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(1)

These Native Shrubs

Have 4-Season Interest

Presented by

Marc Radell, Master Gardener Volunteer

PennState Extension of Montgomery County

Lose the Lilacs!

About Our Sponsor

Address

1015 Bridge Road, Suite H Collegeville, PA 19426-1179

Contact

Phone: 610-489-4315 Fax: 610-489-9277

MontgomeryExt@psu.edu

Office Hours

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

http://extension.psu.edu/montgomery

The MG Year of the Pollinator

Master Gardener Plant Sale!

Saturday, May 14, 2016

9:00 AM – 2:00 PM

Extension Office

1015 Bridge Road

Collegeville, Pa 19426

(2)

Where Are the Handouts?

www.marcmradell.com

Doug Tallamy, author of

Bringing Nature Home

has said that, based on its value to native insects,

a lilac bush might as well be plastic.

Lose the Lilacs?

Agenda

Native Shrubs in the Ecosystem

Gardening with Shrubs

Native Shrubs for Your Landscape

Yellow-rumped warbler/

Myrica pensylvanica Hydrangea aborescens Viburnum nudum

(3)

Found in a given area prior to human intervention

(in U.S.: prior to European contact)

Two major waves of introduction of alien plants

to U.S.: European (17

th

and 18th centuries) and

Asian (20

th

century)

About 34% of plant species in Pennsylvania are

now non-native

What is a Native Plant?

Viburnum sieboldii

United States?

Northeast?

Mid-Atlantic?

Pennsylvania?

Montgomery County?

Native to Where?

Precipitation

Temperature

(averages and

extremes)

Length of growing

season

Length of day

Ecological Regions

“Pennsylvania Piedmont” Physiographic Province

plants.usda.gov

Geography is destiny!

Soils – acidity, percolation

Topography – drainage, exposure

Right plant, right place

Local Geography

(4)

Plants & Animals Coevolve

Food Web & Nutrient Cycling

Native Plants and Insects

Herbivory

Insects account for 80% of terrestrial plant consumption

90% of plant-eating insects feed on only 2 or 3 families of

plants

90% of songbirds feed insects to their young

Native Plants and Insects

Pollination

Native insects prefer native plants for nectar

and pollen 4x more than non-natives

Many plants have evolved to attract specific

insects

(5)

Native Plants and Soil Organisms

Native Plants and Other Wildlife

Symbiotic relationships

Native wildlife thrive on nutrition provided by native

plants

Size, coloring of plant material also matter

History of Penn’s Woods

About 12,000 year ago

First humans. Glaciers retreating,

climate was cool and wet.

Forests of spruce, fir, birch, pine &

alder.

10,000 – 8,000 Years Ago

The climate slowly got warmer.

Oak, chestnut, hickory and beech trees

moved in from the south.

Deciduous forests with a thick layer of

humus and a rich understory of berries

and other plant foods.

Limited open space

Baseline condition for today ★

Shrubs in Penn’s Woods

Understory plants

Edge plants

Successional

Steep slopes

Poor or shallow soils

Wet areas

Abundant food and shelter for wildlife

(6)

History of Penn’s Woods (cont’d)

8,000 – 1,000 Years Ago

Native Americans burned wooded

areas for farming and villages and

to improve hunting with limited

the impact on the forest.

400 – 200 Years Ago

Europeans arrived with steel plows

and axes. Large areas of forests

cleared for agriculture, firewood

and forest products or burned for

charcoal to support iron industry.

History of Penn’s Woods

20

th

Century

• By the late 1800's, Pennsylvania was the nation's greatest source of lumber. Trees also used for tannic acid, wood alcohol, and fuel for steam locomotives, boats and industry. Wildfires were prevalent.

• By 1910, the number of farms peaked and forest area reached historical low of about 13 million acres (45%).

• After World War 1, much of state's population moved from rural areas to cities. Coal and petroleum replace wood as primary fuels.

• The natural process of plant succession began to convert abandoned farm fields back into forests, but very compromised.

