Thesis on The Effect of Traffic in the Performance of Employee's in Selected Companies in Metro Manila

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THE EFFECT OF TRAFFIC IN THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF SELECTED COMPANIES IN METRO MANILA FOR THE YEAR OF 2016: MODEL

FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

________________________________________

An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Business and Entrepreneurial Technology RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City

` ________________________________________

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Operations Management

By

Mary Jochelle G. Teruel Melissa Mae R. Galilo Christine Joy C. Ediezca

Sittie Aina M. Calauto Jemarie B. Portilo

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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and the Background

Introduction

Traffic is one of the biggest problem that our country is facing nowadays especially on Metro Manila where the business industry is focused on. “Metro Manila, on an urban level, was named as having the "worst traffic on Earth," based on a global evaluation conducted by Waze, a GPS-based navigation app. According to the survey, Manila, on a city level, ranked number one with the "worst traffic on Earth" with Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Jakarta not far behind. (Tan L., 2015)

The traffic congestion now plaguing the streets of Metro Manila is wreaking havoc on workers' productivity and the competitiveness of the enterprises, according to the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP)

We can view our traffic from different perspectives: longer commute time, employee absences, stress, wasted man-hours, and added fuel expenses are just some of them. But don’t take our word for it. Senator Ralph Recto estimates that the

Philippines suffers around a P2.6 billion (or $55.8 million) economic loss each day created by traffic congestion. What’s more, this figure rises to P3 billion (or $64.39 million) at the peak of the rainy season. What’s more, the country loses around 0.8% of

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its gross domestic product because of this problem, with a productivity loss of P800 billion ($18 billion) each year.

We can say without any hesitation that traffic is the most critical problem in the country right now. And with a chaotic mega-city swarmed by 12 million commuters during the day, around 367,000 vehicles (more than double its capacity) in EDSA alone, and extremely congested areas within Taft Avenue, Munoz, Katipunan Avenue, Cubao, Balintawak, and Baclaran, our traffic problem will continue to get worse if left to rot and sputter on its own. (Carmudi PH, 2016)

The fact is — traffic is even worse than before. Imagine, one vehicular accident in Market! Market! In Bonifacio Global City is enough to cause vehicles all the way from Quezon City and Marikina to be stalled in traffic for more than three hours. For sure, the public is still waiting for the solutions that could ease their daily suffering.

(Romualdez B.G., 2016)

Traffic is so prevalent in Metro Manila, particularly during weekdays were there are

many commuters especially employees of both public and private sector are affected but also for businesses as well. According to the study of Hartgen, Fields, Layzell & San Jose (2014) About 25% of employers and 38% of large employers note that managers regularly complain about traffic, particularly as it relates to employees’ late arrival to work. Employers increasingly provide opportunities for flexible work hours, try to schedule meetings at less congested times and allow employees to work from home. Passes or subsidies for transit use are less common. In order to mitigate congestion, employers suggest demand shifts, capacity improvements, the addition of signs and

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signals and transit improvements. In short, local traffic congestion is an increasingly important issue for employers, whose views should be considered in developing appropriate solutions.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

According to Talukdar (n.d.), Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative

externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due

to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport

planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework

which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible

to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal

with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic

congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport

planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers

who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion

management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this

paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the

causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common

management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply

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Research Paradigm

This study aims to know about the effects of traffic to performance of employees

Figure 1. Research Padigram

Input

Possible solutions on how avoid the traffic that encountered everyday by the employees. 1.1 Consume Time 1.2 Organize 1.3 Being responsible

The reasons of low performance of employees caused by traffic 2.1 Lack of ability 2.2 Lack of Motivation 3. Traffic causes tardiness of employees that result to bad record of the employees

Output

Improving time management of the employees to avoid traffic that causes their bad

performance.

Process

Survey

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Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to determine why the traffic congestion affects the employee’s performance. One of the problems is more complicated because social and economic issues involved creating a tangled mess that threatens the development and progress that the cities are experiencing. It seeks to answer specifically the following questions:

1. What are the possible solutions on how to avoid the traffic that encountered everyday by the employees?

2. What are the reasons of low performance of employees caused by traffic?

2.1 Lack of Motivation

2.2 Health Issues

3. Why traffic causes tardiness of employees that result to bad record of the employees?

Hypotheses

The effect of traffic in employee's performance causes a lot of stress that made them feel exhausted at the start of the day which decreased their productivity at work.

