NavalConstructor, U. S. N.
This booklet is issued for use by
workmenengaged in building
ships contracted for by the U. S. Shipping Board, in the hope
confident expectation that it will prove of value to
service to the country.
Written in simple language
andillustrated with clear diagrams,
this bookletwill serveboth as a guide to the activities of a
anda stimulus to patriotic service.
Industrial Service Department,
It is only natural that a
workto do should be
Whathe is to do;
Whyhe is to do it;
Howhe should do it.
Furthermorea knowledge of these things will
workman*thus not only rendering
moreservice to his
coun-try,but also enabling
more wagesfor himself.
care-ful study of the following pages will assist a
ashipyard in attaining thisknowledge.
Aship is a large sea-goingvessel, or, in other words,
it is a structure that will float
andis capable of
voyages. There are
manydifferent kinds of ships
merchant ships, large
manydifferentpurposes butall havecertain
whatfollows, for the sake of brevity, consideration will be given only to steel
maybe considered as a large boat.
madeofsteel, which is heavier than water, it
andtherefore, in order to float, it
Inorderto pass safelyover the large
wavesof the oceanthe ship
mustbe givensuch ashapethatitwill not capsize and such strength
that it will not break in two.
wordsthe principal requirementsofallships are:
Thesecond of these, stability, depends
uponthe design of the ship the shape of herhull, but the other
twodepend not only
the design but
helps build the hull of a ship is responsible, to
someextent, for her
The mainessential of any ship is the shell
plating. Thisforms the hull orouter skin ofthe ship, keeps out the
water, helps to furnish strength
andencloses all the other parts of
the hull. It is
upof a great
manysteel plates, ranging in
%inch to 1 inch,depending onthe sizeofthe shipand
the location oftheplates. Theseplatesare joined togetherby rivets.
Therough sketch below gives a general idea of the appearance
of a cargoship,seen
VIEWOF A CARGO SHIP
movesahead through the water the end that enters
the water is the forward
endof the ship, or the bow.
the bow, which cuts the water, is called the stem.
Theother end of
endis calledthe stern.
Theship is driven forward
by the propeller
andis steered by the rudder.
length of the ship at the middle of the
fur-nishes longitudinal strength
andforms the "backbone" of the ship.
fromthe stern towards the bow, or
the side of the ship to the right
handis called the starboard side,
andthe side to the left hand, the port side.
portion of the ship is called the forecastle
andthe after upper
por-tion, the poop.
Alittle forward of the middle of the ship's length
andat a considerable height above the water is located the bridge
which is an enclosed platform for use of the captain
andhandle the ship. Special speaking tubes,
telegraphs, etc., connect the bridge directly with the engine room.
Thesecond rough sketch gives
an ideaof the shapeofthe hull as seen
fromahead of the ship.
sides are usually nearly straight
andthe bottomnearly flatbut
ris-ing slightly on each side.
portion of the shell plating
be-tween the side
andthe bottom is
called the bilge.
is fully loaded a large portion of
the hull is
In order to
structural parts of a ship thereis
given below a longitudinal section
VIEWOF CARGO SHIP
showingthe ship cut
along the center line.
The namesof the various subdivisions or
markedon this sketch.
of a building.
Thebulkheads are vertical flat structures
corres-ponding to the walls or partitions of a building.
is a flat plated surface located
twoor three feet above the ship's
bottomplatingso as to
formadoublehullextending alongthewhole bottom of the ship.
Theinner bottom is also called the tank-top,
asitformsthe top ofa
numberofdouble bottomtanks. These tanks
are used for salt water ballast (to prevent the ship
whencarrying no cargo), for fresh water as reserve feed fortheboilers,and, in the caseof oil-burningships, forfueloil.
andbulkheads subdivide the hull into
compart-ments, thus increasing safety
amountof space that
maybeflooded in casetheshell platingis
damagedso thatwater can
enter the hull.
Atthe ends of the ship are large peak tanks which
can be filled with water to trim the ship to
whichfurnish the steam
powerof the ship are
locatedin onelargecompartment, several deckshigh,
or engines in another similar compartment.
en-gine to the propeller is transmitted by the shaft which extends
through the shaft tunnel, a long
narrow passagewayenclosed by
Cargois carried in.the holds
Living quarters of officers
andcrew are located
bridgedecks. Cargohatches are largeopeningsin the decks through
which cargo is lowered into the ship by
at-tached to the masts. These are either
The namesof thesevarious parts of aship
have been indicated in the sketches above.
There are of course
manyparts of a ship not mentioned here
be-cause of lack of space.