Penn’s Woods Today

About 60% (17 million acres) of

Pennsylvania is 2

nd

-growth

forested, about 75% of that

owned privately.

97% of forest is timberland.

Pennsylvania is the nation's largest

producer of hardwood lumber.

Forest is generally fragmented, of

uniform age (~100 years old), and

of low ecosystem quality.

Open lands are dominated by

non-native vegetation.

Penn’s Woods 2100

Climate Change

7° warmer

More weather extremes

More precipitation, but more drought

(7)

Limited Conserved Open Space

Ever More Development Pressure

Our Yards Are the Environment

oops!

Native Plants – Why Bother Anymore?

Preserve as much biodiversity as

we can

Give wildlife as much time as

possible to adapt to changing

plant communities

Every native plant gives another

animal another chance

‘If it’s worth dying for,it’s worth living for!’
(8)

Generally require less maintenance than non-natives

(less fertilizer, fewer pesticides, more naturalized

landscaping)

Invasive non-native plants can disrupt energy, nutrient,

and water cycles in local ecosystems

Most noxious weeds and pests were introduced to US

via non-native plants

Native Plants: Other benefits

Some Invasive Shrubs in Pennsylvania

Berberis vulgaris (European Barberry)

Berberis thunbergii (Japanese Barberry)

Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush)

Elaeagnus angustifolia(Russian Olive)

Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn Olive)

Euonymus alatus(Winged Euonymus/Burning-Bush)

Lespedeza cuneata (Chinese Bushclover)

Lespedeza bicolor (Shrubby Bushclover)

Ligustrum (Privets)

Lonicera (Shrub honeysuckles – 5 species)

Rhamnus cathartica(Common Buckthorn)

Rhamnus frangula, syn. Frangula alnus(Glossy Buckthorn)

Rhodotypos scandens (Jetbead)

Rosa multiflora (Multiflora Rose)

Rubus phoenicolasius (Wineberry)

Spiraea japonica, (Japanese Spiraea)

Viburnum plicatum (Doublefile Viburnum),

Viburnum dilataum (Linden Viburnum)

Viburnum sieboldii (Siebold Viburnum)

Viburnum opulus (Guelder Rose)

Gardening with Shrubs

What is a Shrub?

Woody plant

Smaller than a tree

(usually less than 15’)

Has multiple stems

Silky Dogwood

(Cornus amomum)

shrub

Pagoda Dogwood

(Cornus alternifolia)

tree

Flowering Dogwood

(Cornus florida)

(9)

Microclimate = climate of

specific location

Shade

Site grade

Compacted soil

Exposure to wind

Radiant heat from massive

bodies

Cooling effect of water bodies

Can be large (riparian corridor)

or small (shade from a single

tree)

Right plant, right place

Selecting Shrubs

Create a Plant Community

Plant community:

A grouping of

plants that coexist

and interact with

one another

A plant community

is a component of

a

habitat:

a place

that provides living

organisms with

food, water, shelter,

and space.

Upland Forest Types

• Dry oak – heath forest • Dry oak – mixed hardwood forest • Dry hemlock – oak forest • Mixed oak – hardwood forest • Red oak – mixed hardwood forest • Red maple terrestrial forest • Sugar maple – basswood forest • Tuliptree – beech – maple forest

Lowland Forest Types

• Silver maple floodplain forest • Sugar maple floodplain forest • Red maple palustrine forest • Red maple – black ash palustrine forest • Bottomland oak – hardwood palustrine forest • Sycamore – (river birch) – box-elder

floodplain forest

Montco Forest Communities

Spring Mountain

Wissahickon Creek

Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program

Terrestrial & Palustrine Plant Communities of

Pennsylvania

County-specific natural area inventories

(10)

Species, cultivars, and hybrids – oh, my!

Straight species with local genome

Straight species from elsewhere

Cultivar (ex:

Viburnum dentatum

‘Blue

Muffin’

)

Hybrids (ex:

Viburnum x …)

between two US species

between US and non-US species

Non-US species or hybrid

Use botanical names!

How has native species been altered?

Have there been substantive alterations:

leaf/petal color, reproductive parts, less

fruit?

