A Review Worksheet
Sigmund Freud - Developed psychoanalysis; considered to be "father of modern psychiatry" – stages of psychosexual development
Alfred Adler - Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order
Erik Erikson – Neo-Freudian; Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development
Karen Horney - Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory - credited with founding Feminist Psychology in response to Freud's theory of penis envy.
Carl Jung – Humanist - Neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective
unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation – Jung proposed and developed the concepts of extraversion and introversion; archetypes, persona, and the collective unconscious
Ernest Hilgard - famous for his hypnosis research (especially pain control) & the theory that a "hidden observer" is created in the mind while under hypnosis
Mary Ainsworth - Studied attachment in infants using the "strange situation" model to label attachment in infants as "secure," "avoidant insecure," “resistant insecure,” and “disorganized/disoriented”
Harry Harlow – Studied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers – examined social isolation and resulting depression - Studied under Lewis Terman at Stanford and with Abraham Maslow (as professors) at the U of Wisconsin
Solomon Asch - Gestalt psychologist - Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines (demonstrating the influence of group pressure on opinions) – also studied impression formation, and prestige
suggestion among other topics in social psych - work follows a common theme of Gestalt psychology that the whole is not only greater than the sum of its parts, but the nature of the whole fundamentally alters the parts. Asch stated, “Most social acts have to be understood in their setting, and lose meaning if isolated. No error in thinking about social facts is more serious than the failure to see their place and function”
Stanley Milgram – Social psychologist - conducted "shocking" experiments on obedience and authority
Philip Zimbardo – Social psychologist - Conducted Stanford Prison experiment (obedience & good vs. evil).
Albert Bandura – Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Social Cognitive (socio-cognitive) Perspective (Social
Learning Theory) – Responsible for terms like self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism.
Lev Vygotsky – Developmental psychologist - Founder of "Social Development Theory" (note: not "social learning theory" OR "psychosocial" development...); emphasizes importance of More Knowledge Others (MKO) and the Zone of Proximal Development (refers to the way in which the acquisition of new knowledge is dependent on previous learning, as well as the availability of instruction).
Noam Chomsky - Created concept of "universal grammar" and “language acquisition device”
Benjamin Lee Whorf - Famous for describing concept of "linguistic determinism" (Whorf hypothesis or Whorfism)
Hermann Ebbinghaus - Memorized nonsense syllables in early study on human memory (forgetting curve and spacing effect)
Elizabeth Loftus - Her research on memory construction and the “misinformation effect” created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
George A. Miller – One of the founders of Cognitive Psychology - made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human short-term memory capacity
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky - investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability, anchoring, and representativeness heuristics
Lawrence Kohlberg - Famous for his theory of moral development in children; made use of moral dilemmas in assessment (extended the work of Piaget) Carol Gilligan - Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development
Jerome Kagan – One of key pioneers of Developmental Psychology - Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
Diana Baumrind - her theory of parenting styles had three main types:
1.permissive – too soft, authoritarian – too hard, & authoritatiVe – just right)
Paul Broca - the part of the brain (in the left frontal lobe) responsible for
coordinating muscles involved in speech was named for him, because he first identified it (Broca’s Area)
Carl Wernicke - an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it (Wernicke’s Area)
Michael Gazzaniga - Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients
Roger Sperry - like Gazzaniga, studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
William James - created Functionalist school of thought. Early American
psychology teacher/philosopher/doctor - First educator to offer a psychology course in the United States - "Father of American psychology"
Mary Whiton Calkins - first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)
Wilhelm Wundt - Conducted first psychology experiments in first psych laboratory – “Father of Experimental Psychology” – created Structuralism (Structuralism as a school of psychology sought to analyze the adult mind (the sum total
of experience from birth to the present) in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlated to physical events. To do this the psychologists would use the method of introspection, self-reports of sensations, views, feelings, emotions, etc)
Edward Titchener – expanded on and brought Wundt’s idea of Structuralism to U.S. - Created the largest doctoral program in the United States (at the time) after becoming a professor at Cornell University
Margaret Floy Washburn - Titchener’s first graduate student - First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology (1894); 2nd president of the APA (1921).
