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Sarah Hanson

Anatomy of a Monument

19 November 2010

Source: Henry Moore Institute Online Papers and Proceedings

www.henry-moore.org/hmi

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings, an online publishing facility bringing you the most recent developments in sculpture studies from both inside and outside the Institute. Here you'll find proceedings from many of the Institute's international conferences as well as the latest research from both up-and-coming and established scholars.

Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author. Contact: research@henry-moore.org

The Henry Moore Institute is a world-recognised centre for the study of sculpture in the heart of Leeds. An award-winning exhibitions venue, research centre, library and sculpture archive, the Institute hosts a year-round programme of exhibitions, conferences and lectures, as well as developing research and publications, to expand the understanding and scholarship of historical and

contemporary sculpture. The Institute is a part of The Henry Moore Foundation, which was set up by Moore in 1977 to encourage appreciation of the visual arts, especially sculpture.

To subscribe our newsletter email: newsletter@henry-moore.org www.twitter.com/HMILeeds

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Sarah Hanson

Anatomy of a Monument

In his 1970 essay ‘The Urban Revolution’, Henri Lefebvre writes “[The monument] is the only conceivable or imaginable site of collective (social) life. It controls people, yes, but does so to bring them together... Monuments project onto the land a conception of the world, whereas the city projected (and continues to project) social life... Throughout their height and depth, along a dimension that was alien to urban trajectories, they proclaimed duty, power, knowledge, joy, hope.”1This statement considers the monument in terms of social function and the relationship between people and public sculpture, which essentially belongs to the town it inhabits.

The Leeds City War Memorial is a continuous presence in the lives of the city’s people. Many encounter the memorial on a near-daily basis, en route to work, the library, the art gallery, church, court, or to one of the many pubs in the area. It is situated at a main crossing point for Leeds citizens and tourists alike, with many stopping to take photographs or admire the year-round display of poppy wreaths. However, if any of these individuals were to ponder the origin of the monument they would be presented with history books and web pages containing skeletal information, limited dates and one or two names. This does not account for how such a monument came to fruition. This tendency of art history to credit the sculptor as the singular creator detracts from the intricate and involved nature of sculpture as a practice.

The idea of an ‘anatomy of a monument’ is to dissect the components of the memorial, to address each part individually, to discover those involved in the memorial’s creation and evolution, from

commission through to installation. The aim is to account for every contributing party at each stage of the process, from funding bodies, suppliers and contractors to sculptors, assistants and models.

Tracking significant events and modifications since the initial unveiling of the memorial is additionally revelatory.

As it exists today the Leeds City War Memorial is situated on the Headrow in the city centre, in the specially designed Garden of Rest, and serves to commemorate the servicemen lost in World Wars I and II. The memorial is encircled by protective railings, within which wreaths of poppies lie. At the base of the monument is pavement flagging consisting of Yorkshire Hardstone, from Lightcliffe Quarries, Yorkshire, and Crosland Moor Stone, supplied by George Graham & Sons & Co. Ltd., Crofthouse Quarries in Huddersfield, Yorkshire. The two types of Yorkshire stone at the base are separated by green slate tiles, from Tilberthwaite Green Slate Co., Kendal. The body of the memorial

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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is Carrara marble, with four steps supporting a plinth and obelisk.

Two of the original three bronze figures remain to this day. A statue of St George slaying the dragon, representing War, and a draped female figure of Peace appear on the front and back of the monument. The bronze Winged Victory, which originally crowned the memorial, has since been replaced by a bronze statue of the Angel of Peace. Carved owls appear on each of the four corners of the obelisk, symbolising the City Arms of Leeds. Flags carved from marble, representing the local colours, are draped on the right- and left- hand faces of the truncated pyramid body, positioned above marble wreaths. Inscriptions honouring the fallen are carved on the memorial. ‘Pro Patria’ (‘For One’s Country’) appears on the front face of the obelisk, below the bronze statue of St George. The right- and left-hand faces, below the marble wreaths, feature ‘To Honour The Fallen’ and ‘Our Glorious Dead’ respectively. The dates of both World Wars are commemorated on the back face of the memorial, with the words ‘Invictis Pax’ (‘Peace to the Undefeated’) below the bronze figure of Peace.