Aship, as well as being capable of floating
and makingtripsonthe ocean,
equip-mentof a building on shore such as heating, lighting, ventilation,
meansof communication, facilities for
makingrepairs, etc., etc. Also she
Withthese the worker in a shipyard
becomefamiliar in the course of his
attempt will be
themin detail in these pages.
practically every material will be found used to
in the construction of the hull proper the principal material used
is mild steel in the
formof forgings, castings, plates, shapes and
andcastings are used for special purposes, ofwhich the
principal are the stem
andstern post, rudder frame, propeller
whichare simply flat sheets of steel of various thick-nesses, are used to
formthe shell plating, decks, bulkheads, shaft tunnel, tank top, etc. Plates are usually spoken of by weight
Sucha plate is about
%inch in thickness.
plate is thus about
Shapes are used to
andstrength of the ship.
Theyare long steel pieces, rolled to a constant cross section.
commonshape isthe angle bar
shownin the upper part of the
Whenthe end is
sawedoff square the section thus
madeis L-shaped, or forms an angle, thus giving it its name.
Sec-tions ofthe other shapes ordinarily used the channel, T-Bar, Z-bar,
andI-beam are also
shownin the sketch.
Rivets are the small steel
membersused to connect the various
andshapes together. Usually they are first heated red hot
anddriven or clinched with
different kinds of rivets, already driven,
and a portion of an iron casting.
Arivet before being driven is a
simple cylinder finished at one end with a head. Various forms of
Thepointof a rivetis formed,
it is driven, while the rivet is hot. Various forms,of points are
shownin the sketch.
Atap rivet isnot really a rivet, but a
screw. After being tightly screwed in place
andsecured the square
shownin the sketch is cut off leaving a flat or
Taprivets are used for connecting thin to relatively thick parts.
Thehull of a large ship weighs
manyhundreds of tons. It is
onthe land, near the water's edge,
is launched, or permitted to slide
downspecially prepared timbers,
called launchingways, into the water. In order to supportthe large
concentrated weight of the hull, while it is being built,
it islaunched, the
mostcases,be strengthened. This
is done by
meansof piling as
shownon the following page in the
sketch of the cross section of a ship being built. This sketch
what wouldbe seen if the ship
it is being built be imagined as cut at right angles to the ship's
keel, or length.
Piles, asshown, aredriven deepenoughintotheground to
sawedoff at the top are capped by cross timbers, of
shownin the sketch.
Ontop of these cross timbers are placed heavy
woodenblocks, called the
building or keel blocks. These
formthe foundation on which the
keel of the ship is laid.
Thekeel usually consists of a
narrow andcomparatively heavy steel plates, placed end to end,
andextending from the stem to the stern frame. This is
knownas a flat plate keel.
Thefirststep in the construction of the hull is the laying of the
keel. This consists simply in laying the plates in place on top of
the building blocks.
Theends of the plates are connected together
by short pieces of plates called butt straps, which overlap the ends.
Ontop of the flat plate keel
andrunning vertically along its
center line is placed the centervertical keel which consists, like the
flat plate keel, of a
numberof flat rectangular plates, end to end,
CROSS SECTION OF A SHIP BEING BUILT
Thenext step in the
workvaries in different yards
the plating ofthebottom first,
someerect the floorplates first.
formthe lower portions of thetransverse frames.
Theyare deep flat plates extending between the inner
placedvertically at right anglestothekeel.
center vertical keel at their inner ends
edgeof the inner bottom at their outer ends.
Wherethe plating of the bottom is erected first it is attached
to the keel
andgradually built out on each side, being supported
by woodenshores as shown. After the keel, center vertical keel
and bottomplating are erected
andsupported by suitable shoring
in place as fast as it is erected.
Anglebars are fitted to the top
andbottom of each floor plate to connect it to the inner
bottom plating. Longitudinals are the plates running vertically
andat right angles to the floor plates, between them.
plates are usually about
twoor three feet apart.
andlongitudinals, with their connecting angle bars,
inner bottom framing.
Tothe top of this framing is attached the
workis progressing the stem
andthe stern frame
andattached to the ends of the keel.
Whenthe innerbottomis erected thetransverseframesor frames,
as they are called, are erected
andsecured by brackets to the edge
ofthe inner bottom. Their upper ends are connected, between each
side ofthe ship, by the deck beams. There is usually a
the strakes (orrows) of shellplating arelettered for convenience in
locating the various parts.
Duringthe early stages of construction
theframesare heldin position by long
woodenstrips called ribbands,
running alongthe sides ofthe hull.
The beamsare connected to the
beamsare usually supported in
the middle by vertical pillars or stanchions.
sametime that the frames
beamsare being erected the bulkheads are also put in place.
Thebulkheads take the place of certain frames, being
solid plate partitions running completely across the ship.
After the frames,
beams andbulkheads are in place the plating ofthesides ofthehull
workingon the shell plating, deck
beams, etc., scaffolding is erected as
shownin the sketch.
