WADDELL_Epithalamica. an Easter Sequence by Peter Abelard

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"Epithalamica": An Easter Sequence by Peter Abelard Author(s): Chrysogonus Waddell

Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 2 (1986), pp. 239-271 Published by: Oxford University Press

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/948122

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(2)

Epithalamica:

An Easter

Sequence

by Peter Abelard

FATHER CHRYSOGONUS WADDELL

BY the time the district agents of Nogent-sur-Seine finally auctioned off, in late summer of 1795, the library of the recently suppressed Abbey of the Paraclete, the books they had to offer were relatively few-a mere 173 volumes-and unimportant: Madame Charlotte de Roucy, last of the long line of Paraclete abbesses, had realized that the Revolutionary whirl- wind sweeping away the other monastic establishments of France would make no exception even for the abbey founded by the star-crossed lovers Abelard and Heloise. She had had the foresight to parcel out to select friends and retainers of the doomed community its more valuable books and manuscripts.' Among Madame de Roucy's beneficiaries was a certain Monsieur Colin (or Collin). His literary tastes did not extend, apparently, to books of piety and equally tedious subjects, because, for the better part of a quarter of a century, the Paraclete books and manuscripts lay stashed away in his attic. Around 1817 one of the Colin sons struck a bargin with the Biblioth~que Royale (now the Biblioth6que Nationale): in return for one of the eighteen-volume sets of Rousseau stocked at the Parisian library for such purposes of exchange, Colin fils would agree to part with one of the Paraclete manuscripts written, it was said and believed, by the hand of Abelard himself.

It was a shabby looking manuscript, and the contents of the diminutive volume were as uninteresting as its scruffy pigskin binding: some kind of liturgical directory with a few other odds and ends at the beginning and end.2 The text, in a decent enough Parisian hand of the late thirteenth

The author is grateful to Prof. Peter Dronke of Cambridge University and to Prof. Calvin Bower of Notre Dame University for their helpful insights and encouragement.

1 For all details concerning the dispersion of the Paraclete library and manuscripts, see C. J. Mews, "La bibliotheque du Paraclet du XIIIe siecle a la Revolution," Studia monastica, XXVII (1985), 31-60.

2 The manuscript from f. 29r onwards has been edited by C. Waddell, The Old French Paraclete

Ordinary, Cistercian Liturgy Series 4 (Trappist, Ky., 1983), with a schematic analysis of the contents, pp. xiv-xv of the companion volume, n. 3 in the same series, The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Breviary: Introduction and Commentary (Trappist, Ky., 1985).

239

Epithalamica:

An Easter

Sequence

by Peter Abelard

FATHER CHRYSOGONUS WADDELL

BY the time the district agents of Nogent-sur-Seine finally auctioned off, in late summer of 1795, the library of the recently suppressed Abbey of the Paraclete, the books they had to offer were relatively few-a mere 173 volumes-and unimportant: Madame Charlotte de Roucy, last of the long line of Paraclete abbesses, had realized that the Revolutionary whirl- wind sweeping away the other monastic establishments of France would make no exception even for the abbey founded by the star-crossed lovers Abelard and Heloise. She had had the foresight to parcel out to select friends and retainers of the doomed community its more valuable books and manuscripts.' Among Madame de Roucy's beneficiaries was a certain Monsieur Colin (or Collin). His literary tastes did not extend, apparently, to books of piety and equally tedious subjects, because, for the better part of a quarter of a century, the Paraclete books and manuscripts lay stashed away in his attic. Around 1817 one of the Colin sons struck a bargin with the Biblioth~que Royale (now the Biblioth6que Nationale): in return for one of the eighteen-volume sets of Rousseau stocked at the Parisian library for such purposes of exchange, Colin fils would agree to part with one of the Paraclete manuscripts written, it was said and believed, by the hand of Abelard himself.

It was a shabby looking manuscript, and the contents of the diminutive volume were as uninteresting as its scruffy pigskin binding: some kind of liturgical directory with a few other odds and ends at the beginning and end.2 The text, in a decent enough Parisian hand of the late thirteenth

The author is grateful to Prof. Peter Dronke of Cambridge University and to Prof. Calvin Bower of Notre Dame University for their helpful insights and encouragement.

1 For all details concerning the dispersion of the Paraclete library and manuscripts, see C. J. Mews, "La bibliotheque du Paraclet du XIIIe siecle a la Revolution," Studia monastica, XXVII (1985), 31-60.

2 The manuscript from f. 29r onwards has been edited by C. Waddell, The Old French Paraclete

Ordinary, Cistercian Liturgy Series 4 (Trappist, Ky., 1983), with a schematic analysis of the contents, pp. xiv-xv of the companion volume, n. 3 in the same series, The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Breviary: Introduction and Commentary (Trappist, Ky., 1985).

239

Epithalamica:

An Easter

Sequence

by Peter Abelard

FATHER CHRYSOGONUS WADDELL

BY the time the district agents of Nogent-sur-Seine finally auctioned off, in late summer of 1795, the library of the recently suppressed Abbey of the Paraclete, the books they had to offer were relatively few-a mere 173 volumes-and unimportant: Madame Charlotte de Roucy, last of the long line of Paraclete abbesses, had realized that the Revolutionary whirl- wind sweeping away the other monastic establishments of France would make no exception even for the abbey founded by the star-crossed lovers Abelard and Heloise. She had had the foresight to parcel out to select friends and retainers of the doomed community its more valuable books and manuscripts.' Among Madame de Roucy's beneficiaries was a certain Monsieur Colin (or Collin). His literary tastes did not extend, apparently, to books of piety and equally tedious subjects, because, for the better part of a quarter of a century, the Paraclete books and manuscripts lay stashed away in his attic. Around 1817 one of the Colin sons struck a bargin with the Biblioth~que Royale (now the Biblioth6que Nationale): in return for one of the eighteen-volume sets of Rousseau stocked at the Parisian library for such purposes of exchange, Colin fils would agree to part with one of the Paraclete manuscripts written, it was said and believed, by the hand of Abelard himself.

It was a shabby looking manuscript, and the contents of the diminutive volume were as uninteresting as its scruffy pigskin binding: some kind of liturgical directory with a few other odds and ends at the beginning and end.2 The text, in a decent enough Parisian hand of the late thirteenth

The author is grateful to Prof. Peter Dronke of Cambridge University and to Prof. Calvin Bower of Notre Dame University for their helpful insights and encouragement.

1 For all details concerning the dispersion of the Paraclete library and manuscripts, see C. J. Mews, "La bibliotheque du Paraclet du XIIIe siecle a la Revolution," Studia monastica, XXVII (1985), 31-60.