How can we discover how public sculpture is created? Local archival services now hold a wealth of original documents, in addition to published literature and web pages. Libraries often feature sections dedicated to local history such as council committees, projects, yearbooks and newspapers. Obtaining first-hand accounts on the creation of early twentieth-century public sculpture is not always a viable option, so one is reliant on these archived documents, press cuttings and original images to tell the story. The personal insights of war veterans serve to illustrate the poignancy of the memorial even today, however such accounts are usually void of any technical or factual data in relation to the subject.

The research undertaken focused on documents held by local institutions, published literature and online information. The West Yorkshire Archive Service is in possession of many of the original documents pertaining to the creation, unveiling and early life of the memorial. The Local History department at Leeds Central Library holds further original documents, press cuttings and council minutes relating to the monument. Leodis, the online website dedicated to the history of Leeds, is a useful tool for discovering the basics with accompanying images; however, it can be factually flawed and does not give the most in-depth information. Similarly, there are published history books taking memorials as the subject, although again these are limited in the details they are able to provide. One unique element of the history of the memorial is the relatively recent addition of the Angel of Peace bronze, which crowns the monument today. This has afforded direct discussion with the sculptor involved, which will be presented in more detail in due course.

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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An excellent starting resource when researching the history of a memorial is the UK National Inventory of War Memorials, a catalogue containing basic data, including the date of creation, key individuals involved and a physical description, including dimensions, materials and inscriptions.2 However, upon further investigation into the memorial, the factual integrity of the information published by UKNIWM has been brought into question. The coverage by the local press from 1918 to 1922 included more information than any other source on the plans for the memorial, the parties involved and funding bodies, and is held by the Leeds Central Library in a book of press cuttings specifically relating to the War Memorial.3

The details of those involved in constructing a war memorial can usually be found in reports or staff wage books, neither of which were deposited with the West Yorkshire Archives Service. However, the documents held in the archive feature a wealth of factual data on the construction and unveiling of the monument, including correspondence, newspaper cuttings and plans dating from 1918-1921. Original documents pertaining to the unveiling in 1922 are in abundance, including tickets, programmes and arrangements for the day. The archives also contain the original Town Clerk Agreement relating to the relocation of the War Memorial in 1937. The agreement includes a 230-point ‘Bill of Quantities’ document, which details the instructions given by Leeds Council to the Contractor, who in return has given an estimated cost for each point. It also provides measurements, specific materials with nominated suppliers and a deadline of 8 May 1937. In this respect it is a vital and informative document relating to the history of the memorial. It does not however, specify the names of the workers and craftsmen involved, other than the Architect.4From these articles it was possible to begin to compile a detailed timeline of events, a list of the public subscriptions, the major protagonists, the unveiling ceremony and the early life of the memorial.5

The history of the Leeds City War Memorial is complex and diverse. Delving underneath the surface, one finds a story replete with politics, funding restrictions and town planning changes. Following the Great War, many towns and cities instigated plans for the erection of a war memorial. Leeds was no exception and in January 1920 the Lord Mayor TB Duncan issued a letter to the public to confirm this intention and to make an appeal for funds.6This was prior to the announcement of any design scheme however, which may have been a contributing factor to the lack of public response for donations that followed.

On 28 March 1920, a report was submitted to the council by the architect Sir Reginald Blomfield with a proposition for the memorial. A response was issued from the Town Clerk’s office inviting

Blomfield to meet with the War Memorial Committee and correspondence to this effect, dated 1 June

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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1920, was sent to members of the Committee confirming the date of the meeting to be Thursday 10 June.7 In time for the meeting Blomfield submitted the official plans for the memorial, to be situated on Cookridge Street in the city centre, with an estimated cost of £55,000.8 Stylistically, Blomfield championed the work of William Hamo Thornycroft, particularly Thornycroft’s frieze for the Institute of Chartered Accountants building in London (1889-1892).The frieze was described by Blomfield as “the most remarkable and successful instance of the combination of architecture and sculpture carried out in England in this century”.9

As a result of the Committee meeting Blomfield’s design, dubbed ‘the Cookridge Street scheme’, was generally approved by the council and instructions were given for the designs to be placed in the City Art Gallery for public inspection. The Town Clerk’s office issued correspondence dated 25 June 1920, inviting members of the council to a public viewing of the design to gauge the general opinion of the project.10Whilst the public continued to donate money to fund the memorial, it was becoming evident that the required £55,000 would not be raised.