Afterthe various parts have been erected
andcarefully fitted in
place the rivet holes are reamed, or
andsmooth so as to
take the rivets properly,
workof rivetting commences.
commencesoon after the keel has been laid.
In addition tothe rivetting, certain plates
bycalking. (Thiswill be described later.)
Theabove description will give a general idea of the
building the hull of a ship prior to launching.
im-portant points have been taken up. After the hull proper is
com-pleted a large
workon finishing the interior, installing
various piping, wiring, auxiliary machinery, fittings, etc.,
done, but as this is of miscellaneous character no attempt will be
madeto give a detailed description ofithere.
Namesof Principal Trades.
The workof building a ship from
the time that it is decided
uponuntil the ship is actually in
com-mission is done
numberof different classes of
Theseinclude such trades as shipfitters, blacksmiths, rivetters,
andcalkers, drillers, plumbers, pipefitters, machinists, joiners,
carpenters, pattern makers, foundrymen, coppersmiths, sailmakers,
woodcalkers, heavy forgers, sheet metal workers, furnace men,
shearers, punchers, anglesmiths, shipwrights, riggers, flangers, drop
forgers, erectors, bolters-up, crane men, locomotive engineers,
fire-men, loftsmen, laborers, painters
andhelpers in all of these trades.
The moreimportant trades
employedin the actual construction
ofthehull of the ship, however,are as follows:
1. Loftsmen, 2. Shipfitters, 3. Drillers,
Theplans of the ship, as
madein the drafting room,
drawnto smallscale. Theseare sent to the
mouldloft a large
building with a
smoothfloor of sufficient size to have
it the plans of the ship to full size. This
workis done by the
Thelines of the ship consist of threedifferent plans called the
sheer plan (side elevation), the half-breadth plan (plan)
body plan (end-elevation).
Theshape of the ship is given by these
and from themtemplates or
loftsmen. These templates or
from whichthe steel for the various parts of the hull can
be laid off
markedfor shearing, punching, planing, etc.
makingtemplates is the
the shape of each frame,
andthis is usually
markedoff on a special section of
woodflooring (called the scrieve
andcut into itpermanently with ascrieve knife.
Theduties of the loftsmen are to lay
andfair the lines on
mouldloft floor, to
makethe scrieve board,
mouldsor templates for the parts of the hull. This
requires considerable experience
math-ematics including geometry.
Alarge responsibility rests
loftsmen, for if their templates are not properly
madethe parts of
the hull will not join together properlyto
formthe completed struc-ture. This
wouldcause serious delays, the extra expense of
newparts, or the danger of
weakeningthe hull of the ship.
Theshipfitter (sometimes called "fitter-up") is
probably theone metal
maybe said to be purely
a shipbuilding trade. His
markingoff the steel
material for different parts of the ship's hull. This is usually done
meansofa template liftedor
fromother parts already
in place on the ship. In
somecases the material is
di-rectly, without the useof a template,
fromdimensions taken from a
blue print or otherplan.
It will thus be seen that there are three different
mark-ing material for fabrication: (1)
mouldloft by the loftsmen, (2)
madeon the ship
by shipfitters, (3)
fromblue prints, directly, by shipfitters.
markedoff in each of these three different
waysvaries in differentshipyards, accordingtoyard practice.
fewof the simpler parts, usually laid off by the shipfitters
are illustrated in the following sketches.
Aclip is simply a short piece of angle bar used to connect
other parts at right angles, or nearly at right angles.
markedoff so that it can be
sheared to the proper length
loca-tions of the centers of the rivet holes and
theirdiameters indicated so that these holes
maybe properly punched.
Whenthe clip is
completed it should bolt in place with the-t!f.co
^gc-r^<s -<> .*rr*+
rivet holes in itagreeing perfectly with those
twoparts thatit connects.
bosompiece is ashort section of angle bar used to connect, or
forma sort of butt strapfor, the ends of
twoangle bars in the
Thethickness of the flanges of the
bosompiece should be
fittedbetween outer strakes
frame that they cover. These are
flat or straight liners. Liners are
inner-and-outer strake plating. These
Theends ofadjacent plates
anystrake are connected by butt
straps. In laying out shell plates
madeto the shell
spacing of rivets, size
of butt straps, etc.
The work done bya shipfitter is
very important for if his
conse-quentlythe safetyofthe ship
be able to "read plans"
becomingagood shipfittershould spend as
possible in studyingpractical shipbuilding
by meansofplans, books
andgeneral observation. Intelligent shipfitter's helpers usually can
becomeshipfitters after obtaining a certain
Workmenof this trade usually do both drilling
Alarge portion ofthe rivet holes in thedifferent parts of
a ship are
punchedin the shop before the parts are erected, but
somecases the holes
mustbe drilled on theship.