2 The manuscript from f. 29r onwards has been edited by C. Waddell, The Old French Paraclete

Ordinary, Cistercian Liturgy Series 4 (Trappist, Ky., 1983), with a schematic analysis of the contents, pp. xiv-xv of the companion volume, n. 3 in the same series, The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Breviary: Introduction and Commentary (Trappist, Ky., 1985).

239

Epithalamica:

An Easter

Sequence

by Peter Abelard

FATHER CHRYSOGONUS WADDELL

BY the time the district agents of Nogent-sur-Seine finally auctioned off, in late summer of 1795, the library of the recently suppressed Abbey of the Paraclete, the books they had to offer were relatively few-a mere 173 volumes-and unimportant: Madame Charlotte de Roucy, last of the long line of Paraclete abbesses, had realized that the Revolutionary whirl- wind sweeping away the other monastic establishments of France would make no exception even for the abbey founded by the star-crossed lovers Abelard and Heloise. She had had the foresight to parcel out to select friends and retainers of the doomed community its more valuable books and manuscripts.' Among Madame de Roucy's beneficiaries was a certain Monsieur Colin (or Collin). His literary tastes did not extend, apparently, to books of piety and equally tedious subjects, because, for the better part of a quarter of a century, the Paraclete books and manuscripts lay stashed away in his attic. Around 1817 one of the Colin sons struck a bargin with the Biblioth~que Royale (now the Biblioth6que Nationale): in return for one of the eighteen-volume sets of Rousseau stocked at the Parisian library for such purposes of exchange, Colin fils would agree to part with one of the Paraclete manuscripts written, it was said and believed, by the hand of Abelard himself.

It was a shabby looking manuscript, and the contents of the diminutive volume were as uninteresting as its scruffy pigskin binding: some kind of liturgical directory with a few other odds and ends at the beginning and end.2 The text, in a decent enough Parisian hand of the late thirteenth

The author is grateful to Prof. Peter Dronke of Cambridge University and to Prof. Calvin Bower of Notre Dame University for their helpful insights and encouragement.

1 For all details concerning the dispersion of the Paraclete library and manuscripts, see C. J. Mews, "La bibliotheque du Paraclet du XIIIe siecle a la Revolution," Studia monastica, XXVII (1985), 31-60.

2 The manuscript from f. 29r onwards has been edited by C. Waddell, The Old French Paraclete

Ordinary, Cistercian Liturgy Series 4 (Trappist, Ky., 1983), with a schematic analysis of the contents, pp. xiv-xv of the companion volume, n. 3 in the same series, The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Breviary: Introduction and Commentary (Trappist, Ky., 1985).

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The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly

century, was written in a kind of Old French wildly incorrect even by the more flexible norms of thirteenth-century grammar and orthography But even if the grammar and syntax had been impeccably correct, the arcane liturgical and monkish jargon of the book would have evinced little notice even by the more dedicated specialists in Abelardian research. It was the noted medievalist, John Benton, who changed all this. At the

1972 Cluny colloquy devoted to Peter Abelard and Peter the Venerable, Professor Benton signaled to his colleagues the potential interest of this manuscript-Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS franaais 14410-for future Paraclete studies.3 And in 1979, at another Abelard colloquy-held at Trier-the manuscript, now styled the "Paraclete Ordinal," was further discussed in a paper devoted to Abelard as creator of liturgical texts.4 Since then the Ordinal has been edited as part of a set devoted to Paraclete liturgica,5 and, thanks to this unlikely looking Ordinal, we now have suf- ficient source material to study Peter Abelard not only as creator of litur- gical texts, but as composer of melodies as well.

A few scholars have already studied Abelard's musical creativity, chiefly on the basis of a severely limited repertory of musical sources: a single hymn tune (the Saturday vespers hymn, O quanta qualia)6 and a single planctus (Dolorum solatium, David's lament for Jonathan and Saul), which alone are recoverable in staff notation.7 Valiant attempts have also been made to decipher the six planctus melodies noted in staffless neumes in the Vatican Library manuscript, Reginensis lat. 288.8 But the meagerness of the source material and the diversity of scholarly opinion concerning the rhythmic interpretation of the neumes has resulted in conflicting "solu- tions" that to suggest to the uninformed that the distinction between reason- able hypothesis and informed guesswork (mere flights of editorial fancy)

3 "Fraud, Fiction and Borrowing in the Correspondence of Abelard and Heloise," Pierre Abelard

-Pierre le Venerable. Les courants philosophiques, litteraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du XIIe siecle. Abbaye de Cluny 2 au 9 juillet 1972 (Paris, 1975), pp. 469-511, where references to the manuscript occur on pp. 474-75, 482, 488, 489, 491, 501.

4 C. Waddell, "Peter Abelard as Creator of Liturgical Texts," Petrus Abaelardus (1079-1142).

Person, Werk und Wirkung, ed. R. Thomas (Trier, 1980), pp. 267-80.

5 See above, n. 2. The other volumes in the series, IIIA, B, and C (Cistercian Liturgy Series 5-7), are devoted to the Paraclete breviary, Chaumont 31. This series is distributed by Cistercian Publica- tions, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008.

6 See pp. 302-6 of the article by L. Weinrich indicated in the next footnote for a recent edition

with bibliographic references to manuscripts and other editions.

7

To the several transcriptions discussed by Lorenz Weinrich, "Peter Abelard as Musician," The Musical Quarterly, LV (1969), 295-312, 464-86, with special reference to pp. 304-12, concerning attempts at transcription, add the transcription by Ian Bent in Peter Dronke, Poetic Individuality in the Middle Ages, New Departures in Poetry 1000-1150 (Oxford, 1970), pp. 203-20 (with a note about the transcription, p. 202). For a more general discussion of Abelard as musician, see Michel Huglo, "Abelard, poete et musicien," Cahiers de civilisation medievale, XXII (1979), 349-61.

8 A photograph of a folio from the manuscript is reproduced facing p. 307 of the valuable

article by Weinrich.

century, was written in a kind of Old French wildly incorrect even by the more flexible norms of thirteenth-century grammar and orthography But even if the grammar and syntax had been impeccably correct, the arcane liturgical and monkish jargon of the book would have evinced little notice even by the more dedicated specialists in Abelardian research. It was the noted medievalist, John Benton, who changed all this. At the

1972 Cluny colloquy devoted to Peter Abelard and Peter the Venerable, Professor Benton signaled to his colleagues the potential interest of this manuscript-Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS franaais 14410-for future Paraclete studies.3 And in 1979, at another Abelard colloquy-held at Trier-the manuscript, now styled the "Paraclete Ordinal," was further discussed in a paper devoted to Abelard as creator of liturgical texts.4 Since then the Ordinal has been edited as part of a set devoted to Paraclete liturgica,5 and, thanks to this unlikely looking Ordinal, we now have suf- ficient source material to study Peter Abelard not only as creator of litur- gical texts, but as composer of melodies as well.