Colonel Thomas Walter Harding, a former Lord Mayor of Leeds, was proud of the city and felt

passionately about the development of the war memorial. Harding would subsequently reinvigorate the plans with a new scheme for the monument. Born in Leeds in 1843, he was a prominent civic figure. Having been educated at Leeds Grammar School, he succeeded his father as proprietor of Tower Works, a textile-pin manufacturer in Holbeck. Harding made a considerable contribution to the cultural life of Leeds. He was a founder of the City Art Gallery, which he officially opened on 3 October 1888, and to which he donated several paintings. He commissioned the sculptor Thomas Brock to create a statue of the Black Prince, which he presented to Leeds and is situated in City Square. In 1893 Harding was given the title of Honorary Colonel by the Leeds Artillery Volunteers, following 33 years of military service. He served as Lord Mayor of Leeds in 1898-99, became a Freeman of the City in 1903 and died in 1927.

Colonel Harding expressed an early interest in the plans for a memorial in a letter to the Yorkshire Post, dated 28 January 1919. He wrote of the importance of commemorating the fallen, “Let us have something that shall be a lasting memorial to the sacrifices which were made by our citizens in a great and noble cause, and which shall inspire later generations with lofty ideals of citizenship, of patriotism, of freedom and international justice.”11When in 1920 it was clear that the funds for the ambitious Cookridge Street scheme would not be raised, and having grown frustrated by the resulting delays, Harding embarked on a personal venture to ensure the success of the monument. He made several visits to Leeds, the first of which on 17 September 1920 as reported by the local presses, to discuss the

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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ailing plans. His second visit on 25 November saw Harding present a sketchbook of designs to the local council and the next day, the press printed the initial details of Harding’s proposal.

In an article dated 27 January 1921 the new scheme was officially announced in the Yorkshire Post, complete with illustrations of the proposed memorial.12This offered a comprehensive description of the planned design and confirmed the estimated cost of the monument to be £5,000, “...a sum which it is thought, should be easily raised in Leeds.” In the space of a few weeks, Harding had achieved what Blomfield had not, and had remedied the situation by presenting a scheme that Leeds could afford.

On 2 February 1921, the Lord Mayor Albert Braithwaite issued a letter to the public subscribers advising that the original Cookridge Street scheme designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield would no longer go ahead due to lack of funds, and inviting the recipient to an exhibition of the new proposal at Leeds City Art Gallery.13A fresh appeal was made by the Lord Mayor’s office for public

subscriptions. Whilst press reports confirm that £6, 819 had already been donated, the costs of

adopting the new scheme saw the total decrease by almost half. The sculptor named for the project was Henry Charles Fehr, of London, and in a letter dated 2 March 1921, Fehr officially agreed to execute the memorial and provided the Lord Mayor with a quote for £5,000.14

The son of a Swiss merchant, Henry Charles Fehr was born in Forest Hill, London, on 4 November 1867. He studied at the City of London school and at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1885 onwards and gained experience as a studio assistant to the sculptor Thomas Brock from 1889-93. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1887 and continued to do so for 50 years. In 1904 he was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. Fehr specialised in monumental sculpture and received many commissions for war memorials and portrait busts throughout his career. In addition to the Cenotaph in Leeds, Fehr was responsible for memorials in Colchester, Burton-on-Trent,

Eastbourne, Portsmouth and Keighley. In 1898 Fehr created a statue of James Watt, situated in Leeds City Square alongside his statue of John Harrison, dated 1903. Fehr died in London on 13 May 1940.

By May 1921, the funds for the memorial totaled £5,368 and work officially began, with an initial estimate of twelve months until completion. In May 1922 the presses reported that Henry Fehr had completed his part of the work for the monument, with the Council awaiting the bronze figures, cast at a Milan foundry, and the dressing of the Carrara marble for the pedestal and the truncated pyramid body. The details of the marble supplier and the sculptor responsible for carving of the marble were omitted from local press coverage. This information was uncovered when referencing the

correspondence held by the West Yorkshire Archives.

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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In a letter dated 12 April 1921 Henry Fehr accepted an estimate of £1850, for supplying the marble, from Arthur Guttridge & Co., marble, granite and stone merchants, a company established in 1890 and based at 134 Cheapside in London. This letter suggested that Carlo Magnoni would provide A.