Whenthe parts that are
punchedare fitted in place, in spite of the
workmanship,it will usually be found that
manyof the rivet holes in connecting pieces
comequite fair, that they overlap
slightly. These unevennesses are
con-sistsin slightlyenlarging theholes so as to
per-fectly cylindrical so that theywill be completely filled bythe rivets.
Whenholes are very unfair, so that
agreat degree the
workshould not be reamed, as this
whatholdsthe various parts
andgives tothe hullitswatertightness, strength
mustbe driven carefully, exactly as called for
Whenthe ship is designed, each
andevery rivet is specified
in order to serve a certain purpose,
andif not driven as intended
the safety ofthe ship
methodof driving rivets can be learned only by
ex-perience, but every
memberof a rivetting
gangshould realize the
importance of his work,
Heis assisting in
the final completion of the hull;
that of all the others that have preceded him, gives to the ship her
workhas been done. (See
moredetailed discussion under
men whobuild ships.")
andCalkers. It is sometimes necessary to trim off
smooth upthe edges of plates, castings, etc., or to cut holes in
themafter they are in place on the ship. This is done by chippers
handor pneumatic tools. These
same workmen,usually, are
also employed as calkers. Their duty is to calk the edges of plates,
angles, rivetheads, etc.,so as to
themwatertight. This calking
is done after the riveting is completed
andit is very important
that it be well
Thecalking chisel or tool is
used to force one part of metal tightly against another.
principal kinds of calking edge calking
andbutt calking are
illustrated in the sketch. If calkingis notproperly done water will
enterbetween the parts of thejoint, causing corrosion, and, in time,
serious weakness to the ship's structure. In
someparts of a ship
even the slightest leakage
Theshipwrights are the
woodfoundations for capstans, winches, guns, etc.,
Theyalso have considerable
workto do in connection with the preparation of launching ways, building blocks, shores,
wedges, etc. Their
fittings, furniture, etc.,
woodworkof similar nature that
is done bythe joiners.
The workof the riggers consists in the manufacture
andinstallation of shrouds, stays, lifts, braces, lifelines,
riggingfittedtothe masts, spars,
Dooms andother parts oftheship.
Someof this rigging is
madeof steel wire rope,
mustbe able to do splicing, seizing, serving, parcelling, etc.
employedin the shops of a
ship-yard comprise a great variety of trades.
Forexample, a large
woodworkof a ship is donein the shop bythe joiners.
andall light metal plating
in the shop by the sheet metal workers.
is donetoa large extentinthe shopby the plumbers, machinists
pipefitters. Forgings for a large
numberof miscellaneous fittings
andother parts of the ship are
madein the shop by blacksmiths,
drop-forgers, heavy forgers, etc.
electricalfittingsis done in the shop by theelectricians.
workon the hull proper, or the fabrication, as it is
sometimes called, is done by the
whooperate the shears,
punches, bending rolls, planers,
andother shop machines,
frame benders, acetylene burners, furnace men,
worknecessary, prior to erection, on keel plates, shell
plates, frames, reverse frames, longitudinals, stringers, floor plates, brackets, clips, beams, bulkhead
anddeck plating, stiffeners, and
other parts required for thehull of theship.
Responsibility of the
Everypart of the hull of a ship has a certain purpose to serve,
andusefulness ofthe ship as a whole depend
build-ing the hull of a ship,
whodesigns the parts,
downthrough the loftsmen, shop workers,
andfitters,to the rivetters
andcalkers, has a certain responsibility,
and uponthe skill
whicheach doeshis part
maydepend the lives ofhundreds
of men. In time of
warthe lives of thousands, even,
uponthe safe arrival of a
maybe simply illustrated in
the following way.
wehave a piece
of rope thatis strong
enoughto support a weight
ofoneton. Ifsuch a weight be suspended by thii piece of rope, as
showninthe sketch, the strength of the rope is effective
wehave a condition
of safe loading.
Three pieces of this
a weightof three tons provided eachpieceof rop
becomes effective. In the sketch below,
onepiece of ropeislongerthan the other two, this
lung piece is not effective, the other
twopieces can support only
wehave a caseof 'unsafe loading.
The twoouter ropes
Thestrength of the
twoouter ropes is lost because of
the lack of effective strength of the third.
of a ship, a similar principle will
be found to apply. In the upper
sketch, page 17, is
showna case of
safeloading, in whicha pullofone
ton is taken by a single rivet that
twoplates. This rivet is
Three of these rivets should be
strongenough totake apull ofthreetons, butin thelower (page17)
sketch one of the rivets has not been properly driven. Either
be-cause the rivet holes were not properly laid and punched, or
be-cause they were not properly reamed, or because the rivet itself
wasnot properly driven, this rivet is not effective. It offers no
re-sistanceto the 3-tonpull, which thus comes
upontwo rivets that are
not sufficiently strong
wehave another case of unsafe loading.