Has benefit to ecosystem been lessened?

Planting Shrubs

Blocky plantings are better than linear

Use linear plantings as travel corridors

for wildlife

Plant at proper depth, do not amend soil

Mulch with wood/root/bark chips

Plant at least two for pollination

Small shrubs grow well in containers

Caring for Shrubs

Water until well-established (at

least one year)

Deep watering once per week

Maintain 2” of mulch

Leave the leaves in Fall!

Should be no need to fertilize if

you maintain layer of organic

mulch

(11)

Native Shrubs

for Your Landscape

Some thoughts before we begin

Focus on plants with high wildlife

value, my experience,

and 4-season interest

Most plants tolerate some range of

conditions

Soil: Dry, Moist, Range

Sun: Full, Part Sun, Shade

Deer resistant ≠ deer proof

Four-Season Interest

Spring – flowers, buds

Summer – foliage, flowers, fruit

Fall – fall color, evergreen, fruit

Winter – interesting bark or

structure, evergreen, fruit

Great deal of subjectivity

Affected by proximity and

juxtaposition

Winter interest often

highlighted by isolation

Some more thoughts before we begin

Pollinators: butterflies, native

bees, beneficial insects

Birds:

food,

shelter, nest sites

High Wildlife Value –

quantity, quality, spectrum

Make sure you get the native

species (use botanical name)

(12)

10 Shrubs with Highest Wildlife Value

NWF Audubon Tallamy

Smooth Alder Alder (3) Bayberry

Highbush Blueberry Blueberry (2) Red Chokeberry (3) Chokeberry

Dogwood American Elderberry

Filbert (5) Winterberry Holly (1) Winterberry Holly

Sweet Pepperbush (2)

Rhododendron/Azalea

Rose Rose (4)

Spicebush Sumac Viburnum

Pussy Willow Willow (1)

Alnus serrulata

(Smooth Alder)

Characteristics

Height: 12-20' Spread: 12-20'

Flowers: Mar.-Apr.; purple

Fruit: Aug.-Feb.; brown; cone/cone-like Fall color: yellow, red

Conditions*

Light: Full sun Moisture: Moist, Wet Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 Soil type: Clay, Loamy

Habitat

marshes, shrub swamps, forested wetlands

High Wildlife Value

Notes: forms thickets; nitrogen fixing; tolerates flooding to 3"

Aralia spinosa

(Devil's walking stick)

Characteristics Height: 20-30' 


Spread: 12-20' 


Flowers: Jul.-Aug.; white


Fruit: Aug.-Sept.; black; berry


Fall color: yellow

Conditions Light: Sun, Part Sun 


Moisture: Dry, Moist 


Soil pH: 5.5-7.1 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy

Habitat

moist woods, stream banks, roadsides

High Wildlife Value

Notes: seeds are poisonous if chewed; low maintenance; spreads from new shoots; thorny, clublike stem

Calycanthus floridus

(Carolina Allspice)

Characteristics

Height: 3-9' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: Apr.-May.; wine-red; fragrant Fruit: June-Jan.; urn-shaped pods Fall color: yellow

Foliage: glossy, aromatic, leathery, dark-green.

Conditions*

Light: Range (grows taller in shade) Moisture: Moist

Soil pH: Range Soil type: Range

Habitat

Deciduous woods, floodplain forests

Low Wildlife Value

(13)

Ceanothus americanus

(New Jersey tea)

Characteristics Height: 3-3' 


Spread: 3-6' 


Flowers: May-Sept.; white


Fruit: Sept.-Oct.; black; 


Fall color: yellow to tan

Conditions Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry 


Soil pH: 4.3-6.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy

Habitat: meadow, old field, glade, forest; dry open woods and borders, rocky areas, openings

Wildlife: pollinators, birds, mammals

Notes:tough; tolerates moist soil if well drained; fixes nitrogen; tolerates dryness

Cephalanthus occidentalis

(Buttonbush)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' 


Spread: 12-20' 


Flowers: Jul.-Aug.; creamy white


Fruit: Sept.-Jan.; green to brown; 