A few scholars have already studied Abelard's musical creativity, chiefly on the basis of a severely limited repertory of musical sources: a single hymn tune (the Saturday vespers hymn, O quanta qualia)6 and a single planctus (Dolorum solatium, David's lament for Jonathan and Saul), which alone are recoverable in staff notation.7 Valiant attempts have also been made to decipher the six planctus melodies noted in staffless neumes in the Vatican Library manuscript, Reginensis lat. 288.8 But the meagerness of the source material and the diversity of scholarly opinion concerning the rhythmic interpretation of the neumes has resulted in conflicting "solu- tions" that to suggest to the uninformed that the distinction between reason- able hypothesis and informed guesswork (mere flights of editorial fancy)

3 "Fraud, Fiction and Borrowing in the Correspondence of Abelard and Heloise," Pierre Abelard

-Pierre le Venerable. Les courants philosophiques, litteraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du XIIe siecle. Abbaye de Cluny 2 au 9 juillet 1972 (Paris, 1975), pp. 469-511, where references to the manuscript occur on pp. 474-75, 482, 488, 489, 491, 501.

4 C. Waddell, "Peter Abelard as Creator of Liturgical Texts," Petrus Abaelardus (1079-1142).

Person, Werk und Wirkung, ed. R. Thomas (Trier, 1980), pp. 267-80.

5 See above, n. 2. The other volumes in the series, IIIA, B, and C (Cistercian Liturgy Series 5-7), are devoted to the Paraclete breviary, Chaumont 31. This series is distributed by Cistercian Publica- tions, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008.

6 See pp. 302-6 of the article by L. Weinrich indicated in the next footnote for a recent edition

with bibliographic references to manuscripts and other editions.

7

To the several transcriptions discussed by Lorenz Weinrich, "Peter Abelard as Musician," The Musical Quarterly, LV (1969), 295-312, 464-86, with special reference to pp. 304-12, concerning attempts at transcription, add the transcription by Ian Bent in Peter Dronke, Poetic Individuality in the Middle Ages, New Departures in Poetry 1000-1150 (Oxford, 1970), pp. 203-20 (with a note about the transcription, p. 202). For a more general discussion of Abelard as musician, see Michel Huglo, "Abelard, poete et musicien," Cahiers de civilisation medievale, XXII (1979), 349-61.

8 A photograph of a folio from the manuscript is reproduced facing p. 307 of the valuable

article by Weinrich.

century, was written in a kind of Old French wildly incorrect even by the more flexible norms of thirteenth-century grammar and orthography But even if the grammar and syntax had been impeccably correct, the arcane liturgical and monkish jargon of the book would have evinced little notice even by the more dedicated specialists in Abelardian research. It was the noted medievalist, John Benton, who changed all this. At the

1972 Cluny colloquy devoted to Peter Abelard and Peter the Venerable, Professor Benton signaled to his colleagues the potential interest of this manuscript-Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS franaais 14410-for future Paraclete studies.3 And in 1979, at another Abelard colloquy-held at Trier-the manuscript, now styled the "Paraclete Ordinal," was further discussed in a paper devoted to Abelard as creator of liturgical texts.4 Since then the Ordinal has been edited as part of a set devoted to Paraclete liturgica,5 and, thanks to this unlikely looking Ordinal, we now have suf- ficient source material to study Peter Abelard not only as creator of litur- gical texts, but as composer of melodies as well.

A few scholars have already studied Abelard's musical creativity, chiefly on the basis of a severely limited repertory of musical sources: a single hymn tune (the Saturday vespers hymn, O quanta qualia)6 and a single planctus (Dolorum solatium, David's lament for Jonathan and Saul), which alone are recoverable in staff notation.7 Valiant attempts have also been made to decipher the six planctus melodies noted in staffless neumes in the Vatican Library manuscript, Reginensis lat. 288.8 But the meagerness of the source material and the diversity of scholarly opinion concerning the rhythmic interpretation of the neumes has resulted in conflicting "solu- tions" that to suggest to the uninformed that the distinction between reason- able hypothesis and informed guesswork (mere flights of editorial fancy)

3 "Fraud, Fiction and Borrowing in the Correspondence of Abelard and Heloise," Pierre Abelard

-Pierre le Venerable. Les courants philosophiques, litteraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du XIIe siecle. Abbaye de Cluny 2 au 9 juillet 1972 (Paris, 1975), pp. 469-511, where references to the manuscript occur on pp. 474-75, 482, 488, 489, 491, 501.

4 C. Waddell, "Peter Abelard as Creator of Liturgical Texts," Petrus Abaelardus (1079-1142).

Person, Werk und Wirkung, ed. R. Thomas (Trier, 1980), pp. 267-80.

5 See above, n. 2. The other volumes in the series, IIIA, B, and C (Cistercian Liturgy Series 5-7), are devoted to the Paraclete breviary, Chaumont 31. This series is distributed by Cistercian Publica- tions, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008.

6 See pp. 302-6 of the article by L. Weinrich indicated in the next footnote for a recent edition

with bibliographic references to manuscripts and other editions.

7

To the several transcriptions discussed by Lorenz Weinrich, "Peter Abelard as Musician," The Musical Quarterly, LV (1969), 295-312, 464-86, with special reference to pp. 304-12, concerning attempts at transcription, add the transcription by Ian Bent in Peter Dronke, Poetic Individuality in the Middle Ages, New Departures in Poetry 1000-1150 (Oxford, 1970), pp. 203-20 (with a note about the transcription, p. 202). For a more general discussion of Abelard as musician, see Michel Huglo, "Abelard, poete et musicien," Cahiers de civilisation medievale, XXII (1979), 349-61.

8 A photograph of a folio from the manuscript is reproduced facing p. 307 of the valuable

article by Weinrich.

century, was written in a kind of Old French wildly incorrect even by the more flexible norms of thirteenth-century grammar and orthography But even if the grammar and syntax had been impeccably correct, the arcane liturgical and monkish jargon of the book would have evinced little notice even by the more dedicated specialists in Abelardian research. It was the noted medievalist, John Benton, who changed all this. At the

1972 Cluny colloquy devoted to Peter Abelard and Peter the Venerable, Professor Benton signaled to his colleagues the potential interest of this manuscript-Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS franaais 14410-for future Paraclete studies.3 And in 1979, at another Abelard colloquy-held at Trier-the manuscript, now styled the "Paraclete Ordinal," was further discussed in a paper devoted to Abelard as creator of liturgical texts.4 Since then the Ordinal has been edited as part of a set devoted to Paraclete liturgica,5 and, thanks to this unlikely looking Ordinal, we now have suf- ficient source material to study Peter Abelard not only as creator of litur- gical texts, but as composer of melodies as well.