Undera pull of three tonsthis joint
Similarly each joint forms a part of the strength of the whole
andif defective rivets cause the failure of a joint, the added
stress thus put
uponthe other parts
maybe greater than they can bear
maybreak in two. Such caseshaveactually
Whena &hip isin ahurricane at sea her safety depends
workmen whobuilt that ship are directly
respon-sible for the lives of all on board. It is therefore important for
workingin a shipyard to do his
andintelligence ofwhich he ispossessed.
Forthe convenience of beginners there is given below a list,
alphabetically arranged, explaining briefly the
of the words, phrases, etc.,
commonlyused in connection with
APTat, near, or toward the stern.
AFTERnearer the stern.
PERPENDICULARa vertical straight lineat the after edge of the rudder post.
PORTa circular opening in the ship's side.
ANCHORa heavy steel device that is attached to the end of a large chain
or hawser to be dropped to the bottom for holding the ship in position
when not alongside a dock.
ATHWARTSHIPSacross the ship, at right angles to the keel.
AUXILIARIESvarious winches, pumps, motors, and other small engines required on a ship.
BALLASTany weight or weights (usually sea water) used to keep the ship from becoming "top heavy."
membersupporting a portion of a deck. Also the
width of the ship.
BEAM KNEETheenlargedendofabeam, by whichitis attachedtoa frame.
BELOWbelow a deck or decks (corresponding to "down stairs").
BENDING SLABheavy cast iron blocks arranged to form a large solid
floor on which frames are bent.
BENDING ROLLSlarge machine used to give curvature to plates.
BERTHa place for a ship.
BEVELthe angle betweenthe flanges ofa frameor other member. (When
greater than a right angle, open bevel; when less, closed.)
BILGEthe rounded portionof the hullbetween the side and bottom.
BILGESthe lowest portion of the ship inside of the hull.
KEELa foreand aft
memberfitted to the outside of the shell
plat-ing runningalong the bilge, usedto prevent excessive rolling ofthe ship.
BITTSheavy steelcastings fitted to the weather deck for securingmooring
lines or hawsers.
BOOMa long round heavy spar,pivotted at oneend, usually used for
hoist-ing cargo, etc.
PIECEbutt strap for angle bars.
BOSSthe curved swelling portion of the ship's hull around the propeller
BOWthe forward end of a ship.
BRACKETa small plate used to connect two or more parts, such as deck
beam to frame, frame to margin plate, etc.
HOOKaplate structure fitted insidethe hull near thebow to give
local strength to the shell plating.
BRIDGEthe athwartship platform above the weather deck from which the ship is steered, navigated, etc.
BUILDINGSLIP place where the ship is built, before launching.
BULKHEADa vertical partition corresponding to the wall of a building,
extending either athwartships or fore andaft.
BULWARKthe ship's side above the weather deck.
BUNKERa compartment used for the stowage of coal or other fuel.
BUOYANCYability to float, or the difference between the weight of the
ship and the upward force of the water that it
BUTTthe joint formed when two parts are placed end to end.
BUTT STRAPa small plate or other memberused toconnectthe two parts of a butt by overlapping each.
CAMBERthe thwartship curvature of a deck. Sometimes called round up.
CALKto make a joint water tight.
FRAMEa frame not square to the keel line.
CAPSTANa revolving device, with axisvertical, used for heaving in lines.
CARGOthe freight carried by a ship.
HATCHlarge opening in a deck to permit loading of cargo.
BOOMheavy boom used in loading cargo.
CARLINGfore and aft member at side of hatch, extending across ends of
beams where cutto form hatch.
LINEthe middle line ofthe ship, from stem to stern.
CHAINusually refers to heavy chain attached to anchor.
LOCKERcompartment in forward lower portion of ship in which
anchor chain is stowed.
CHART HOUSEsmall room under bridge used for charts and navigational
CHOCKa heavy fitting through which ropes or hawsers
CLEATa fitting attached to the deck, having two fore and aft arms or projections around which arope or line
CLIP a short angle bar.
COAMINGthe vertical boundary of a hatch or skylight.
COFFERDAMthe spacebetween two bulkheads located very close together.
COMPARTMENTa subdivision of space or room in a ship.
COUNTERSINKthe taper of a rivet hole for a flush rivet.
DAVITheavy vertical pillar, of which the upper end is bent to a curve,
used to support the end of a boat when hoisting or lowering.
FLATthe middle of the length of a ship, where the frames change
from looking forward to looking aft.