Fall color: yellow-green

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade 


Moisture: Moist Wet 


Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic 


Flood depth: 0-36”

Habitat

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, shrub swamps, forested wetlands, borders of streams, lakes, and ponds

Wildlife: pollinators, birds, small mammals

Notes: needs sun to flower; flowers fragrant; interesting fruit; tolerates drought; leaves may persist into winter; tolerates flooding to 36"

Clethra alnifolia

(Sweet pepperbush)

Characteristics Height: 6-12' 


Spread: 3-6' 


Flowers: Jul.-Aug.; white/ pink


Fruit: Sept.-Feb.; brown; capsule


Fall color: yellow

Conditions Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Moist, Wet 


Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy  Habitat

tidal and nontidal forested wetlands, shrub swamps, bogs, sandy woods, coastal river floodplains, lakeshores

Wildlife:Pollinators, birds, small mammals

Notes: very fragrant; tolerates some flooding by partly salty water

Comptonia peregrina

(Sweetfern)

Characteristics

Height: 3-3' 


Spread: 3-6' 


Flowers: Apr.-May; yellow-green


Fruit: Aug.-Oct.; green to brown; cone-like


Fall color: brown

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry 


Soil pH: 4-7 


Soil type: Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

hillsides or dry cliffs, woods openings, sand flats and barrens, old fields, dunes

Wildlife: Birds, small mammals

(14)

Cornus amomum

(Silky dogwood)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' 


Spread: 6-12' 


Flowers: May-Jun.; white


Fruit: Aug.-Aug.; blue; berry


Fall color: orange, red or purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Moist, Wet 


Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy

Habitat

forested seasonal wetlands and floodplains, shrub wetlands, stream and pond banks, clearings

High Wildlife Value

Corylus americana

(American Hazelnut)

Characteristics Height: 10-15' 


Spread: 6-12' 


Flowers: Mar.-Apr.; brown or red


Fruit: Aug.-Sept.; light brown; nut Fall color: yellow to orange  Conditions

Light: Part Sun 


Moisture: Dry, Moist 


Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy  Habitat

dry woodlands, woods edge, rocky wooded or open hillsides, fence rows, ravine banks, floodplain woods, brushy pastures

Wildlife:Birds, small mammals

Notes: forms large thickets; edible nut; male catkins brown, female red

Hamamelis virginiana

(Witch Hazel)

Characteristics Height: 15-30' 


Spread: 20-30' 


Flowers: Sept.-Dec.; yellow


Fruit: Oct.-Nov.; tan brown; capsule


Fall color: yellow

Conditions Light: Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist 


Soil pH: 5.5-6.5 


Soil type: Clay Loamy Sandy

Habitat

woodland or brushy fields, moist or dry

Wildlife: Birds, small mammals

Notes: noted for fall/winter bloom; medicinal uses, leaves may persist into winter

Hydrangea arborescens

(Smooth Hydrangea)

Characteristics

Height: 3-6' 


Spread: 3-9' 


Flowers: Jun.-Aug.; white or pink (cultivars) Fruit: Oct.-Jan.; brown; capsule


Fall color: yellow

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Moist 


Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 


Soil type: Loamy Sandy

Habitat

moist, rich woods in floodplains or upland, streambanks

Low Wildlife Value

(15)

Hypericum densiflorum

(Dense St. John's Wort)

Characteristics Height: 1.5-6' 


Spread: 3-6' 


Flowers: Jul.-Sept.; yellow


Fruit: Oct.-Apr.; brown; capsule


Fall color: yellow green  Conditions

Light: Sun 


Moisture: Dry Moist Wet 


Soil pH: 5.5-7 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic  Habitat

low boggy places, seepage slopes, pond and lake borders, wet meadows, stream banks, roadside ditches, moist pinelands

Wildlife: Birds, small mammals

Notes: blooms small but form dense flat-topped clusters; can spread aggressively

Ilex glabra

(Inkberry)

Characteristics

Height: 6-10' 


Spread: 6-10' 