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Significance of the study

Commuters

 It will benefit the commuters to know what increase their social interaction, and can help them with their daily

Employees

 It will benefit the employees to increase their productivity, reduce workplace accident and enhance public image. Also, it help the employees to manage

their time.

Students

 It will benefit the students in improving their learning about the traffic that they can encounter every day. And to gain a better understanding in the effect of

traffic.

Drivers

 It will benefit the drivers to improve their driving skills to reduce the risks of accidents, knowing how to avoid traffic crashes, recognize potential hazards,

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Future Researchers

 It will benefit the future researchers who will also tackle the same problem in their research and also will gave them information that they can also use

Scope and delimitation

The study deals with some reasons why traffic affects employee’s performance

and these are the usual situations we see along the road as we commute. The traffic

level by frequency and severity of traffic jams, road quality and infrastructure, driver

safety based on accidents, road hazards and weather, drivers services like access to

gas stations and socio economic (world bank) including access to cars and impact of

gas prices and that’s why traffic affects employees performance because of these

different factors that results to their tardiness.

Definition of Terms

To have a better understanding of this study the following key terms are define

Frequency- is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. [1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency)

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Havoc - wide and general destruction (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/havoc)

Mitigate - to lessen in force or intensity, as wrath, grief, harshness, or pain; moderate. (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mitigate)

Plaguing -an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; pestilence. (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/plaguing)

Prevalent -widespread; of wide extent or occurrence; in general use or acceptance. (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/prevalent)

Traffic congestion - Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and

increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_congestion)

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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

This Chapter highlights the Effect of Traffic in the Performance of Employees in Selected Manufacturing Companies in Metro Manila as perceived by employees themselves. The materials presented which includes in this research are the opinions, principles, and theories of different people are obtained to relate and be used in the study.

How do we feel about traffic? That’s a no-brainer. We hate it. And we feel the same for its synonyms which all mean that we’re going to be late for work again, words like “gridlock” and “congestion”. Anyone who has ever visited, worked in or lived in the Philippines would know how bad the traffic jams are in the cities, particularly Quezon City, Manila and Makati. The main avenues of these cities and even the secondary roads are often congested, and the problems of traffic congestion had become so serious that the economy is affected in no small way. There is a reason why popular novelist Dan Brown – author of ‘The Da Vinci Code’ and ‘Angels and Demons’ –

mentioned Metro Manila’s monumental traffic jams in his book ‘Inferno’. He called Metro Manila the ‘Gates of Hell’. Traffic Problems in the Philippines and Proposed Solutions (2014)

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According to a research titled “Employer Views on Traffic Congestion” (Policy Brief 115 of the Reason Foundation, February 2014), traffic congestion is a problem not just for individual commuters but for businesses as well. While commuters are greatly

concerned over rush hour traffic, businesses are also concerned with the off-peak hour (non-rush hour) delivery of goods. It was pointed out in the research that because businesses are concerned with congestion during both time periods, their views on traffic congestion differ from those of commuters. Solving rush hour and off-peak congestion is also more challenging than merely solving rush hour congestion.

The study stated that congestion affects employers in several ways. Primarily, it affects impacts corporate activities such as shipping/receiving, logistics and distribution, client meetings and other business activities. It also limits worker availability and productivity by affecting employees’ commutes. In the Philippines, the effects of congestion on workers and employees are a sore issue. Congestion leads to workers arriving late; commuting hassles for workers, frustration/stress, long work commutes, long travel time, and loss of personal time.

In the Philippines, street, traffic or system problems are major issues. These include construction activities, accidents/incidents, inconvenient roads for customers and other causes of traffic such as safety issues, poor road design, traffic signals, and on specific roads.

In the case of Flat Planet, most of its employees live outside of Ayala, Makati where the company’s headquarters are located. Many live in the South and North of Makati, and commute daily to get to work. They have to contend with various ongoing road projects,

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the massive volume of private cars and public utility vehicles that occupy the main roads that lead to Ayala.

