Evolution of Primitive Dwellings

Full text

(1)

E

VOLUTION

OF

P

RIMITIVE

D

WELLINGS

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P

REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 Early humans are often thought of as dwelling in

caves, largely because that is where we find traces of them.

 The flints they used, the bones they gnawed, even

their own bones - these lurk for ever in a cave but get scattered or demolished elsewhere.

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P

REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 Caves are winter shelter.

 On a summer's day, which of us chooses to remain inside?

The response of our ancestors seems to have been the same.

 But living outside, with the freedom to roam widely for the

purposes of hunting and gathering, suggests the need for at least a temporary shelter.

 And this, even at the simplest level, means the beginning of

(4)

P

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WELLINGS

 The modern history of the cave homes in Spain's

northern Andalucia stretches back hundreds of years.

 If you wander the hills and valleys surrounding Galera

you will be amazed to see just how many abandoned cave houses there are.

 Just forty years ago almost all of these rather

primitive dwellings were inhabited and it is only since then that they have been abandoned.

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P

REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 Confronted with the need for a shelter against sun

or rain, the natural instinct is to lean some form of protective shield against a support - a leafy

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P

REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 If there is no tree trunk available, the branches

can be leant against each other, creating the inverted V-shape of a natural tent.

 The bottom of each branch will need some support

to hold it firm on the ground.

 Maybe a ring of stones.

Large Yakut conical birch bark summer tent similar to ancient Yakut Urasa

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REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 The first reliable traces of human dwellings, found

from as early as 30,000 years ago, follow precisely these logical principles.

 There is often a circular or oval ring of stones, with

evidence of local materials being used for a tent-like roof.

Prehistoric home unearthed in Scotland

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REHISTORIC

D

WELLINGS

 Such materials may be reeds daubed with mud in

wet areas; or, in the open plains, mammoth bones and tusks lashed together to support a covering of hides.

 A good example of such an encampment, from

about 25,000 years ago, has been found at Dolni Vestonice in eastern Europe.

(9)

F

ROM

T

ENTS

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OUND

HOUSES

:

8000 BC

 Once human beings settle down to the business of

agriculture, instead of hunting and gathering, permanent settlements become a factor of life.

 The story of architecture can begin.

 The tent-like structures of earlier times evolve

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OUND

HOUSES

:

8000 BC

 Jericho is usually quoted as the earliest known town.  A small settlement here evolves in about 8000 BC into

a town covering 10 acres.

 And the builders of Jericho have a new technology -

bricks, shaped from mud and baked hard in the sun.

 In keeping with a circular tradition, each brick is

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F

ROM

T

ENTS

TO

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OUND

HOUSES

:

8000 BC

 The round tent-like house reaches a more complete form in

Khirokitia, a settlement of about 6500 BC in Cyprus.

 Most of the rooms here have a dome-like roof in corbelled

stone or brick.

 One step up from outside, to keep out the rain, leads to

several steps down into each room; seats and storage spaces are shaped into the walls; and in at least one house there is a ladder to an upper sleeping platform.

(12)

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T

ENTS

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OUND

HOUSES

:

8000 BC

 The round house has remained a traditional

shape.

 Buildings very similar to those in Khirokitia are

still lived in today in parts of southern Italy, where they are known as trulli.

(13)

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HOUSES

:

8000 BC

Whether it is a mud hut with a thatched roof

in tribal Africa, or an igloo of the

Eskimo

, the

circle remains the obvious form in which to

build a roofed house from the majority of

natural materials.

(14)

S

TRAIGHT

WALLS

WITH

WINDOWS

:

6500 BC

 But straight lines and rectangles have proved of more

practical use.

 One of the best preserved neolithic towns is Catal Huyuk,

covering some 32 acres in southern Turkey.

 Here the houses are rectangular, with windows but no

doors. They adjoin each other, like cells in a honeycomb, and the entrance to each is through the roof.

(15)

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CE

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GE

T

ENT

 Reconstructions of Ukrainian shelters depict a low

domical shape covered with animal skins and the tent is restrained by heaped mammoth bones.

 Later shelters are crude teepees reminiscent of those

used by present day reindeer herders in Northern Asia.

 Mousterian domical shelter comprising a wood frame

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T

ENT

 The support structure of the Keti is of particular

interest because it consists of a two-pole

foundation with two additional poles, one on either side of the entrance, a single pole at the back and two rings, one at bench height and another at head height.

(17)

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ENT

 A kibitka is a tent of the nomad tribes of the

Kirghiz Tartars.

 The frame consists of twelve stakes, each 6.5 feet

high, set up in a circle 12 feet in diameter on which is laid a wheel-shaped roof-frame,

consisting also of twelve stakes, united at one

extremity but free at the other, so that the stakes radiate like spokes.

(18)

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GE

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ENT

The whole is covered with thick cloth made of

sheep's wool, with the exception of an aperture

in the centre for the escape of smoke.

(19)

H

UT

 A hut is a structure of a lower quality than a

house (durable, well built dwelling) but higher quality than a shelter (place of refuge or safety) such as a tent and is used as temporary or

seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling .

(20)

H

UT

 Huts are vernacular architecture in that they are built

of readily available materials such as wood, snow, ice, stone, grass, palm leaves, branches, hides, fabric,

and/or mud using techniques passed down through the generations.

 Huts exist in practically all nomadic cultures.  Some huts are transportable and can stand most

conditions of weather.

 Huts may be built on the ground, underground or

in-between.

(21)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

The nipa hut also known as bahay kubo, is an

indigenous house used in the Philippines.

 The native house has traditionally been

constructed with bamboo tied together and

covered with a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw

(22)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

 Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous

people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived.

 They are still used today, especially in rural areas.  Different architectural designs are present among the

different ethnolinguistic groups in the country, although all of them conform to being stilt houses, similar to those found in neighboring countries such as Indonesia,

(23)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture as it

represents the Filipino value of

bayanihan

,

which refers to a spirit of communal unity or

effort to achieve a particular objective.

(24)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Barabara

- An earth sheltered winter home of

(25)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Bothy

- Originally a one room hut for men

farm workers in the United Kingdom, now a

mountain hut for overnight hikers.

(26)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Burdei

or bordei - a

dugout

or

pit-house

with a

(27)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Cabana

- an open shelter

Choza

also spelled chozo - Spanish for hut,

term also used in Mexico

Cabana hut

Choza hut

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T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Clochán

- A dry stone hut in Ireland

Earth lodge

- Native American dwelling

Clochan Earth

(29)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Hytte

- A cabin or hut in Norway

Hytte hut- exterior and interior

(30)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Kolba

– Afghanistan

Mitato

- A small, dry stone hut in Greece

(31)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Orri

- A French dry stone and sod hut

Rondavel

- Central and South Africa

(32)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Tipi

- Central North America tent

Tule hut

- Coastal North America, West Coast,

Northern California

(33)

T

YPES

OF

H

UTS

Quinzhee

- A shelter made in a pile of snow

Yurt

- Central and North Asia

Quinzhee

(34)

T

HANK

Y

OU

!

BACKGROUND OF PROF. CRISENCIO M. PANER:

•Ph.D. in Biological Science (Candidate), UST •M.S. in Microbiology, UST

•B.S. Biochemistry, UST

•Italian Government Scholar •College Scholar

•Certificate in Education

•10th Placer Licensure Exams for Teachers

•20 years of experience as a teacher (College, High School, Elementary) •Expert in Internet, Computer (Software, Hardware, and Repair)

•Researcher and Blogger •Art Restorer/Conservator

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