HOLIDAYS HOMEWORK Subject: PSYCHOLOGY CLASS - XII

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HOLIDAYS HOMEWORK

Subject: PSYCHOLOGY

CLASS - XII

CHAPTER 1 - VARIATIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES

1. Differentiate between psychometric and information processing approach to intelligence. (2)

2. Explain Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. (6) 3. Describe structure-of-intellect model. (3)

4. Describe Jensen's hierarchical model of intelligence.* LevelI*Level II (3)

5. Explain Triarchic theory of intelligence. (include*definition of intelligence by Sternberg *three types of intelligences: componential, contextual and experiential. Explanation of each of the three types of intelligences and diagram). (6)

6. What is cognitive assessment system? (2)

7. Explain the influence of nature and nurture on intelligence. (*Nature/heredity: studies on identical twins reared together, studies of, identical twins separated in early childhood,

fraternal twins reared together, brothers and sisters reared together, siblings reared

apart,studies of adopted children. *Nurture/environment: intelligence level moves closer to the adoptive parents, studies on children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families with higher socioeconomic status, studies on environmental deprivation. *intelligence is a product of complex interaction. Give examples.) (6)

8. How can we classify intelligence tests? (*on the basis of administration:individual or group tests*on the basis of the nature of items: verbal, non-verbal or performance*on the basis of whether the test favours one culture over other:culture-fair or culture-biased. Give names of test for each criteria.) (6)

9. The IQ of a 6 year old boy with MA 8 is………… (1) 10. The MA of an 8 year old boy with IQ=80 is…………. (1)

11. Define emotional intelligence. Describe the characteristics of emotionally intelligent persons. (*definition: “the ability to monitor one's own and other's emotions, *characteristics: Box 1.2) (4)

12. Describe PASS model of intelligence. (*By J.P. Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby (1994) Interdependent functioning of 3 neurological systems - Arousal/attention, simultaneous and successive processing and planning (description of each) (6)

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13. Desribe the theory of Primary Mental Abilities. (4) 14. Explain Uni-factor theory of intelligence. (2)

15. How are creativity and intelligence related? (*study of Terman in 1920s, *intelligence does not ensure creativity, *relationship between intelligence and creativity is positive, *a certain level; of intelligence is required for creativity but beyond that intelligence does not correlate well with creativity) (6)

16. Differentiate between integral and technological intelligence. (*technological intelligence: foster skills of generalization, abstraction, speed, minimal moves, and mental manipulation, attention,observation, analysis, performance, *integral intelligence: emphasis on connectivity with the social and world environment;Views intelligence from a holistic perspective ) (4) 17. Explain concept of 'Buddhi' in the context of Indian tradition. (*skills included in Buddhi 18. *affective and motivational components) (3)

19. How are programs aimed at improving emotional intelligence are beneficial for the students? (*characteristic of emotionally intelligent persons, *effects on academic

achievement, *encourage cooperative behaviour and reduce their antisocial activities, *helpful in preparing students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom) (6)

20. How is interest different from aptitude?Which of the two is important in deciding about one's career? (3)

21. Explain the concept of “giftedness”. (* Terman's work, giftedness, prodigies, savant and characteristics of gifted children. Enrichment programs in school.) (4)

22. All persons don't have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals differ in the intellectual ability? Explain in detail about intellectual deficiency? (4-6)

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CHAPTER 2 - SELF AND PERSONALITY

1. Differentiate between Personal identity and Social identity. (*Personal identity: attributes of a person that make him/her different from others (You);Social identity: those aspects of a person that link him or her to a socialor cultural group or are derived from it;ex-I am a Hindu).

2. Define: Self-esteem, Self-efficacy and Self-regulation. 3. Define Personality.

4. Describe any three techniques of self-control.

5. Differentiate between type, trait and interactional approaches to personality. 6. 6 Describe the characteristics of Type-a, Type-B, Type-C and Type-Dpersonalities. 7. Describe the trait theories of Allport and Cattell.

8. Describe Eysenck's theory of personality. 9. What are the three levels of consciousness?

10. Differentiate between reality principle and pleasure principle. 11. Differentiate between life instinct and death instinct.

12. Describe the structure (components) of personality proposed by Freud. 13. Describe Freud's theory of Psychosexual development.