G. Stanley Hall - first American to work for Wundt; Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first APA president
Gordon Allport - Founder of Trait Theory – One of the founding figures of personality psychology
Walter Mischel - offered famous critique of trait theory and its claims – studied self-control in addition to personality
Paul Costa & Robert McCrae - creators of the "Big Five" model of personality traits
Albert Ellis - Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT) Aaron Beck - Developed cognitive-behavior therapy
Abraham Maslow - Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Rollo May – Existential/Humanistic psychologist. Expanded on Maslow’s work to develop existential psychology.
Carl Rogers – Humanist - developed "client-centered" therapy – self-concept, unconditional positive regard, real self vs ideal self.
Ivan Pavlov - Described process of classical conditioning after famous experiments with dogs
Mary Cover Jones - "mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits
Robert Rescorla - researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
Edward Thorndike - Famous for "law of effect" and research on cats in "puzzle boxes"
B.F. Skinner - Described process of operant conditioning
John Watson - Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning
Joseph Wolpe - described use of systematic desensitization to treat phobias John Garcia - studied taste aversion in rats; led to knowledge that sickness and
taste preferences can be conditioned
David Hubel & Torsten Weisel - two Nobel Prize winning neuroscientists who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception Ernst Weber - best known for "Weber's Law", the notion that the JND magnitude
is proportional to the stimulus magnitude
Gustav Fechner - early German psychologist (scholar of Weber) credited with founding psychophysics – credited with demonstrating the non-linear
relationship between psychological sensation and the physical intensity of a stimulus
_____________________________________ Fritz Perls - Creator of Gestalt Therapy
Wolfgang Kohler - considered to be the founder of Gestalt Psychology
Alfred Kinsey - his research described human sexual behavior and was controversial (for its methodology & findings)
William Masters & Virginia Johnson - used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)
Alfred Binet – French psychologist - created first intelligence test for Parisian school children with colleague Theodore Simon (Binet-Simon scale).
Charles Darwin - his idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective
Francis Galton – Darwin’s cousin - interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement – coined phrase “regression toward the mean”
Howard Gardner - best known for his theory of "multiple intelligences" Jean Piaget - Known for his theory of cognitive development in children Charles Spearman - creator of "g-factor" (general intelligence) concept
Robert Sternberg - creator of Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Creative, Practical, Analytical).
Lewis Terman - advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
David Weschler - developer of WAIS and WISC intelligence tests
Raymond B. Cattell – coined terms fluid and crystallized intelligence pertaining to one’s general intelligence.
Carl Lange – Developed theory that all emotions are developed from, and can be reduced to, physiological reactions to stimuli – Seemingly independently, William James published similar work the year before – unlike James,
Lange specifically stated that vasomotor changes are emotions – Theory became known as “James–Lange Theory of Emotion” (basic premise is that physiological arousal instigates the experience of a specific emotion)
Walter Cannon & Philip Bard – Bard was a doctoral student of Cannon – together, they developed a model of emotion called the “Cannon-Bard Theory of
Emotion” (main assertions are that physiological changes and subjective feeling of an emotion in response to a stimulus are separate and independent; arousal does not have to occur before the emotion).
Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer - Developed "Two-Factor" theory of emotion Leon Festinger - described concept of cognitive dissonance – Schachter was
Festinger’s student and research assistant at M.I.T.
Dorothea Dix - American activist who successfully pressured lawmakers to construct & fund asylums for the mentally ill
Phineas Gage - his survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us about the role of the frontal lobes (okay, he's not really a psychologist...)
Ancel Keys - Conducted semi-starvation experiments to measure psych effects of hunger
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross - wrote "On Death and Dying"; developed 5 stage theory of grief
Paul Eckman - Interested in the universality of facial expressions: facial
expressions carry same meaning regardless of culture, context, or language. Use of microexpressions to detect lying.
Martin Seligman - Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness" and is a pioneer in the field of “Positive Psychology”