To avoid getting trapped in the morning rush, Flat Planet employees leave their homes at least two hours before they shift begins. Without traffic, the commute should take only an hour or an hour and half give or take. Of course, some employees still arrive late, but only for five to 10 minutes and seldom more.

Flat Planet takes a very serious stand against tardiness, as lateness is considered unprofessional. It has a biometric finger scanner and all staff are required to scan in and out at the start and end of each day. At the end of each month, those who had many late days are notified via email. (Hartgen,D,Fields M.G.,Layzell A., San Jose E.2014)

In the Philippines, you can add to the list traffic congestion in Metro Manila as another sure thing we experience every day. MMDA reported 326,504 vehicles pass through EDSA every day. 12,000 to 15,000 of them are buses. In 2015, LTO-NCR recorded a monthly average new registration of 14,783 multi-wheeled vehicles (cars, SUVs, buses and trucks) and 14,940 two-wheeled units.

According to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), traffic congestion cost the Philippines P2.4 billion every day in 2012. If remain unsolved, our country can lose P6B daily by 2030. The National Center for Transportation Studies (UP Diliman)

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time lost due to delay; fuel costs; vehicle operating costs; Impact on health; and Greenhouse gas emissions.

An average Metro Manila resident, mostly working people travelling to and from their office, spends 1,000 hours a year in traffic and wastes as much as 28,000 hours of his economic life. Wasted productivity hours amount to a monetary value that could be used for other things such as earning extra income or spending more time with the family. Joey Tibayan-Bayan, a radio reporter laments that going to and from work is such a chore. She said, “You get all dressed up looking fresh and clean, when you get on the PUVs, you disembark sweaty tired and dejected. The day has not even started yet!”

John Cueto, VP for Network and Technology, describes the Metro traffic as “tragic” because it wastes time and effort that results to low productivity. “Mompreneur” Margaux Hemady Rañosa confessed that her mother and sister were forced to rent a place in Ortigas because of the exhaustion they get from traffic and waiting for transportation to go to work. Ron Barbaza, a blogger, would sometimes allot 4 hours of travel time to go to event venues just to make sure he will not miss his gigs. BPO Manager Shawn Andrei Summers sums up his frustrations in five words, “Heavy traffic jam stresses me.”

Gretchen Filart Dublin shared that traffic is one of those reasons why she shifted to full-time freelancing because it takes her 4 hours to travel from Bulacan to her previous office in Manila. April Salonga, a Management consultant declares traffic as

“unbelievable” and getting worse because she now gets late even on weekends. Rizza Garingo, who leads a field market survey team, would sometimes utter the word

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Cheryl True, a researcher, seems to have given up in finding answers to the traffic problem and uttered, “Traffic is here to stay. It’s hopeless!”

The government has taken some initiatives in response to the worsening traffic situation and its effect especially to workers like implementing of a four-day work week scheme in some government offices and the DOLE Advisory No. 4, Series of 2010 that includes flexible work arrangements.

The People Management Association of the Philippines (PMAP), the premier

organization of HR practitioners and people managers in the country with a membership of more than 1,800 corporate and individual members, conducted a survey in one of their recent monthly meeting attended by more than 200 members. The results showed that 81% of the respondents are in favor of a 4-day work week scheme. The companies also shared that they provide benefits to their employees to lessen the effect of traffic like flexible work schedule, free shuttle, work from home option and gas allowance.

PDI talked to working people from all walks of life and asked them for suggestions on how to lessen the traffic problems that we are currently facing. The following are their responses:

Ruth Dela Cruz, IT Consultant. Local companies should start implementing work from home option especially for positions which don’t require physical reporting in the office.

Kellypad Biasong, Nurse. Improve our train system and implement a “No parking, No car” policy.

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and the government needs to fix our roads especially in flood-prone areas which worsen the traffic.

Grace Bondad Nicolas, COO of a media and PR firm. Carpooling is another solution we can consider aside from improving of our railway systems.

Raffy Pedrajita, Tech blogger. Every barangay should create a mass parking system for people who don’t have a garage. Limit car ownership per family or company and fire the current MMDA chair.

Enzo Luna, Blogger/ Photographer. If only we have a train system that works on time like in Japan then wasted time going to work or school will be eliminated. Adapting an effective system will help ease our public commuting.