DEADWEIGHTthe total weight of cargo, fuel, water, stores, passengers
and crew, and their effects, that a ship can carry.
DECKthepartofa ship thatcorresponds tothe floor of abuilding.
DECK BEAMathwartship support of deck.
STRINGERthe strip of plating that runs along the outer edge
of a deck.
DERRICKa device for hoisting heavy weights, cargo, etc.
DISPLACEMENTthe totalweightof the shipwhen afloat, including
every-thing on board.
DOGa small bent metal fittingused to close doors, hatch covers, manhole covers, etc.
BOTTOMcompartments at bottom of ship between inner and
outer bottoms, used for ballast tanks, water, fuel oil, etc.
DOUBLING PLATEaplate fitted outside or inside of anotherto give extra
strength or stiffness.
DRAGthe amount that one end of the keel is below the other when the ship is afloat but not on an even keel.
DRAFTthe vertical distance of the lowest partofthe ship belowthe surface of the water when she is afloat.
PINa small tapered tool used to draw adjoining parts together BO that the rivet holes will come fair by driving itinto these holes.
EYE BOLTa bolt formedwith an eye orring at one end.
ERECTIONthe process of hoisting into place and bolting up the varioui
parts of the ship's hull, machinery, etc.
EVEN KEELa ship is said to be on even keel when the keel is level, or parallel to thesurface of the water.
FAIRsmooth without abruptness or unevenness, in agreement. Fairing
the lines consists in making them smooth. Rivet holes are fair when
they agree one with another in adjoining members.
FAIRLEADa small fitting through which a rope, line, etc.,
maybe led so
as to change its direction without excessive friction.
SURFACEthe surface between two adjoining parts.
FENDERa fitting or device to prevent damage to a ship's hull at or near
the waterline by other vessels, floating objects, docks, etc.
HATCHhatch around smokestack and uptake.
CONTROLmeans for informing
menat the guns
howto set the
sights, at what target to fire, etc.
FLAGSTAFFflag pole at stern of ship.
FLANGEportion of a plate or shape at, or nearly at right angles to main
FLATa small partial deck, built level, without curvature.
FLOORthe lower portion of a transverse frame, usually a vertical plate
extendingfrom center line to bilge, and from inner to outer bottom.
AFTin linewith the lengthof theship, longitudinally.
FORECASTLEthe forward upper portion of the hull, usually used for the
FORE PEAKa large compartment or tank just aft of the bow in the lower part of the ship.
FORGINGa mass of steel worked to a special shape by hammering while red hot.
FORWARDnear or toward the bow.
FRAMINGthe supportand stiffening of the shell plating, deck plating, etc.
Usually consists ofthe ordinary transverseframesor "ribs," beams, floors,
etc., and the longitudinal framing or keel, keelsons, longitudinals,
SPACINGthe fore and aft distance between adjacent frames.
FREEBOARDthe vertical distance from the upper watertight deck or top
of bulwarks to waterline, when ship is fully loaded.
FREEING PORTan opening in the ship's side to allow water to run
GALLEYthe "kitchen" of a ship.
GALVANIZINGcoating metal parts with zinc for protection from rust.
GANGWAYa passageway, a ladder or other means of boarding a ship.
GARBOARD STRAKEthe strake of shell plating next to the keel.
TONNAGEa figure obtained by dividing the total volume of the ship, in cubic feet, by 100.
GROUND WAYStimbers fixed to the ground, under the hull on each side of the keel, on which she is launched.
GUDGEONfitting on which rudder swings. The gudgeons fit around the
pintles, and form a part of the ruddejr post.
GUNWALEthe side of aship at the edge ofthe weather deck.
HARPINa curved wooden piece used to hold frames at ends of ship in
position when first erected.
HATCHan opening in a deck.
PIPEa large fitting attached to the bowof a ship through which
the anchor chain passes.
HAWSERa large rope.
HELMthe direction to which the tiller is put, or opposite to which the
rudder is put. (When the rudder is to port the ship is said to carry
HOGGINGstraining of the ship that tends to make the bow and stern
lower than the middle portion.
HOLDa large compartment in the lower part of the ship for cargo.
HOLD BEAMSbeams ina hold, similartodeck beams, buthavingnoplating or planking on them.
HULLthe body of a ship, including shell plating, framing, decks,
INBOARDinside the ship, toward the center line.
BOTTOMplating forming theupperboundary of the double bottom. Also called tank top.
INTERCOSTALmade in separate parts between frames, beams, etc.; die
opposite ofcontinuous. (Floors are continuous; longitudinals, intercostal
in a merchant ship.)
SYSTEMa system of buildingships in whichthe main
frani-ing is longitudinal or fore and aft, instead of transverse as in ordinary
JACKSTAFPflag pole at bow of ship.