A few scholars have already studied Abelard's musical creativity, chiefly on the basis of a severely limited repertory of musical sources: a single hymn tune (the Saturday vespers hymn, O quanta qualia)6 and a single planctus (Dolorum solatium, David's lament for Jonathan and Saul), which alone are recoverable in staff notation.7 Valiant attempts have also been made to decipher the six planctus melodies noted in staffless neumes in the Vatican Library manuscript, Reginensis lat. 288.8 But the meagerness of the source material and the diversity of scholarly opinion concerning the rhythmic interpretation of the neumes has resulted in conflicting "solu- tions" that to suggest to the uninformed that the distinction between reason- able hypothesis and informed guesswork (mere flights of editorial fancy)

3 "Fraud, Fiction and Borrowing in the Correspondence of Abelard and Heloise," Pierre Abelard

-Pierre le Venerable. Les courants philosophiques, litteraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du XIIe siecle. Abbaye de Cluny 2 au 9 juillet 1972 (Paris, 1975), pp. 469-511, where references to the manuscript occur on pp. 474-75, 482, 488, 489, 491, 501.

4 C. Waddell, "Peter Abelard as Creator of Liturgical Texts," Petrus Abaelardus (1079-1142).

Person, Werk und Wirkung, ed. R. Thomas (Trier, 1980), pp. 267-80.

5 See above, n. 2. The other volumes in the series, IIIA, B, and C (Cistercian Liturgy Series 5-7), are devoted to the Paraclete breviary, Chaumont 31. This series is distributed by Cistercian Publica- tions, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008.

6 See pp. 302-6 of the article by L. Weinrich indicated in the next footnote for a recent edition

with bibliographic references to manuscripts and other editions.

7

To the several transcriptions discussed by Lorenz Weinrich, "Peter Abelard as Musician," The Musical Quarterly, LV (1969), 295-312, 464-86, with special reference to pp. 304-12, concerning attempts at transcription, add the transcription by Ian Bent in Peter Dronke, Poetic Individuality in the Middle Ages, New Departures in Poetry 1000-1150 (Oxford, 1970), pp. 203-20 (with a note about the transcription, p. 202). For a more general discussion of Abelard as musician, see Michel Huglo, "Abelard, poete et musicien," Cahiers de civilisation medievale, XXII (1979), 349-61.

8 A photograph of a folio from the manuscript is reproduced facing p. 307 of the valuable

article by Weinrich.

240 240 240 240

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Epithalamica Epithalamica Epithalamica Epithalamica

might seem a fine one. Writing about Abelard the musician is like writing about Beethoven if we had, as source material, only a fair copy of a single movement from one of the Opus 59 quartets and a few pages from his sketchbooks.

But thanks to the Paraclete Ordinal, the amount of recoverable music by Abelard has quadrupled. Three lengthy and brilliantly conceived se- quences may now be added to the canon of Abelard's texts with music, and nothing suggests that further exploration may not lead to similar and equally exciting finds.

Abelard's Sequences at the Paraclete

References to sequences in the Paraclete Ordinal are frequent. Even so, given the generally sketchy nature of the Ordinal prescriptions, we may be sure that at least a few items in the Paraclete sequence repertory current in the mid-thirteenth century have been omitted.9 The bulk of the incipits are identifiable, and point to a repertory that is "traditional," yet admits of numerous texts and melodies of a more recent stamp. This repertory is "popular," yet discreet; it is basically French, but with a com- mensurate number of texts and melodies representative of a more inter- national milieu. Some seven or eight of these fifty odd sequences have so far escaped identification.'? Since Abelard refers to himself as a com- poser not only of hymns but sequences as well,"l and since the Ordinal refers to numerous hymns, antiphons, responsories, and collects demon- strably by Abelard, it is not at all fanciful to suppose that at least some of these may have survived in the thirteenth-century Paraclete prosary. The question is of course of little practical import since, in the realm of possibilities, an unidentifiable Paraclete sequence incipit for which no corresponding text is known could indeed point to a lost sequence by Abelard-or anyone else.

Is it possible that among sequence texts already known and edited, there are some that might reasonably be by Abelard? Three such sequences have already come to light: the Easter sequence which is the object of

9 The sequence incipits are given in the indexes to the edition of the Ordinal (above, n. 2), p. 6*,

where one reference has been omitted ("Hodiernae," p. 83:19). For a summary discussion of this sequence repertory, see the commentary in the companion volume, pp. 347-50.

10 These are listed on pp. 348-49 of The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Bre-

viary: Introduction and Commentary (above, n. 2).

X In the covering letter to his collection of sermons written for the Paraclete, Abelard refers to his earlier hymn and sequence project: Libello quodam hymnorum vel SEQUENTIARUM a me

nuper precibus tuis consummato... (Migne PL 178:379). Many, perhaps most scholars, have identi-

fied these sequences with the six planctus, doubtless because no sequences ascribable to Abelard were known to exist, whereas six planctus, similar to sequences in some respects, already had a secure place in the canon of Abelard's compositions.

might seem a fine one. Writing about Abelard the musician is like writing about Beethoven if we had, as source material, only a fair copy of a single movement from one of the Opus 59 quartets and a few pages from his sketchbooks.

But thanks to the Paraclete Ordinal, the amount of recoverable music by Abelard has quadrupled. Three lengthy and brilliantly conceived se- quences may now be added to the canon of Abelard's texts with music, and nothing suggests that further exploration may not lead to similar and equally exciting finds.

Abelard's Sequences at the Paraclete

References to sequences in the Paraclete Ordinal are frequent. Even so, given the generally sketchy nature of the Ordinal prescriptions, we may be sure that at least a few items in the Paraclete sequence repertory current in the mid-thirteenth century have been omitted.9 The bulk of the incipits are identifiable, and point to a repertory that is "traditional," yet admits of numerous texts and melodies of a more recent stamp. This repertory is "popular," yet discreet; it is basically French, but with a com- mensurate number of texts and melodies representative of a more inter- national milieu. Some seven or eight of these fifty odd sequences have so far escaped identification.'? Since Abelard refers to himself as a com- poser not only of hymns but sequences as well,"l and since the Ordinal refers to numerous hymns, antiphons, responsories, and collects demon- strably by Abelard, it is not at all fanciful to suppose that at least some of these may have survived in the thirteenth-century Paraclete prosary. The question is of course of little practical import since, in the realm of possibilities, an unidentifiable Paraclete sequence incipit for which no corresponding text is known could indeed point to a lost sequence by Abelard-or anyone else.

Is it possible that among sequence texts already known and edited, there are some that might reasonably be by Abelard? Three such sequences have already come to light: the Easter sequence which is the object of

9 The sequence incipits are given in the indexes to the edition of the Ordinal (above, n. 2), p. 6*,

where one reference has been omitted ("Hodiernae," p. 83:19). For a summary discussion of this sequence repertory, see the commentary in the companion volume, pp. 347-50.