John Michael Bueno, Computer Engineer. Use waterways and additional layer of roads as options for more efficient public transportations. People should see train ads in Singapore, it’s fun and educational.

Joveth Ong, Entrepreneur. Traffic management should start with LTO, LTFRB and MMDA. What are those colorum vehicles doing on the streets? For me that’s the basic and that’s the easiest way to manage the traffic.

Abdel Sabdani, Corporate Communication and Marketing Manager. Companies should be mandated to have vehicles that can pick-up and drop-off employees on designated points.

Jocelyn Alaraña Magbitang, Travel Agency Owner. Open the gates of private villages even for a limited only.

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Yenan Glorioso, Project Development Officer. Centralized transport systemis one solution. Increase the registration of vehicles 500 folds to discouraged car ownership. Saj Kamid, Research and Extension Specialist. Bus rapid transit should be considered as another mass transport mode. Re-educating the pedestrians on proper crossing, when to cross, how to use pedestrian facilities should also be considered.

Agustin John Cabredo, Government employee. I moved near my office and I ride my bicycle to go to work every day. It’s environment-friendly, cheap and good for the health. Mark Joshua Pineda, Social Media Officer. Mass transport system, proper jeepney stops.

Peter Sumile, Publisher. Install walkways and flyovers in intersections, major roads and national roads.

Adrian Marco, Programming and Production Manager. President Duterte should reprimand all “underperforming” local government officials: mayors, vice mayors and governors. Manila and Pasay are good case studies.

Jayson R. Biadog, Technical Support. Flexible work schedule for employees.

Gino Romano Santos Decipeda, Process Specialist. Phase out all vehicles 10 years old and above.

Leo Brisenio, Photographer. We need an effective and efficient transport system which should be run by the government.

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David D’Angelo, Event Organizer. Enact a congestion fee system where private vehicles will be charged per hour for using major roads which are deemed congested. Improve traffic lights and electronic system and remove incompetent traffic enforcers.

Whether we like it or not, the current traffic situation in Metro Manila will be something that we will be seeing for the years to come unless a miracle of a solution will pop out soon. While we are waiting for the antidote that will bring a lasting improvement to our roads, maybe we can still smile a little in the midst of a traffic jam and spread good vibes to our fellow motorist instead of pouting or worse, be involved in a road rage.

Or maybe we can consider the clever traffic-buster from working mom Mary Jane Dionela, who recently migrated from Pasig City to Davao City, who suggested, “Zipline please!” (Mamuyac R.2016)

Metro Manila (CNN Philippines) — Traffic can be deadly. A new study by the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals about 7 million people die every year due to air pollution. In Southeast Asia, most of this air pollution comes from traffic in highly urbanized areas. Air pollution is an "invisible killer," WHO Director Maria Neira said. It accounts for a third of deaths from lung cancer and stroke, a quarter of deaths from heart disease, and as much as half of child deaths from pneumonia. On top of that, she said, air pollution can also give people chronic illnesses, which can be expensive to treat and can decrease the quality of their lives for years.

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Jiao, C. (2016, September 14) (Traffic is main source of deadly air pollution in Southeast Asia - WHO)

According to The Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) It mirror's the

situation by saying that the length of time a worker spends on commuting has lessened productivity. “The productivity of workers is affected, because it now takes an average of three hours for a worker in Metro Manila to travel to work and another three to four hours to travel back home," TUCP spokesperson Alan Tanjusay said in a separate interview.

"Productivity has been greatly lessened," he said.

"Since there are no dramatic changes implemented by the government to enhance the mass transport logistics and scenario in the past 14 years of the Arroyo and Aquino administrations, we can only imagine the unquantifiable ordeal workers are going through," Tanjusay noted.

As a result of the poor mass transport service, the TUCP has been calling on

government and employers since 2012 to implement a flexible working time for state and private sector employees.

Because of the gridlock, what is usually a 15-minute drive may last up to two hours, according to online financial platform MoneyMax.ph.

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A long commute due to traffic makes workers less productive. Studies have shown that a strenuous commute increases the likeliness of irritability and fatigue which decreases a person’s performance on the job, MoneyMax added.