Flowers: May-Jun.; greenish white


Fruit: Sept.-Mar.; black; berry


Fall color: evergreen

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade 


Moisture: Dry, Moist 


Soil pH: 4.5-6 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

Forested seasonal wetlands, shrub swamps, sandy woods

High Wildlife Value

Notes: berries persist through winter; male and female flowers on separate plants; tolerates some salt flooding; short cultivars (4-5') available

Ilex verticillata

(Winterberry)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' 


Spread: 3-12' 


Flowers: Jun.-Jul.; greenish white


Fruit: Aug.-Feb.; red; berry


Fall color: yellow to brown

Conditions

Light: Sun, Shade, Part Shade 


Moisture: Moist Wet 


Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

fresh tidal swamps, shrub swamps, forested wetlands

High Wildlife Value

Notes: berries provide winter bird food, poisonous to humans; berries on female plants, need male plant to pollinate

Kalmia latifolia

(Mountain Laurel)

Characteristics Height: 12-20' 


Spread: 12-20' 


Flowers: May-Jul.; white to pink/purple


Fruit: May-Jun.; brown; capsule


Fall color: evergreen

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade 


Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet 


Soil pH: 4.5-6 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

oak woods, ridge tops, old fields, swamps, cool mountain meadows and slopes

Wildlife: hummingbirds, small mammals

(16)

Leucothoe racemosa

(Fetterbush)

Characteristics

Height: 13-13' 


Spread: 6-12' 


Flowers: May-Jun.; white, pinkish


Fruit: brown; capsule

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade 


Moisture: Moist, Wet 


Soil pH: 4.5-6 


Soil type: Clay, Loamy

Habitat

swamps, moist woods and thickets

Low Wildlife Value

Notes: zig-zag twigs, reddish or greenish; tends to sucker, forming thickets

Lindera benzoin

(Spicebush)

Characteristics

Height: 6.5-16' 


Spread: 6-12' 


Flowers: Mar.-May; yellow


Fruit: Sept.-Oct.; scarlet; berry


Fall color: yellow

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade 


Moisture: Moist Wet 


Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 


Soil type: Loamy Sandy

Habitat

moist woods, shaded wooded slopes or dunes, floodplain forests

High Wildlife Value

Notes: all parts edible and aromatic; herbal uses

Lyonia ligustrina

(Male-Berry)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' Spread: 12-20' Flowers: May-Jul.; white Fruit: Sept.-Mar.; brown; capsule Fall color: orange to red

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Moist Soil pH: 4-6

Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

open areas, swamps, moist woods

Wildlife: Birds, small mammals

Notes: berry-like capsules persist through winter

Photinia melanocarpa

(Black Chokeberry)

Characteristics

Height: 3-6' Spread: 3-6'

Flowers: Apr.-May; white or pink-tinged Fruit: Sept.-Nov.; black; berry Fall color: crimson red

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 5.1-6.5

Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

bog, swamp, spring, dune, cliff, old field, clearings; wet or dry thickets, creek banks, wet acid sand, balds; thin soils and rock outcroppings

Wildlife: Pollinators, birds, small mammals

(17)

Photinia pyrifolia

(Red Chokeberry)

Characteristics

Height: 1.5-13' Spread: 3-6'

Flowers: Apr.-May; white or purple-tinged Fruit: Sept.-Dec.; red; berry

Fall color: orange to red

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 5.1-6.5

Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy

Habitat

forested seasonal wetlands, shrub bogs; upland forest, old field, dune

Wildlife: Pollinators, birds, small mammals

Notes: tolerates infrequent flooding by water with some salt; can be pruned as hedge

Physocarpus opulifolius

(Ninebark)

Characteristics

Height: 5-12' Spread: 5-12'

Flowers: May-Jul.; white, pink Fruit: Jul.-Mar.; orange to red; capsule Fall color: yellow to purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Moist, Wet Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 Soil type: Clay Loamy

Habitat

moist thickets, along streams in sand or gravel bars, rocky slopes

Wildlife: Birds, Small mammals, Pollinators

Notes: papery bark continually molts in thin strips; very drought tolerant; adaptable