10 These are listed on pp. 348-49 of The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Bre-

viary: Introduction and Commentary (above, n. 2).

X In the covering letter to his collection of sermons written for the Paraclete, Abelard refers to his earlier hymn and sequence project: Libello quodam hymnorum vel SEQUENTIARUM a me

nuper precibus tuis consummato... (Migne PL 178:379). Many, perhaps most scholars, have identi-

fied these sequences with the six planctus, doubtless because no sequences ascribable to Abelard were known to exist, whereas six planctus, similar to sequences in some respects, already had a secure place in the canon of Abelard's compositions.

might seem a fine one. Writing about Abelard the musician is like writing about Beethoven if we had, as source material, only a fair copy of a single movement from one of the Opus 59 quartets and a few pages from his sketchbooks.

But thanks to the Paraclete Ordinal, the amount of recoverable music by Abelard has quadrupled. Three lengthy and brilliantly conceived se- quences may now be added to the canon of Abelard's texts with music, and nothing suggests that further exploration may not lead to similar and equally exciting finds.

Abelard's Sequences at the Paraclete

References to sequences in the Paraclete Ordinal are frequent. Even so, given the generally sketchy nature of the Ordinal prescriptions, we may be sure that at least a few items in the Paraclete sequence repertory current in the mid-thirteenth century have been omitted.9 The bulk of the incipits are identifiable, and point to a repertory that is "traditional," yet admits of numerous texts and melodies of a more recent stamp. This repertory is "popular," yet discreet; it is basically French, but with a com- mensurate number of texts and melodies representative of a more inter- national milieu. Some seven or eight of these fifty odd sequences have so far escaped identification.'? Since Abelard refers to himself as a com- poser not only of hymns but sequences as well,"l and since the Ordinal refers to numerous hymns, antiphons, responsories, and collects demon- strably by Abelard, it is not at all fanciful to suppose that at least some of these may have survived in the thirteenth-century Paraclete prosary. The question is of course of little practical import since, in the realm of possibilities, an unidentifiable Paraclete sequence incipit for which no corresponding text is known could indeed point to a lost sequence by Abelard-or anyone else.

Is it possible that among sequence texts already known and edited, there are some that might reasonably be by Abelard? Three such sequences have already come to light: the Easter sequence which is the object of

9 The sequence incipits are given in the indexes to the edition of the Ordinal (above, n. 2), p. 6*,

where one reference has been omitted ("Hodiernae," p. 83:19). For a summary discussion of this sequence repertory, see the commentary in the companion volume, pp. 347-50.

10 These are listed on pp. 348-49 of The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Bre-

viary: Introduction and Commentary (above, n. 2).

X In the covering letter to his collection of sermons written for the Paraclete, Abelard refers to his earlier hymn and sequence project: Libello quodam hymnorum vel SEQUENTIARUM a me

nuper precibus tuis consummato... (Migne PL 178:379). Many, perhaps most scholars, have identi-

fied these sequences with the six planctus, doubtless because no sequences ascribable to Abelard were known to exist, whereas six planctus, similar to sequences in some respects, already had a secure place in the canon of Abelard's compositions.

might seem a fine one. Writing about Abelard the musician is like writing about Beethoven if we had, as source material, only a fair copy of a single movement from one of the Opus 59 quartets and a few pages from his sketchbooks.

But thanks to the Paraclete Ordinal, the amount of recoverable music by Abelard has quadrupled. Three lengthy and brilliantly conceived se- quences may now be added to the canon of Abelard's texts with music, and nothing suggests that further exploration may not lead to similar and equally exciting finds.

Abelard's Sequences at the Paraclete

References to sequences in the Paraclete Ordinal are frequent. Even so, given the generally sketchy nature of the Ordinal prescriptions, we may be sure that at least a few items in the Paraclete sequence repertory current in the mid-thirteenth century have been omitted.9 The bulk of the incipits are identifiable, and point to a repertory that is "traditional," yet admits of numerous texts and melodies of a more recent stamp. This repertory is "popular," yet discreet; it is basically French, but with a com- mensurate number of texts and melodies representative of a more inter- national milieu. Some seven or eight of these fifty odd sequences have so far escaped identification.'? Since Abelard refers to himself as a com- poser not only of hymns but sequences as well,"l and since the Ordinal refers to numerous hymns, antiphons, responsories, and collects demon- strably by Abelard, it is not at all fanciful to suppose that at least some of these may have survived in the thirteenth-century Paraclete prosary. The question is of course of little practical import since, in the realm of possibilities, an unidentifiable Paraclete sequence incipit for which no corresponding text is known could indeed point to a lost sequence by Abelard-or anyone else.

Is it possible that among sequence texts already known and edited, there are some that might reasonably be by Abelard? Three such sequences have already come to light: the Easter sequence which is the object of

9 The sequence incipits are given in the indexes to the edition of the Ordinal (above, n. 2), p. 6*,

where one reference has been omitted ("Hodiernae," p. 83:19). For a summary discussion of this sequence repertory, see the commentary in the companion volume, pp. 347-50.

10 These are listed on pp. 348-49 of The Old French Paraclete Ordinary and the Paraclete Bre-

viary: Introduction and Commentary (above, n. 2).

X In the covering letter to his collection of sermons written for the Paraclete, Abelard refers to his earlier hymn and sequence project: Libello quodam hymnorum vel SEQUENTIARUM a me

nuper precibus tuis consummato... (Migne PL 178:379). Many, perhaps most scholars, have identi-

fied these sequences with the six planctus, doubtless because no sequences ascribable to Abelard were known to exist, whereas six planctus, similar to sequences in some respects, already had a secure place in the canon of Abelard's compositions.

241 241 241 241

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The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly The Musical Quarterly

this essay; the sequence for the departed, De profundis ad te clamantium,12 and the sequence for virgins, Virgines castae.l3 It is perhaps no accident that all three sequences are found together with the indisputably Abelardian

planctus Dolorum solatium14 in the Nevers prosary, Paris, Bibliotheque

Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126.15 These four sequences are in a section of the prosary devoted to newer material, and are probably grouped as they are because they are derived directly or indirectly from the same source, the abbey of the Paraclete in Champagne, near Troyes. All four selections have the same kind of literary structure, the same type of half- rhymes, the same compositional techniques; and section by section, line by line, each of the three sequences offers striking literary parallels to hymns and sermon texts by the philosopher turned monk and founder

of an abbey whose liturgical repertory he enriched massively. 16

The case for Abelard's authorship of De profundis ad te clamantium and Virgines castae will be argued elsewhere. A volume of the Cistercian

Liturgy Seriesl7 will be devoted to a more detailed study of all of Abelard's

texts whose music is recoverable. The present study of the Easter sequence Epithalamica offers us no more than a first glance at one of the most re- markable texts and melodies in the whole of the medieval repertory. It excludes a detailed discussion of the manuscript tradition and printed editions, as well as a systematic comparison of the melody with other melodies attributable to the founder of the Paraclete.