JOGGLINGoffsetting the edges of plates of outer strakes to avoid the use
KEELthe fore and aft member, usually in the form of flat plates end to
end, extending from stem to stern along the bottom of a ship on the center line.
KEELSONan auxiliary keel or stringer, extending along and over, or parallel to the keel. The center vertical keel.
LADDERinclinedsteps, taking aboardship the place of"stairs."
LAPa joint in which one part overlaps the other, thus avoidingthe use of.
a butt strap.
LAUNCHINGthe operation of placing the hull in the water by having it
slide down the launching ways. During launching the weight of the hull
is borne by the sliding ways which are attached to the hull and slide
with itdown theground ways.
LAYING OFFmarkingplates, shapes, etc., for shearing, punching, etc..
PERPENDICULARSthe length of a ship measured
from the stem to the after perpendicular. 19
ALLthe length of a ship measured from the stem to the aftermost point of the stern.
HOLEa large hole cut in a floor plate, longitudinal, etc.,
to reduce its weight.
HOLEahole ofafew inches diameter cut ina floorplate toallow
water to drain through it near the bottom.
LINERa flat or tapered strip placed under a plate or other part to bring
it in line with another part that it overlaps.
LINESthe plans of a ship that show its form.
Fromthe lines, drawn
. full size on the mould loft floor, aremade templates of the various parts
of the hull.
memberrunning parallel, ornearly
parallel, to the center vertical keel through the double bottom. In mer-chant ships longitudinals are intercostal.
PLATEthe outer boundary of the inner bottom, connecting it to
the shell plating at the bilge.
MAGAZINEa compartment orroom in which ammunition is stored.
DECKthe principal deck of the main hull, being the highest of, and
giving strength to, the main hull.
MANHOLEa round or oval shaped hole cut in a bulkhead, tank top, etc.,
large enough for a
manto pass through.
MASTa large longspar, placed nearlyvertical on the center line of a ship.
MIDSHIPat themiddle of the ship's length.
SECTIONa plan showing a cross section of the ship amidships. This planshows sizes of frames,beams, brackets, etc., and thicknesses of
LOFTa shed or building with large, smooth floor on which the
lines of a ship can be drawn to full scale.
MOULDa light pattern of a part of a ship. Usually made of thin wood or paper. Also called a template.
MOORINGsecuring a ship in position by several lines or cables, so that
she cannot move or swing.
TONNAGEa figure obtained by making deduction from the gross
tonnage to allow forspace not available for carrying cargo.
TIGHTrivetted and caulked to prevent oil leakage. (Rivets must be
more closely spaced for this purpose than for water tightness.)
ON BOARDonor in the ship.
ON DECKon the upper deck, in the open air.
DECKthe lowest deck.
OUTBOARDaway fromthe center line,towards the side ofa ship.
OVERBOARDoutside, over the side of a ship. Into the water.
OVERHANGportionof the hull over, and unsupported by the water.
PANTINGin and outmovementof shell plating.
PILLARvertical member or column giving support to a deck. Also called stanchion.
PINTLEfitting or pin onthe rudderwhich turns in a gudgeon.
PLANa drawing prepared for use in building a ship.
PLANKINGwood covering for decks, etc.
PLATFORMa partial deck.
PLATINGtheplates of the shell, adeck, a bulkhead, etc.
POOPthe after, upper portion of the hull, usually containing the steering gear.
FORTthe left hand side of the ship when looking from aft forward. Also
PORTHOLEa circular opening in the ship's side.
PROPELLERa revolving device that drives the ship through the water, consisting of three or four blades, resembling in shape those of an
PUNCHa machine for punching holes in plates and shapes.
QUADRANTa fitting on the rudder head to which the steering chains are attached.
QUARTERa side of the stern.
QUARTER DECKthatportion ofthe weatherdeck nearestthe stern.
QUARTERScompartments,,rooms and other portions of the ship used for
RABBETa depression oroffset designed totake some other adjoining part;
as, for example, the rabbet in the stem to take the shell plating.
RAILthe upper edge ofthe bulwarks.
REAMINGenlarging a rivet hole by means of a revolving, cylindrical, slightly tapered tool with cutting edges running' along its sides.
REVERSE FRAME*-a.n angle bar or other shape rivettedto the inner edge
of a transverse frame to reinforce it.
RIBBANDa fore and aft wooden strip or heavy batten used to support
the transverse frames temporarily after erection.
RIGGINGropes, wire ropes, lashings, etc., used to support masts, spars,
booms, etc. Also the handling and placing on board the ship of heavy
weights, machinery, etc.
BOTTOMthe amount that the flat portion of the bottom of the ship rises from the keelto the side of the ship.