Cabuenas, J.V. (2015, December 11) Longer Commute, Equals Less Productivity

Roads, vehicles, people, and institutions. These are the top four reasons behind the traffic crisis affecting Metro Manila.

"Part of the problem is that people are so impatient and people don't follow rules," said Ma. Sheilah Napalang, director of the National Center for Transportation Studies.

According to Napalang, the government should prioritize improving the country's mass public transport system, which includes railway and bus rapid transit. She added that the premium P2P bus service is a good first step, as it gives another option for

commuters, and encourages private car owners to leave their cars at home.

She added that even with road repairs and improvements, Metro Manila "will burst at the seams" as private vehicles continue to increase.

"We can no longer sustain so many private vehicles on the road. We will burst at the seams, even if we do make third, fourth, fifth level EDSA," Napalang said.

Pascual,J. (2016, August17) What causes Metro Manila traffic gridlock?

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1. Delays

The first thing many people think of when it comes to congested roadways is the delay. During the morning commute there is additional stress because delays caused by traffic can make people late for work. And at the end of the day, the afternoon rush hour is again a frustrating time because the workday is done and people want to get home to relax, and traffic is preventing it. These delays are the effects most people feel because they are universal to everyone who has to maneuver through congested roads.

2. “Just In Case" Time

A secondary effect of traffic congestion related to delays is the inability to estimate travel times. Those who regularly travel congested areas know approximately how long it usually takes to get through a particular area depending on the time of day or the day of the week. These experienced city drivers have to build in time "just in case" the traffic is bad. This takes away from leisure time and time to do other tasks throughout the day. Also, on a day when the traffic is unusually light the built in extra time may be of no use and the person arrives too early.

3. Fuel Consumption And Pollution

The stopping and starting in traffic jams burns fuel at a higher rate than the smooth rate of travel on the open highway. This increase in fuel consumption costs commuters additional money for fuel and it also contributes to the amount of emissions released by the vehicles. These emissions create air pollution and are related to global warming.

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4. Road Rage

Road rage is a senseless reaction to traffic that is common in congested traffic areas. If someone is not driving as fast as the person behind him thinks he should, or someone cuts in front of someone else it can lead to an incident that is dangerous to the offender and those around him on the road. Road rage often manifests itself as shouting

matches on the road, intentional tailgating, retaliatory traffic maneuvers and mostly a lack of attention being paid to the traffic around the people involved. It is basically a temper tantrum by frustrated drivers in traffic. (Lee,M n.d.)

According to Gilbert Felongco in an article posted on Gulf News, congestion appears to be worsening in the Philippines as wealthier Filipinos buy more vehicles and enjoy their improved spending power.

Arsenio Balisacan, Director General of the National Economic Development Authority, said that the Philippines loses P2.4 billion (Dh204 million) per day in potential income as a result of traffic congestion problems and lost productivity.

Also, for a minute, suppose that 30,000 vehicles pass through each of main roads every day and each vehicle is able to save one liter of fuel per day due to congestion

reduction. If fuel is priced an average of P45 /L, then this is easily equivalent to savings of 1,425,000 P per day per road. For 12 roads and assuming to include only travel on weekdays, the total savings per year can be computed as P4.212 billion.

In response to constantly mounting criticism, however, the Philippine government said that relief is underway. It said that the main focus of efforts is to ease traffic flow in

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EDSA, Metro Manila’s main thoroughfare. There is also a campaign to remove

unregistered buses from city roads, and to move the terminals of provincial buses away from EDSA. The government plans to build the north and south terminal so that buses plying provincial routes do not have to take the EDSA route.

Based on reports, Metro Manila’s last major road rehabilitation program was

implemented some 20 years ago. Various peripheral improvements in the metropolis have been implemented since then, but population growth and the commercial and economic development have also ensured that more business establishments use EDSA than ever before.

Compounding the road situation in Metro Manila the poor drainage system. Whenever the rains come, commuters are often trapped for long hours in traffic. Spokespersons from the Department of Public Works and Highways said that it was doing flood

mitigation plans for Metro Manila. The government targets to pave all national roads by 2015-2016.

While total reduction of congestion is next to impossible in the Philippines, consistent and serious efforts to improve transportation infrastructure for Metro Manila including much delayed mass transport systems can translate to genuine benefits. Such benefits include increased productivity and perhaps a healthier metropolitan population who have to contend with less stress and air pollution.