14. Give criticisms of psychodynamic theories.

15. Explain humanistic approach to personality in detail. 16. Give criticisms of self-report measures.

1. 7. Explain the nature of projective techniques. How do they overcome the limitations of self-report measures? Describe any two projective techniques in detail.

2. 18. Give any three limitations of observation and interviews. 3. 19. Give any two limitations of behavioural ratings.

4. 20. What are defense mechanisms? Describe any two defense mechanisms with the help of suitable examples.

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APPLICATION-BASED QUES FROM CH-2

1. Avinash is pursuing B.Tech under parents' pressure though he always aspired to be a photographer.Using Carl Rogers' terminology, describe the state of his self.

*real self-B.Tech

*ideal self- photographer

*Discrepancy between real and ideal self - dissatisfaction and unhappiness

2. Arihant wants to become a singer even though he belongs to a family of doctors. Though his family members claim to love him but strongly disapprove his choice of career.Using Carl Rogers' terminology describe the attitudes shown by Arihant's family. Conditional positive regard

*no empathy

3. How can we overcome the limitation of self-report measures?

*limitations of self-report measures advantages of projective techniques over self-report measures

5. Nature of projective techniques

6. Vishesh is very disciplined and particular about his moral principles.He adheres to these principles at the cost of the fulfillment of his desires. Which part of his personality is predominant?

*superego (morality;inernalising the parental authority)

7. A 16 year old boy is demanding a bike from his parents. But, the parents are not in a position to fulfil his demand. The boy went to his room and started throwing

tantrums.Which part of his personality is predominanthere? Also name the defense mechanism used.

id (pleasure principle)(does not care for moral values………) 4. Defense mechanism-regression

8. Rahul is not liking his lunch. But he likes magi which Rohan has got. Rahul wants to grab Rohan's lunch box to eat maggi. But, he then

5. Decides to request Rohan for the magi. Which part of Rahul's personality is predominant, according to Freud?

6. *Ego (id-grab the lunch box) (superego-eat one's own lunch) 7. Ego (request for the magi)

9. Rohan does not hesitate to do any new task. He has the belief that he can do anything just right. He also believes in evaluating himself to improve upon his performance.Describe the state of his self. high self-esteem. High self-efficacy, high self-regulation,

selfinstruction and self-reinforcement. Observation of own behaviour 1. Give one example of each:

Projection enial Reaction formation Rationalization

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Regression Fixation

2. Describe the importance of defence mechanisms. *to avoid anxiety………..

To defend the ego………(pg 35)

Helps the ego to deal with uncomfortable feelings produced by anxiety (pg 36) 3. How is Freduian approach different from those of the PostFreudians?

* Freudian Post-Freudian(neo-analytic)

Focus primarily on sex and aggression less focus on sex and aggression Focus on id, ego and superego expanded the concept of ego

Emphasizes abnormal behavior emphasizes the human qualities of creativity, competence and problem solving abilities Biological orientation social and cultural orientation (like Horney and Erich Fromm)(elaborate these points

CHAPTER 3 (MEETING LIFE CHALLENGES)

1. Define stress.

2. Differentiate between eustress and distress.

3. Describe Lazarus' theory of appraisal. Differentiate between primary and secondary appraisal. On what factors does appraisal depend?

4. Describe the various types of stress.

5. Describe four sources of psychological stress. 6. Describe any three sources of stress.

7. Describe the effects of stress on psychological functioning and health. Define burnout. 8. Give Hans Selye's definition of stress. Critically evaluate GAS model of stress.

9. Define coping.

10. Describe the coping strategies given by Endler and Parker.

11. Explain any four stress management techniques. 12. Explain any four life skills to alleviate stress. 13. Describe the aims of positive psychology. 14. Describe any three human virtues.

15. Explain” hedonistic pursuit is not enough and one must try to have meaning in life.” 16. Differentiate between adaptation and adjustment.

17. You have lost your family in a disastrous earthquake. With regard to Lazarus' theory, how would you appraise this situation? *pg 52; primary and secondary appraisal

18. Manikaran lost his house in the Mumbai floods. Describe his psychological and

physiological state. *psychological state(include emotional, cognitive and behavioural effects of stress)\Physiological state-pg.57

19. Rohan has lost his job in Jan, 2010.In March, 2010, his wife died of dengue. In May, 2010, he was diagnosed with ulcer. Describe his physiological condition in reference to GAS.

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