Guttridge & Co. with a quote for carving the marble, further correspondence confirms Magnoni as the marble sculptor.15 Carlo Domenico Magnoni was born in Brescia, Italy in 1871. He came to London in 1901, where he was a member of the Italian Anarchist movement. During his years with the group Magnoni authored two pro-Italian plays, a fact which he used “in order to prove his patriotism and loyalty towards Italy and the Fascist regime.”16Magnoni worked as a sculptor in Henry Fehr’s London studio and the two men collaborated on numerous sculptural projects in addition to the Leeds War Memorial. These works include the Colchester War Memorial and the Middlesex Guildhall, now the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Magnoni also sculpted the reliefs for the Wagonner’s Memorial in Sledmere, Yorkshire, dated 1919. Magnoni married, had two children and was granted English citizenship in April 1954.17

In September 1922, it was reported that the workmen for the Council had commenced with the

assembly of the monument in situ and the unveiling was planned for Saturday 14 October 1922. In the interim period, the Lord Mayor’s office made the preparations for the unveiling ceremony, to be conducted by Viscount Lascelles, with a sermon given by Reverend B. O. F. Heyward.18 Invitations were sent to various prominent figures and the council was inundated with requests from the public for tickets to the ceremony. Many documents relating to the unveiling have survived and are held by the West Yorkshire Archives Service, including an announcement issued by the Lord Mayor’s office19 and plans for the order of procession.20

The plans for the unveiling of the memorial continued, and a letter addressed to the Lord Mayor’s office dated 6 October 1922 confirmed that Lieutenant-Colonel C. F. Tetley D.S.O., of the 7th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment, had been nominated as the Officer Commanding Troops for the unveiling. A decision had been passed to publish a Roll of Honour featuring the names of the soldiers killed, to be compiled by CE Mulholland as Secretary of the War Pensions Office.21 Special

arrangements were made for the closing of the streets for the ceremony. A proclamation by the Lord Mayor Willie Hodgson, dated 12 October 1922 and co-signed by the Chief Constable of local police, advised that City Square, Wellington Street, Aire Street and Quebec Street would be closed to all vehicular traffic.22

In addition to this correspondence, the original admission tickets, hymn sheet and the official

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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programme produced by Jowett & Sowry Ltd., a Leeds printing company, have survived and offer a unique insight into the unveiling and a detailed account of the plans for the day.23 On Saturday 14 October 1922 tens of thousands of citizens were present. It has been the centre of Remembrance Sunday ceremonies ever since.24

December 1936 saw Leeds City Council pass the decision to create a Garden of Rest, designed by the architect J. C. Proctor, on The Headrow. It was to include the City War Memorial, which was to be removed from the original location due to traffic alterations in City Square. Measures were taken by the Council to ensure it would be tastefully incorporated into the new site. On 5 February 1937 the agreement relating to the relocation of the City War Memorial was signed by William Leonard Wright as Managing Director of J. T. Wright and Sons Ltd., the building contractor in charge of the work, in the presence of the Town Clerk, Thos. Thornton, and Clerk, E. L. Rhodes. On 28 October 1937 the monument was unveiled in the completed Garden of Rest.25 The Garden was opened by the Lord Mayor Tom Coombs, following a rededication ceremony.26

The original bronze statue of Winged Victory, which surmounted the memorial, was removed for repair in 194027and was absent until being replaced in 1946. In June 1965 however, the memorial was barricaded by Leeds City Council after public reports that Winged Victory had become unstable during a gale. In July cracks were found at the base of the statue and Winged Victory was removed for reasons of safety. With a solution to the issue remaining elusive, on 31 October 1967 the truncated pyramid body was capped with marble to disguise the absence in time for Remembrance Sunday. The original statue was re-erected in Cottingley Crematorium in March 1968, where it remained until November 1988, when the condition of the bronze had deteriorated beyond repair. Only the head of the statue remains, which is on permanent display in Leeds Art Gallery.