RIVETashort metal connection of two or moremembers usually driven or clinched afterbeing heated red hot.
ROLLmotion of the ship fromside to side alternately raisingand lowerfhg
each side ofthe deck.
RUDDERa large,heavyfittinghinged totherudderpost. Used for steering the ship.
POSTheavy vertical post at after end of stern frame under
water which supports rudder.
STOPfitting to limit the swjng of the rudder.
SAGGINGstraining of the ship thattends tomakethe middle portion lower than the bow and stern.
POSTa heavy vertical post that supports cargo booms.
SCANTLINGSthe dimensions of various parts of the ship.
BOARDa large section of flooring in the mould loft in which
the lines ofthe body plan are cut with aknife. Used for making moulds
of the.frames, beams, floor plates, etc.
SCUPPERa drain from the edge of a deck discharging overboard.
SEAMfore and aft joint of shell plating.
STRAPbutt strap of a seam.
SET IRONbar of soft iron used on bending slab to giveshape of frames.
SHAFTlong, round, heavyforging connecting engine and propeller.
TUNNELenclosed alley-way around shaft extending from engine
room to after peak tank.
SHAPElong bar of constant cross section, such as a channel, T-bar, angle
SHEARSlarge machine for cutting plates and shapes.
SHEERfore and aft curvature of a deck.
SHEER PLANside elevation of ship's form.
SHEER STRAKEthe upper strake of the main shell plating, just below
SHELL EXPANSIONa plan showing details of all plates of the shell.
SHELL LANDINGSpoints onthe frames showing where the edges of shell
SHELL PLATINGthe plates forming the outer skin of the hull.
SHOREa large round wooden brace.
SKYLIGHTan opening in a deck to give light and air to the compartment
STACKlarge vertical pipe or funnelfor exit ofsmoke from boilers.
PIPEvertical pipe in oil or water tank used to measure depffi
of liquid in tank.
SPARa long, round, wooden timber.
STABILITYtendency of a ship to remain upright.
STANCHIONa pillar or upright post, a pillar.
STAPLINGcollars, forged of angle bars, to fit around continuous members
passingthrough bulkheads, forwater tightness.
STARBOARDthe right-hand side of the ship when looking from aft
for-ward. Opposite to port.
STEALERa strake of shell plating that does not extend completely to
the bow or stern.
GEARapparatus for controlling the rudder.
STEMforging or casting forming extreme bow of ship, extending from
keel to forecastle deck.
STERNafter end of ship.
FRAMElarge casting attached to after end of keel to form ship's
stern. Includes rudder post, propellerpost, and aperture for propeller.
STIPFENERan angle bar, T-bar, channel, etc., used to stiffen plating of a bulkhead, etc.
WATERcanvas and red lead or other material fitted between two
metal parts to
STRAKEa fore and aft course or row of shell or otherplating.
STRINGERa fore and aft continuous member used to give longitudinal strength. According to location are called hold stringers, bilge stringers, side stringers, etc.
STRUTa heavy arm or brace.
TOPthe inner bottom.
TELEGRAPHmeans of signalling from bridge to engine room, etc.
PLATEa single fore and aft course of plating attached to deck beams
under wood deck to give extra strength.
TILLERarm attached to rudder head for operating rudder.
TRANSOMthe aftermost transverse frame.
TRANSVERSEathwartships, at right angles to the keel.
FRAMESvertical athwartship members forming the ship's
TRIMamount ship is off from an even keel.
HOMEan inboard sloping of the ship's side above the level of greatest beam.
DECKthe highest complete deck.
UPTAKEconnection between boilers and smoke stack.
KEELrow of plating extending vertically along center of flat
plate keel. Sometimes called center keelson.
VENTILATORa device for furnishing fresh air to compartments below
WAYStimbers, etc., on which a ship is built or launched. See launching.
LINEthe line of the water's edge when the ship is afloat.
WATERTIGHTso riveted or calkedas to preventthepassage ofwater.
WATERWAYa narrow passage along the edge of the deck for the
drain-age of the deck.
DECKa deck with no overhead protection.
WEBthe verticalportion of abeam, thethwartship portion ofa frame, etc.
FRAMEa frame with a deep web.
WELDINGmaking a joint of two metal parts by fusing more metal in
WINCHa small hoisting engine.
WINDLASSthe machine used to hoist the anchors.
YARDa horizontal, thwartship, spar fitted to a mast.
After reading this booklet through carefully at
youto the shipyard.
noon houror after working
hours take it onto the ship
andlocate each part mentioned in the
Youwill thus quickly get the whole subject fixed inyour
youhave learned the
namesof all the parts
men-tioned, carry the booklet in your pocket so that
youcan refer to it
RETURN TOthe circulation
University of California Library
or to the
University of California
be rechargedby bringing