The Problem of the Sources: Manuscripts and Printed Editions I. Manuscript Sources

A. With both text and melody

1. NEV = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126, ff. 90v-91v; from Nevers; twelfth century, second half, and closer to 1170 than to 1200 (though with additional sections from later periods).l8 The scribe omits the entire final section consisting of four strophes.

12

Analecta hymnica, 10, pp. 54-55, for the most accessible edition; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum I, 255, n. 4238, and V, 111, for references to manuscripts and editions.

13 Analecta hymnica, 54, pp. 133-35, edition, with references to many other manuscripts and

editions; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum II, 745, n. 21640, for manuscripts and editions.

14 F. 82v, Virgines castae; f. 87, De profundis ad te clamantium, f. 88v, Dolorum solatium;

f. 90v, Epithalamica.

15 Detailed description of the manuscript and its contents in M. Huglo, "Un nouveau prosaire

nivernais," in Ephemerides Liturgicae, LXXI (1957), 3-30.

16 See the article indicated above, n. 4.

17 Distributed by Cistercian Publications, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008; to be

published in late 1987.

18 Besides the article by Huglo, cited above in n. 15, see the analysis, codicological description, and further notes by Heinrich Husman, Tropen- und Sequenzhandschriften [= Repertoire Inter- national des Sources Musicales B v' ] (Munich-Duisburg, 1964), pp. 148-49.

this essay; the sequence for the departed, De profundis ad te clamantium,12 and the sequence for virgins, Virgines castae.l3 It is perhaps no accident that all three sequences are found together with the indisputably Abelardian

planctus Dolorum solatium14 in the Nevers prosary, Paris, Bibliotheque

Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126.15 These four sequences are in a section of the prosary devoted to newer material, and are probably grouped as they are because they are derived directly or indirectly from the same source, the abbey of the Paraclete in Champagne, near Troyes. All four selections have the same kind of literary structure, the same type of half- rhymes, the same compositional techniques; and section by section, line by line, each of the three sequences offers striking literary parallels to hymns and sermon texts by the philosopher turned monk and founder

of an abbey whose liturgical repertory he enriched massively. 16

The case for Abelard's authorship of De profundis ad te clamantium and Virgines castae will be argued elsewhere. A volume of the Cistercian

Liturgy Seriesl7 will be devoted to a more detailed study of all of Abelard's

texts whose music is recoverable. The present study of the Easter sequence Epithalamica offers us no more than a first glance at one of the most re- markable texts and melodies in the whole of the medieval repertory. It excludes a detailed discussion of the manuscript tradition and printed editions, as well as a systematic comparison of the melody with other melodies attributable to the founder of the Paraclete.

The Problem of the Sources: Manuscripts and Printed Editions I. Manuscript Sources

A. With both text and melody

1. NEV = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126, ff. 90v-91v; from Nevers; twelfth century, second half, and closer to 1170 than to 1200 (though with additional sections from later periods).l8 The scribe omits the entire final section consisting of four strophes.

12

Analecta hymnica, 10, pp. 54-55, for the most accessible edition; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum I, 255, n. 4238, and V, 111, for references to manuscripts and editions.

13 Analecta hymnica, 54, pp. 133-35, edition, with references to many other manuscripts and

editions; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum II, 745, n. 21640, for manuscripts and editions.

14 F. 82v, Virgines castae; f. 87, De profundis ad te clamantium, f. 88v, Dolorum solatium;

f. 90v, Epithalamica.

15 Detailed description of the manuscript and its contents in M. Huglo, "Un nouveau prosaire

nivernais," in Ephemerides Liturgicae, LXXI (1957), 3-30.

16 See the article indicated above, n. 4.

17 Distributed by Cistercian Publications, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008; to be

published in late 1987.

18 Besides the article by Huglo, cited above in n. 15, see the analysis, codicological description, and further notes by Heinrich Husman, Tropen- und Sequenzhandschriften [= Repertoire Inter- national des Sources Musicales B v' ] (Munich-Duisburg, 1964), pp. 148-49.

this essay; the sequence for the departed, De profundis ad te clamantium,12 and the sequence for virgins, Virgines castae.l3 It is perhaps no accident that all three sequences are found together with the indisputably Abelardian

planctus Dolorum solatium14 in the Nevers prosary, Paris, Bibliotheque

Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126.15 These four sequences are in a section of the prosary devoted to newer material, and are probably grouped as they are because they are derived directly or indirectly from the same source, the abbey of the Paraclete in Champagne, near Troyes. All four selections have the same kind of literary structure, the same type of half- rhymes, the same compositional techniques; and section by section, line by line, each of the three sequences offers striking literary parallels to hymns and sermon texts by the philosopher turned monk and founder

of an abbey whose liturgical repertory he enriched massively. 16

The case for Abelard's authorship of De profundis ad te clamantium and Virgines castae will be argued elsewhere. A volume of the Cistercian

Liturgy Seriesl7 will be devoted to a more detailed study of all of Abelard's

texts whose music is recoverable. The present study of the Easter sequence Epithalamica offers us no more than a first glance at one of the most re- markable texts and melodies in the whole of the medieval repertory. It excludes a detailed discussion of the manuscript tradition and printed editions, as well as a systematic comparison of the melody with other melodies attributable to the founder of the Paraclete.

The Problem of the Sources: Manuscripts and Printed Editions I. Manuscript Sources

A. With both text and melody

1. NEV = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126, ff. 90v-91v; from Nevers; twelfth century, second half, and closer to 1170 than to 1200 (though with additional sections from later periods).l8 The scribe omits the entire final section consisting of four strophes.

12

Analecta hymnica, 10, pp. 54-55, for the most accessible edition; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum I, 255, n. 4238, and V, 111, for references to manuscripts and editions.

13 Analecta hymnica, 54, pp. 133-35, edition, with references to many other manuscripts and

editions; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum II, 745, n. 21640, for manuscripts and editions.

14 F. 82v, Virgines castae; f. 87, De profundis ad te clamantium, f. 88v, Dolorum solatium;

f. 90v, Epithalamica.

15 Detailed description of the manuscript and its contents in M. Huglo, "Un nouveau prosaire

nivernais," in Ephemerides Liturgicae, LXXI (1957), 3-30.

16 See the article indicated above, n. 4.

17 Distributed by Cistercian Publications, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008; to be

published in late 1987.