By 1990 the monument had been capped with marble for 23 years and that October the Henry Moore Sculpture Trust announced that it would fund a new statue for the memorial, in association with Leeds City Council, which was paying for the monument to be restored. In August of that year, prior to the release of this information, the Trust had approached a locally-based sculptor, Ian Judd, and requested that he submit illustrations of his idea for a new bronze.28 In a letter dated 7 May 1991, Robert Hopper, Director of the Henry Moore Sculpture Trust, confirmed that Judd’s design for the memorial had been accepted.29Judd was born in London in 1947 and worked as a graphic designer before studying at Wimbledon School of Art. He has been working as a sculptor full-time since 1980 and in 1984 he moved to Yorkshire to set up a workshop in Leeds. His work can be seen in many locations throughout the county and he was notably commissioned to create a bronze statue of JB Priestley, the

Bradford-This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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born writer, which was unveiled on 31 October 1986 and stands outside the National Media Museum in Bradford. Judd currently lives in Yorkshire and runs a sculpture studio at the Dean Clough

regenerated mill complex in Halifax.

As the only living sculptor involved with the war memorial, Ian Judd has offered an insight largely based on anecdotal evidence and personal archived information, such as correspondence, sketches and the original maquette. Judd’s first-hand account of his experience of the process and people involved, allows for a better understanding of the complex nature of creating public sculpture - political and bureaucratic details can be discussed, and the identities of council contacts, models and studio assistants documented for posterity.

As the scheme for a new bronze figure was being funded by Leeds City Council in association with the Henry Moore Sculpture Trust, Judd, his model Lou Sumray and his studio assistant Ralph Grattan were subject to rushed deadlines and health and safety regulations, which impacted upon the finished statue in numerous ways. The bronze was to be cast at A & A Foundry, in London, and as a result of the time- limitations, the final stages were completed hurriedly, as recalled by the sculptor in an interview in September 2010:

It’s one of those things where you have to work with the foundry as well, they’ve got certain things that they have to do, that they promise to people and I had to get it down to London at a certain time so that they could make a start on it. At the end it was a last minute thing, I mean it went up a few days before. And the colour was a bit strange because they had to... put the wax on when it was still a bit warm I think, and before the patination had kind of settled down. And so there were kind of light coloured blotches and things on it...It did look a bit odd to start with, I was a bit worried.30

Further discussion in the interview revealed Judd’s conscious decision to design a bronze depicting an Angel of Peace, as opposed to a representation of Victory, and illustrated the effect of council

restrictions on the design:

If you have a look at the maquette, it’s quite stocky and the ankles are quite solid-looking. And the drapery is there to support it as well, as they were very anxious about the whole thing not falling over, because of the last one cracking at the ankles, so I made the ankles a bit on the heavy side and gave it this extra bit and that seemed to be the main thing really. Apart from the business with the flowers and everything, because they just wanted another statue, which was

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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Victory with a sword and all that. And it was my idea to do the flower thing... I thought perhaps we should have a peace statue rather than one that was celebrating war... They were going to be poppies, but poppies don’t really work on that... you don’t really have a bunch of poppies...I suppose flowers are kind of symbolic of love and peace and so they’re roses I think...31

Judd’s original sketches of the bronze, and photographs which document the sculpting process, installation and other contributing individuals, serve to enrich the story further.32The monument was rededicated on Remembrance Sunday, 10 November 1991, to commemorate the addition of the Angel of Peace. This coincided with the 70th anniversary of the British Legion Poppy Appeal. Protective railings were installed by Leeds City Council in 1997, and in November 2008 Leeds City Council spent £15,000 on restoring the memorial in time for Remembrance Sunday, commemorating 90 years since the Great War.

The Leeds City War Memorial was created as a result of many contributing parties; public and private, creative and political, individuals and companies. Today, Leeds City Council undertakes any required restoration, and the council Events Department is responsible for maintaining the display of poppy wreaths throughout the year. I have prepared some figures in order to illustrate, in summary, the findings of my research. At the very least, 347 parties were involved in the erection of the memorial from 1922 and in any modifications up until the present day. This includes:

- 291 public subscriptions from individuals, organisations and companies,33

- approximately 41 named council members and public figures involved in the initial erection in 1922, the relocation in 1937 and the addition of the Angel of Peace in 1991,

- nine confirmed suppliers, contractors, quantity surveyors and other businesses,

- and at least six named artists, sculptors, architects, craftsmen and other creative contributors, not including those who remain anonymous.34

There are some individuals whose contribution has been omitted. This total is an educated estimate based on the information featured in documents held in archives, newspaper cuttings, in books and online. It does not account for the workmen responsible for the erection of the monument on behalf of the Council, for example, or those involved in the repairs in 1940, whose names were not documented. This unknown number of individuals, in addition to those whose efforts were recorded, demonstrates the vast amount of people and organisations involved in the construction of the memorial. The following conclusion can therefore, in theory, be extended to the creation of public sculpture in general.

