4:1 Ratio.

Take a Moment - Always step back and ensure that ladder is set up correctly. Do not place ladders where they can be accidentally struck or displaced.


Reposition Ladder - If needed, reposition your ladder until it is at a 4:1 Ratio and extend three rungs above the roof line.

Right Tools for Job - Make sure you have everything you need to avoid having to make unnecessary trips.

Falling Ladders

In the event the ladder starts to fall, let it. Get out of the falling ladder’s path. Do not attempt to stop or grab it.

It’s better to replace damaged windows, cars and other items, than you.

Safe Ladder Climbing

Always Maintain Three points of Contact

Face the ladder while climbing and descending.

While climbing always have two feet and one hand or two hands and one foot on the ladder at all times.

Always firmly grasp onto the rungs to ensure a secure grip when climbing. Do not grasp the rails of the ladder when climbing.

In the event you lose footing while climbing, you may be more likely to prevent a fall if you’re holding onto the horizontal rungs as opposed to the vertical rails.

Carrying a Dish up the Ladder

When carrying a dish up and down the ladder, it is extremely important to maintain three points of contact as you climb. All employees are to carry the dish on the shoulder with the LNB pinned against chest. The dish mast should be placed in employee tool belt (most preferred method). In the event the employee does not have a place to put the mast in the tool belt, then employees should connect mast to dish and carry them


Please Remember to Keep

Your Belt Buckle between

the Ladder Rails at all


Safe Work Practices

Proper use of a ladder will contribute significantly to your safety. Factors contributing to falls include haste, sudden movement, lack of attention during use, ladder condition (worn or damaged), and the user's age or physical condition, or both, and the user's footwear. The likelihood of a fall is not a function of the user's weight or size. However, improper climbing posture creating user clumsiness on the ladder may cause falls. Be sure to follow these guidelines for safety while climbing:

Wear slip resistant boots that are heavily soled to prevent foot fatigue. Boots must have a 3/4 inch heel.


Clean your shoes to give them maximum traction.

Keep your hands free when climbing. Heavier or awkward items should be raised by alternative means, such as pulling them up on a towline, placing them in your tool belt, or having them handed up to you.

Always face the ladder as you climb, work, or descend.

Avoid sudden movements during climbing and use. Be careful and deliberate in your actions.

Do not try to move a ladder while on it.

Please Remember to Keep Your Belt Buckle

between the Ladder Rails at all times.

A-Frame Model Set-Up

Before setting up the A-Frame, determine the height needed to complete the task safely. Also, always check ladder safety labels before using ladder. When working from the A-Frame ladder do not step above the third rung. Consider this when determining which ladder is selected for job at hand.

To Raise the Ladder:

Make sure spreaders are completely locked Unlock the four slide locking mechanisms. Safely position the ladder.

Double-check that the slide and hinge locking mechanisms are secure. All 4 legs are on the Ground


A-Frame Ladder Climbing Techniques:

Do not use an A-Frame ladder as a lean to ladder. Check your boots.

Wear proper footwear; boots with a 90-degree 3/4-inch heel.

Ensure there is no snow, ice, or mud on the bottom of your boots that would cause you to slip and fall.

When climbing ladder, stay on either side and do not step above the third rung. This only applies to the A-Frame model.

Maintain three points of contact when ascending and descending ladders. Keep your belt buckle between the rails and avoid leaning.


Securing your Ladder

Upon completion of install, it is now time to load ladders back onto vehicle. It is important to follow these basic steps:

Lay ladder on ground with top of ladder facing vehicle (allow room between you and vehicle).

Pick up ladder and set it on ladder rack with bottom half still sitting on ground. Go to opposite side and slide ladder onto rack.

The balance of weight of ladder should always be directed towards ladder rack. At no time should balance of weight be on employee.

Once on ladder rack, each and every ladder should be tied on with ladder straps. At no time are employees to use wire or any other means of tie down other then actual ladder straps.