18 Besides the article by Huglo, cited above in n. 15, see the analysis, codicological description, and further notes by Heinrich Husman, Tropen- und Sequenzhandschriften [= Repertoire Inter- national des Sources Musicales B v' ] (Munich-Duisburg, 1964), pp. 148-49.

this essay; the sequence for the departed, De profundis ad te clamantium,12 and the sequence for virgins, Virgines castae.l3 It is perhaps no accident that all three sequences are found together with the indisputably Abelardian

planctus Dolorum solatium14 in the Nevers prosary, Paris, Bibliotheque

Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126.15 These four sequences are in a section of the prosary devoted to newer material, and are probably grouped as they are because they are derived directly or indirectly from the same source, the abbey of the Paraclete in Champagne, near Troyes. All four selections have the same kind of literary structure, the same type of half- rhymes, the same compositional techniques; and section by section, line by line, each of the three sequences offers striking literary parallels to hymns and sermon texts by the philosopher turned monk and founder

of an abbey whose liturgical repertory he enriched massively. 16

The case for Abelard's authorship of De profundis ad te clamantium and Virgines castae will be argued elsewhere. A volume of the Cistercian

Liturgy Seriesl7 will be devoted to a more detailed study of all of Abelard's

texts whose music is recoverable. The present study of the Easter sequence Epithalamica offers us no more than a first glance at one of the most re- markable texts and melodies in the whole of the medieval repertory. It excludes a detailed discussion of the manuscript tradition and printed editions, as well as a systematic comparison of the melody with other melodies attributable to the founder of the Paraclete.

The Problem of the Sources: Manuscripts and Printed Editions I. Manuscript Sources

A. With both text and melody

1. NEV = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS nouv. acq. lat. 3126, ff. 90v-91v; from Nevers; twelfth century, second half, and closer to 1170 than to 1200 (though with additional sections from later periods).l8 The scribe omits the entire final section consisting of four strophes.

12

Analecta hymnica, 10, pp. 54-55, for the most accessible edition; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum I, 255, n. 4238, and V, 111, for references to manuscripts and editions.

13 Analecta hymnica, 54, pp. 133-35, edition, with references to many other manuscripts and

editions; Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum II, 745, n. 21640, for manuscripts and editions.

14 F. 82v, Virgines castae; f. 87, De profundis ad te clamantium, f. 88v, Dolorum solatium;

f. 90v, Epithalamica.

15 Detailed description of the manuscript and its contents in M. Huglo, "Un nouveau prosaire

nivernais," in Ephemerides Liturgicae, LXXI (1957), 3-30.

16 See the article indicated above, n. 4.

17 Distributed by Cistercian Publications, Inc., WMU Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008; to be

published in late 1987.

18 Besides the article by Huglo, cited above in n. 15, see the analysis, codicological description, and further notes by Heinrich Husman, Tropen- und Sequenzhandschriften [= Repertoire Inter- national des Sources Musicales B v' ] (Munich-Duisburg, 1964), pp. 148-49.

242 242 242 242

(6)

Epithalamica Epithalamica Epithalamica Epithalamica

2. PUY = LE PUY, Bibliotheque du Grand S6minaire, Prosolarium Ecclesiae Aniciensis (no shelf number), ff. 54r-57r; late sixteenth-century copy (paper) of the seemingly uninterrupted all-day (and all-night) celebra- tion of the Office of the Circumcision (Jan. 1) proper to the cathedral of Le Puy en Velay, one of the major Marian shrines in Western Europe. Chant notation, but on a five-line staff. While obviously related to the original version represented by the Nevers version, the melody has been transposed a fourth higher, but without the obligatory addition of the flat necessary to preserve the first-mode tonality: the melody is thus transmogrified into one of the seventh mode.

3. VIC = VIC, Museu Episcopal, MS 105 (CXI), f. 60r-v, where a fragment only of the sequence has been incorporated into an Easter play about the Three Marys; this section is more recent (late twelfth/early thir- teenth century) than the rest of the manuscript; dry-point aquitanian no-

tation; from Vic, near Barcelona. 9

B. With text only

BEZ = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat. 1059, ff. 462v2-463vl (Birth of Mary, Sept. 8), 330r2-330v2 (Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8); from Beziers; fifteenth century, first half or middle.20

II. Printed Editions A. Missals

1. Missale insignis ecclesie Tornacensis. .. (Paris, 1498, Oct. 20), f. lxxxvii rl; text much truncated at end, but also provided with a new concluding stanza.

2. Missale secundum verum usum ecclesie et diocesis Tornacensis... (Paris, 1509, Oct. 21), f. lxxxvi (error for lxxxvii) r2-vl; reproduces defec- tive text of 1498 Missal.

3. Missale secundum usum Gratiannopolitanum. . . (Grenoble, 1532, Dec. 14), f. ccxxxv rl-2; final four strophes abridged beyond recognition.

B. Editions based on manuscripts or printed missals

1. Antonius de Balinghem, Parnassus Marianus sev Flos Hymnorum et Rhythmorvm de SSa Virgine Maria... (Douai, 1624), pp. 146-47; repro- duces defective text of Tournai Missal (1498), though with a few editorial emendations that result in a further departure from the authentic text.

2. J. B. Grimaldi, Sacra Beatae Virginis Deiparae Hymnodia.. . (Lyon, 1657 [error for 1637]), p. 246; no copy of this volume could be located for the purposes of the present essay.

19

Description in Husman, Tropen- und Sequenszhandschriften, pp. 97-98 (where the shelf number is wrongly given, MS 111).

20 Analysis and description with further bibliographic notes in Vincent Leroquais, Les Brd-

viaires manuscrits des BibliothequesPubliques de France, III (Paris, 1934), 65-68.

2. PUY = LE PUY, Bibliotheque du Grand S6minaire, Prosolarium Ecclesiae Aniciensis (no shelf number), ff. 54r-57r; late sixteenth-century copy (paper) of the seemingly uninterrupted all-day (and all-night) celebra- tion of the Office of the Circumcision (Jan. 1) proper to the cathedral of Le Puy en Velay, one of the major Marian shrines in Western Europe. Chant notation, but on a five-line staff. While obviously related to the original version represented by the Nevers version, the melody has been transposed a fourth higher, but without the obligatory addition of the flat necessary to preserve the first-mode tonality: the melody is thus transmogrified into one of the seventh mode.

3. VIC = VIC, Museu Episcopal, MS 105 (CXI), f. 60r-v, where a fragment only of the sequence has been incorporated into an Easter play about the Three Marys; this section is more recent (late twelfth/early thir- teenth century) than the rest of the manuscript; dry-point aquitanian no-

tation; from Vic, near Barcelona. 9

B. With text only

BEZ = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat. 1059, ff. 462v2-463vl (Birth of Mary, Sept. 8), 330r2-330v2 (Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8); from Beziers; fifteenth century, first half or middle.20

II. Printed Editions A. Missals

1. Missale insignis ecclesie Tornacensis. .. (Paris, 1498, Oct. 20), f. lxxxvii rl; text much truncated at end, but also provided with a new concluding stanza.