Rhododendron maximum

(Rosebay)

Characteristics

Height: 15-20' Spread: 10-15'

Flowers: May-Aug.; white, pink Fruit: Sept.-Nov.; tan to red; capsule Fall color: evergreen

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Moist Wet Soil pH: 4.5-6 Soil type: Loamy

Habitat

cool mountain slopes, moist woods, sheltered coves and ravines, along creeks

Wildlife: Hummingbirds, small mammals

Notes: needs space; may form dense thicket

Rhododendron periclymenoides

(Pinxterbloom)

Characteristics

Height: 3-10' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: Apr.-May; pink, purple, white Fruit: Aug.-Mar.; brown; capsule Fall color: dull yellow

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 4.5-5.5 Soil type: Loamy

Habitat

moist to dry rocky or sandy woods, low swampy areas, limestone cliffs, rich cove forests; thin soils over bedrock

Wildlife: Hummingbirds, pollinators, small mammals

(18)

Rhododendron viscosum

(Swamp Azalea)

Characteristics Height: 6.5-10' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: May-Aug.; white, pink Fruit: Aug.-Mar.; brown; capsule Fall color: yellow, orange, to purple  Conditions

Light: Full Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Moist, Wet Soil pH: 4-6

Soil type: Clay, Loamy, Sandy, Organic  Habitat

low wet floodplain woods and depressions, sluggish streambanks, swamp borders, hillside bogs, ditch banks, clearings

Wildlife: Hummingbirds, small mammals

Notes: attractive spreading, loose-branched habit; demands acid soil; susceptible to disease and insects

Rhus glabra

(Smooth sumac)

Characteristics

Height: 2-20' Spread: 2-35'

Flowers: Jun.-Jul.; greenish Fruit: Aug.-Oct.; red; berry Fall color: red

Conditions

Light: Sun

Moisture: Dry, Moist Soil pH: 5.3-7.5 Soil type: Loamy, Sandy

Habitat

dry or moist soils in open areas; shale barrens, old fields, dry open slopes, roadsides, fencerows

High Wildlife Value

Notes: fuzzy berry clusters; male and female may be on separate plants; extremely drought resistant

Rosa palustris

(Swamp rose)

Characteristics

Height: 4-8'

Flowers: Jun.-Aug.; pink Fruit: Jul.-Mar.; red; berry

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Moist, Wet Soil pH: 4-7 Soil type: Clay, Loamy Flood depth: 0-3"

Habitat

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, forested wetlands, shrub swamps, stream banks; open or shaded areas

High Wildlife Value

Notes: edible fruit is a berry-like hip; thorns; tolerates flooding to 3"

Rosa virginiana

(Virginia rose)

Characteristics

Height: 4-6'

Flowers: Jun.-Aug.; pink; fragrant Fruit: Jul.-Mar.; red; berry

Conditions

Light: Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Moist Soil pH: 4-7 Soil type: Clay, Loamy

Habitat

Clearings, thickets, and shores.

High Wildlife Value

(19)

Rubus

(Brambles)

Characteristics

Height: 3-9' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: May-Jun.; white, purple Fruit: Jul.-Sept.; black; berry Fall color: orange, red, to purple

Conditions

Light: Range Moisture: Range Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 Soil type: Range

Habitat

roadsides and fence rows, fields, thickets, open woods, clearings

High Wildlife Value

Notes: prickly; juicy edible fruit used by people and wildlife; blackberry has lavender stems

R. Allegheniensis Allegheny blackberry

R. occidentalis Black raspberry R. odoratus

Purple Flowering Raspberry

Salix humilis

(Prairie Willow)

Characteristics Height: 6-12' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: Apr.-May; greenish yellow Fruit: May-Jun.; brown; capsule Fall color: dull yellow  Conditions

Light: Sun

Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 6.1-7.5

Soil type: Clay Loamy Sandy Organic  Habitat

dry thickets, openings & plains; boggy swales; rocky mountain ridges, barrens; meadows; roadsides

High Wildlife Value

Notes: typically spreads up to twice it's height; flowers are catkins

For wet areas: Salix discolor (Pussy Willow)