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

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The information recorded in the above text concerning the contributing parties has been largely excluded from history books. To investigate further is a sizable task to undertake, as I have found. The information unearthed does not fit neatly into a paragraph and in this case the whole story has never before been documented in this way. Cataloguing the facts regarding the memorial in a comprehensive manner unearths a wealth of important information about the complex nature of sculpture in general, yet in order to access these facts it is necessary to scour years of press cuttings and archived documents which only begin to unravel a fascinating history. The core aim of this project has though been

fulfilled - the confirmation of the high number of individuals involved in the creation of public sculpture.

1 From Henri Lefebvre The Urban Revolution in Jon Wood et al (eds.), Modern Sculpture Reader, The Henry Moore Institute, Leeds 2007.

2 Appendix 1-Information taken from UK National Inventory of War Memorials Webpage. 3 Appendix 2-Notes taken from Press Cuttings book, Leeds Central Library.

4 Appendix 3-Details and selected transcripts of the documents held by the WYAS. 5 Appendix 4-Timeline of the major events in the life of the War Memorial.

6 Appendix 5-Letter issued by the Mayor’s office dated January 1920 (West Yorkshire Archives). 7 Appendix 6-Letter issued by the Town Clerk dated 1 June 1920 (West Yorkshire Archives). 8 Appendix 7-Reginald Blomfield’s correspondence (West Yorkshire Archives).

9 T. Friedman et al (eds.) ‘The Alliance of Sculpture and Architecture: Hamo Thornycroft, John Belcher and the Institute of Chartered Accountants Building’ Exhibition Catalogue, Heinz Gallery, RIBA, London 14 Jan- 20 Feb 1993.

10 Appendix 8-Invitation to viewing of proposed design dated 25 June 1920 (West Yorkshire Archives). 11 Appendix 9-Col Harding letter to Yorkshire Post dated 28 January 1919 (West Yorkshire Archives). 12 Appendix 10-Article from Yorkshire Post dated 27 January 1921.

13 Appendix 11-Letter issued by Lord Mayor’s office dated 2 February 1921 (West Yorkshire Archives). 14 Appendix 12-HC Fehr Letter dated 2 March 1921 (West Yorkshire Archives).

15 Appendix 13-War Memorial Correspondence (West Yorkshire Archives).

16 Pietro Dipaola ‘Italian Anarchists in London (1870-1914)’ PhD Paper, Goldsmith’s College, April 2004, page 224.

17 Appendix 14-Carlo Magnoni Naturalisation Article (The London Gazette, 18 May 1954).

18 Appendix 15-Correspondence from Reverend Heyward with handwritten sermon (West Yorkshire Archives).

19 Appendix 16-Announcement for the Unveiling Ceremony (West Yorkshire Archives). 20 Appendix 17-Original ‘Order of Procession’ document (West Yorkshire Archives). 21 Appendix 18-Original Correspondence from the West Yorkshire Archives.

22 Appendix 19-Original ‘Closing of the Streets’ document (West Yorkshire Archives). 23 Appendix 20-Original Unveiling Ceremony documents (West Yorkshire Archives). 24 Appendix 21-Original Unveiling Ceremony photograph (West Yorkshire Archives). 25 Appendix 22-The completed Garden of Rest on the Headrow (Photograph, 1937). 26 Appendix 23-Programme cover for the opening of the Garden of Rest, 28 October 1937. 27 Appendix 24-The War Memorial under repair (Photograph, 1940).

28 Appendix 25-Letter to Ian Judd from Robert Hopper, Director of HMST. 29 Appendix 26-Letter to Ian Judd from Robert Hopper, Director of HMST.

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

Contact: research@henry-moore.org

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30 Appendix 27-Interview with Ian Judd, 9 September 2010. 31 Appendix 28-Photograph of Judd’s original maquette.

32 Appendix 29-Original sketch of Angel and original photographs.

33 Appendix 30-List of Public Subscriptions (extracted from Press Cuttings). 34 Appendix 31-Major Contributing Parties.

This article has been downloaded from the Henry Moore Institute’s collection of Online Papers and Proceedings at www.henry-moore.org/hmi. Copyright remains with the author. Any reproduction must be authorised by the author.

Contact: research@henry-moore.org

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