2. Missale secundum verum usum ecclesie et diocesis Tornacensis... (Paris, 1509, Oct. 21), f. lxxxvi (error for lxxxvii) r2-vl; reproduces defec- tive text of 1498 Missal.

3. Missale secundum usum Gratiannopolitanum. . . (Grenoble, 1532, Dec. 14), f. ccxxxv rl-2; final four strophes abridged beyond recognition.

B. Editions based on manuscripts or printed missals

1. Antonius de Balinghem, Parnassus Marianus sev Flos Hymnorum et Rhythmorvm de SSa Virgine Maria... (Douai, 1624), pp. 146-47; repro- duces defective text of Tournai Missal (1498), though with a few editorial emendations that result in a further departure from the authentic text.

2. J. B. Grimaldi, Sacra Beatae Virginis Deiparae Hymnodia.. . (Lyon, 1657 [error for 1637]), p. 246; no copy of this volume could be located for the purposes of the present essay.

19

Description in Husman, Tropen- und Sequenszhandschriften, pp. 97-98 (where the shelf number is wrongly given, MS 111).

20 Analysis and description with further bibliographic notes in Vincent Leroquais, Les Brd-

viaires manuscrits des BibliothequesPubliques de France, III (Paris, 1934), 65-68.

2. PUY = LE PUY, Bibliotheque du Grand S6minaire, Prosolarium Ecclesiae Aniciensis (no shelf number), ff. 54r-57r; late sixteenth-century copy (paper) of the seemingly uninterrupted all-day (and all-night) celebra- tion of the Office of the Circumcision (Jan. 1) proper to the cathedral of Le Puy en Velay, one of the major Marian shrines in Western Europe. Chant notation, but on a five-line staff. While obviously related to the original version represented by the Nevers version, the melody has been transposed a fourth higher, but without the obligatory addition of the flat necessary to preserve the first-mode tonality: the melody is thus transmogrified into one of the seventh mode.

3. VIC = VIC, Museu Episcopal, MS 105 (CXI), f. 60r-v, where a fragment only of the sequence has been incorporated into an Easter play about the Three Marys; this section is more recent (late twelfth/early thir- teenth century) than the rest of the manuscript; dry-point aquitanian no-

tation; from Vic, near Barcelona. 9

B. With text only

BEZ = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat. 1059, ff. 462v2-463vl (Birth of Mary, Sept. 8), 330r2-330v2 (Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8); from Beziers; fifteenth century, first half or middle.20

II. Printed Editions A. Missals

1. Missale insignis ecclesie Tornacensis. .. (Paris, 1498, Oct. 20), f. lxxxvii rl; text much truncated at end, but also provided with a new concluding stanza.

2. Missale secundum verum usum ecclesie et diocesis Tornacensis... (Paris, 1509, Oct. 21), f. lxxxvi (error for lxxxvii) r2-vl; reproduces defec- tive text of 1498 Missal.

3. Missale secundum usum Gratiannopolitanum. . . (Grenoble, 1532, Dec. 14), f. ccxxxv rl-2; final four strophes abridged beyond recognition.

B. Editions based on manuscripts or printed missals

1. Antonius de Balinghem, Parnassus Marianus sev Flos Hymnorum et Rhythmorvm de SSa Virgine Maria... (Douai, 1624), pp. 146-47; repro- duces defective text of Tournai Missal (1498), though with a few editorial emendations that result in a further departure from the authentic text.

2. J. B. Grimaldi, Sacra Beatae Virginis Deiparae Hymnodia.. . (Lyon, 1657 [error for 1637]), p. 246; no copy of this volume could be located for the purposes of the present essay.

19

Description in Husman, Tropen- und Sequenszhandschriften, pp. 97-98 (where the shelf number is wrongly given, MS 111).

20 Analysis and description with further bibliographic notes in Vincent Leroquais, Les Brd-

viaires manuscrits des BibliothequesPubliques de France, III (Paris, 1934), 65-68.

2. PUY = LE PUY, Bibliotheque du Grand S6minaire, Prosolarium Ecclesiae Aniciensis (no shelf number), ff. 54r-57r; late sixteenth-century copy (paper) of the seemingly uninterrupted all-day (and all-night) celebra- tion of the Office of the Circumcision (Jan. 1) proper to the cathedral of Le Puy en Velay, one of the major Marian shrines in Western Europe. Chant notation, but on a five-line staff. While obviously related to the original version represented by the Nevers version, the melody has been transposed a fourth higher, but without the obligatory addition of the flat necessary to preserve the first-mode tonality: the melody is thus transmogrified into one of the seventh mode.

3. VIC = VIC, Museu Episcopal, MS 105 (CXI), f. 60r-v, where a fragment only of the sequence has been incorporated into an Easter play about the Three Marys; this section is more recent (late twelfth/early thir- teenth century) than the rest of the manuscript; dry-point aquitanian no-

tation; from Vic, near Barcelona. 9

B. With text only

BEZ = PARIS, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat. 1059, ff. 462v2-463vl (Birth of Mary, Sept. 8), 330r2-330v2 (Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8); from Beziers; fifteenth century, first half or middle.20

II. Printed Editions A. Missals

1. Missale insignis ecclesie Tornacensis. .. (Paris, 1498, Oct. 20), f. lxxxvii rl; text much truncated at end, but also provided with a new concluding stanza.

2. Missale secundum verum usum ecclesie et diocesis Tornacensis... (Paris, 1509, Oct. 21), f. lxxxvi (error for lxxxvii) r2-vl; reproduces defec- tive text of 1498 Missal.

3. Missale secundum usum Gratiannopolitanum. . . (Grenoble, 1532, Dec. 14), f. ccxxxv rl-2; final four strophes abridged beyond recognition.

B. Editions based on manuscripts or printed missals

1. Antonius de Balinghem, Parnassus Marianus sev Flos Hymnorum et Rhythmorvm de SSa Virgine Maria... (Douai, 1624), pp. 146-47; repro- duces defective text of Tournai Missal (1498), though with a few editorial emendations that result in a further departure from the authentic text.

2. J. B. Grimaldi, Sacra Beatae Virginis Deiparae Hymnodia.. . (Lyon, 1657 [error for 1637]), p. 246; no copy of this volume could be located for the purposes of the present essay.

19

Description in Husman, Tropen- und Sequenszhandschriften, pp. 97-98 (where the shelf number is wrongly given, MS 111).

20 Analysis and description with further bibliographic notes in Vincent Leroquais, Les Brd-

viaires manuscrits des BibliothequesPubliques de France, III (Paris, 1934), 65-68.

243 243 243 243

Figure

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