Sambucus canadensis

(American Elder)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' Spread: 6-12' Flowers: Jun.-Jul.; white

Fruit: Aug.-Sept.; purple to black; berry Fall color: yellow green

Conditions

Light: Sun, Partial Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 6.1-7.5

Soil type: Clay Loamy Sandy Organic

Habitat

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, swamps, wet meadows, moist woods, old fields

High Wildlife Value

Notes: berries eaten by 48 species of birds

Spiraea tomentosa

(Steeplebush)

Characteristics

Height: 3-6' Spread: 3-6'

Flowers: Jul.-Sept.; pink to purple Fruit: Sept.-Mar.; brown; capsule Fall color: yellow green

Conditions

Light: Sun

Moisture: Mois,t Wet Soil pH: 5.1-6

Soil type: Clay Loamy Sandy Organic

Habitat

wet meadows, moist old fields, bogs and swamps; lake edges, marshes, dunes, roadside swales

Wildlife: Birds, small mammals

(20)

Vaccinium angustifolium

(Lowbush Blueberry)

Characteristics

Height: 1-2' Spread: 1-2'

Flowers: May-Jun.; white or pink-tinged Fruit: Jul.-Aug.; blue to black; berry Fall color: red

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry, Moist Soil pH: 4-6

Soil type: Clay Loamy Sandy

Habitat

dry woods and barrens, rock outcroppings

High Wildlife Value

Notes: edible berries often harvested, makes a nice ground layer. Similar to V. pallidium(Early Lowbush Blueberry)

Vaccinium corymbosum

(Highbush Blueberry)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: Apr-Jun.; white or pink-tinged Fruit: Jul.-Aug.; blue to black; berry Fall color: yellow to red

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 4-6

Soil type: Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

forested wetlands, shrub swamps, bogs, upland woods; dry to wet woods, thickets, stream banks, rock outcroppings

High Wildlife Value

Notes: edible berries commonly cultivated

Viburnum acerifolium

(Maple-Leaved Arrowwood)

Characteristics

Height: 3-6' Spread: 3-6'

Flowers: Jun.-Jun.; creamy-white, pink Fruit: Aug.-Dec.; blue to black; berry Fall color: orange, red, purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist Soil pH: 5.1-6 Soil type: Clay, Loamy

Habitat

floodplain forests, dry wooded slopes, mixed deciduous forests, talus slopes, rock outcrops, wooded ravines

High Wildlife ValueNotes: dry, edible berries

Viburnum dentatum

(Southern Arrowwood)

Characteristics

Height: 10-15' Spread: 1-12' Flowers: May-Jun.; white

Fruit: Sep.-Nov.; blue to black; berry Fall color: reddish-purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 5.1-6.5

Soil type: Loamy, Sandy, Organic

Habitat

swamps and wet woods, bogs, floodplain forests, stream banks; low, wet acid-sand habitats

High Wildlife Value

(21)

Viburnum cassinoides

(Witherod)

Characteristics

Height: 6-12' Spread: 6-12'

Flowers: May-Jun.; creamy white Fruit: Aug.-Sep.; pink to blue-black; berry Fall color: orange-red to purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 5.1-6.5

Soil type: Loamy, Organic

Habitat

swamps, bogs, moist woods, and barrens

High Wildlife Value

Notes: handsome stature; multiple fruit colors at once

Viburnum prunifolium

(Black Haw)

Characteristics

Height: 12-14' Spread: 8-12'

Flowers: Apr.-May; white

Fruit: Jul.-Nov.; pink to blue-black; berry Fall color: reddish purple

Conditions

Light: Sun, Part Sun, Shade Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet Soil pH: 4.8-7.5

Soil type: Clay, Loamy

Habitat

successional woods, thickets, old fields, and roadsides

High Wildlife Value

Notes: fruits edible, used for preserves

Summary

There’s native shrub for every gardening need

They are beautiful and easy to grow, and they

support biodiversity

Naturalize you landscape

Go native

Reduce pesticides

Give them a chance!

References

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