Ladder Training Completion

Upon completion of this program, each and every participant will have completed extensive ladder training and will have received the core ladder handling and ladder climbing principals. It is extremely important that each employee use these principals each and every day and apply these principals during their normal course of work. Periodic observations will be conducted by management to ensure each and every

employee follows ladder safety guidelines. These guidelines are intended for the safety of each employee; failure to comply within ladder safety guidelines may result in



Issue #1- Setting up the ladder improperly.

How can you avoid an injury?

Use the correct ladder for the job.

Evaluate ground surfaces and remove debris and objects when necessary. Do not set-up a ladder near the corner of the home. If a ladder shifts, the

result could be tragic.

Use the ladder levelers on uneven ground.

Use the claw feet when the ladder is set-up on grass or dirt.

Move landscape products such as rocks and wood chips before setting up a ladder.

Issue #2- Improperly ascending and descending the ladder.

How can you avoid an injury?

Always check your boots before climbing. Ensure there is no snow, ice, mud or dirt that could cause you to slip off the ladder rungs.

When climbing the ladder, maintain three points of contact at all times. Firmly grasp the rungs, not the rails.

Take your time, maintain your footing, and avoid making sudden changes in motion.

Always exit from the bottom rung; never jump off backwards from higher rungs.

Issue #3- Reaching outside of the ladder rails.

How can you avoid an injury?

Minimize reaching outside the rails of a ladder.

Maintain three points of contact and keep your belt buckle inside the rails. Move your ladder when necessary to avoid leaning.


Ladder Safety Questionnaire

Employee: _________________

Date: ____________

1. Many Injures are caused by?

2. Before any ladder is used, it is important to conduct a?

3. When removing ladder from rear of rack, weight of ladder should gravitate to _____________?

4. Ladders should be inspected by employee each and every time that_______________?

5. Name the three types of ladder carrying techniques. 6. All worn and missing ladder labels should be?

7. When mounting dish to roof edge, ladder should extend _________ft. beyond roof edge.

8. Your ladder should always have a __________ ratio.

9. If ladder is extended 16ft then you should pull bottom of ladder _________ft away from structure.

10. Always maintain __________ points of contact while climbing ladder. 11. All employees must wear boots with a ________inch heal.


True or False

1. The least preferred method of ladder carry is the suitcase carry. T F

2. In the event of a ladder fall it is good practice to try and catch ladder from falling. T F

3. You should always maintain three points of contact while climbing a ladder. T F

4. You should check bottom of boot for mud, ice, or anything that could cause you to slip before attempting your climb.


5. If necessary, you can use your A-Frame ladder as a lean to ladder. T F

6. When using an A-Frame ladder it is safe to climb above third rung.


7. If at any time you feel unsafe during install, you should notify your FSM. T F

8. Ladder accidents can happen to anyone (including even the most experienced of technicians).


The 10 LinkUs Ladder


Thou shall, First and Foremost, use COMMON SENSE! Thou shall use the correct ladder.

Thou shall lift with your legs, not your back.

Thou shall not set-up the ladder on unstable surfaces.

Thou shall be aware of potential hazardous conditions like wind, ice, and other slick and uneven surfaces.

Thou shall keep the ladder and yourself at least 10’ from overhead electrical lines.

Thou shall use the 4:1 Ratio.

Thou shall maintain three-points of contact when ascending and descending the ladder.

Thou shall extend the ladder three rungs above the roofline when mounting a Dish on roof edge

Thou shall avoid leaning from the ladder; maintain good posture and keep your belt buckle inside the rails.


2012 Ladder Training




______ ______ LADDER PLACEMENT

______ ______ LADDER SET-UP


______ ______ LADDER RATING



______ ______ 16FT. EXTENSION LADDER _____ _____ 6FT. A-FRAME ______ ______ 24FT. EXTENSION LADDER _____ _____ 7FT. A-FRAME ______ ______ 28FT. EXTENSION LADDER _____ _____ 8FT. A-FRAME ______ ______ 32FT. EXTENSION LADDER

Employee: ____________________ Date: _______________


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