The business community in the Philippines is all for investing on transportation infrastructure to reduce congestion and lower costs associated with traffic jams.

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Continued procrastination over road and other infrastructure projects that should have been implemented long before will only leader to higher productivity losses.

Synthesis

The research is a collaboration of the different materials such as thesis, articles, and journals. The concepts and theories that are cited will be useful and vital in this study for it supports and guides us, as researchers, toward the fulfillment of the desired output. The cited research will give us a critical and comprehensive analysis, different information and additional explanation about the assigned research topic.

Based on the different theories of experts, traffic is really a major issue for individuals especially to those who are working and needed to go to their workplace early because no one wants to be tardy as always.

Many commuters got sick about the traffic that they encountered every day. It is inevitable since the road, highways, and such are not quite wide enough to lessen the traffic since there are lots of different kinds of vehicles especially to those employees who uses their own vehicle and those employees that commutes to their work every day. Well, traffic is non-measurable. And that is so hard even if an employee has his or her own vehicle or none, and also harder to employees that came from far-flung

locations. So they must adjust their time since traffic in Metro Manila is never adjustable.

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Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the research design, research participants, population frame and sampling scheme, research instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical measures that were applied in the investigation for the analysis and interpretation of data.

Research Design

The current undertaking a descriptive analysis of data as it tried to come up with a profile of The Effect of Traffic in the Performance of Employees of Selected Companies in Metro Manila for the year of 2016. Being descriptive, it tries to describe how traffic congestion is perceived by the employees that encounters traffic jams everyday

Participants of the Study

The participants of the study were supervisor/managers and/or employees of manufacturing companies in Metro Manila. We prepare some question/s for them to be answered.

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Population Frame and Sampling Scheme

The researchers will used 400 employees from different manufacturing companies in Metro Manilla.

In statistical terms a random sample is a set of items that have been drawn from a population in such a way that each time an item was selected, every item in the population had an equal opportunity to appear in the sample. In practical terms, it is not so easy to draw a random sample. First, the only factor operating when a given item is selected, must be chance. (https://www.animatedsoftware.com/statglos/sgrandsa.htm)

The researchers will used random sampling for the results would be unbiased and it has the characteristic that as the sample size progresses, the sample size approaches true values of the population.

Research Instrument

The researchers will used the Likert Scale method, according to Study.com

A Likert scale is a psychological measurement device that is used to gauge attitudes, values, and opinions. It functions by having a person complete a questionnaire that requires them to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of statements. The Likert scale is named after its creator, Rensis Likert, who developed it in 1932. In survey research, Likert scales are the most commonly used type of scale. In the example earlier, those who completed Jake's survey had five different options to choose from to indicate the extent to which they agree with each statement.

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Validation of the Instrument

The instrument will be validated by

Data Gathering Procedures

The researchers sought the permission of the persons in the authority before the questionnaires for making surveys will be given directly to the respondents. The respondents did their role for answering the questionnaires cooperatively that the researchers did not find any difficulty or bad instances in securing data from them.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data that are obtained from the respondents were tabulated systematically in order understand the correct information related to each element of the target population.

This study will utilize statistical method to answer the research problems.

Weighted Mean will be used to present the respondents’ perception of the administrators and tourists when it comes to traffic congestion.

Xw=

wx

w Where: ´ XW = weighted mean x = values of the items in the distribution w = weight of the items in the distribution

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Survey form: How does Traffic Congestion affect your productivity?

Directions: Please Read and Encircle the number that indicates to what extent you

Agree or Disagree

1.) Do you think traffic nowadays greatly affect your productivity at work Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

2.) Are you always late because of traffic going to your work?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

3.) Don you think there are negative effects of traffic with your health Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

4.) Do you think the government is giving enough effort to solve the traffic? Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

5.) Do you think there are enough Jeepney’s and busses?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

6.) Do you commute everyday going to your work?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

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7.) Are you stressed because of traffic jam you experience every day? Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

8.) Do you think pollution affect your health?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

9.) Does better performance of employees help the business to prosper? Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

10. Does being stuck at traffic greatly affect you?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5

Figure

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References

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