**Simon Warui Mwangi **

*Deputy Principal, St. Peters Thange Boys Secondary *

*School, Kibwezi, Kenya *

**Prof. Johnson M. Changeiywo, PhD **

*Professor, Department of Curriculum, Instruction and *

*Education Management, Egerton University, Njoro, *

*Kenya *

**Prof. Bernard N. Githua, PhD **

*Professor, Department of Curriculum, Instruction and *

*Education Management, Egerton University, Njoro, *

*Kenya*

## Effects Of Computer

## Animated Teaching

## Technique On Secondary

## School Students'

## Geometry Mathematics

## Achievement By Gender

**ABSTRACT **

Mathematics plays an important role in the scientific world and it is vital for the development of a Country.

Mathematics is a compulsory subject in Basic education in Kenya. The Students' performance in the subject at

the National Examinations has remained below average. There exist gender difference in mathematics

achievement with boys performing better than girls. Students perform poorly in Loci a geometric topic in

mathematics. The reason for the poor performance in mathematics and the Loci topic, in particular, has been

attributed to several factors, which may include: poor teaching methods and lack of teaching/learning resources.

The student investigated the effects of using Computer Animated on students' achievement. Computer

animations have been used in teaching/learning of Biology and chemistry with the subjects registered

improvement. The study was guided by the Constructivist theory. The theory states that students learn by

constructing new knowledge from day-to-day real-life experiences. Computer-generated Animations were

constructed to teach Form Four in Co-educational secondary schools. The Research Design used in the study

was Quasi-Experimental specifically Solomon Four, Non-Equivalent Control Group with two treatment groups.

Purposive random sampling was used to assign the four groups to schools with mathematics graduate teachers,

students that are evenly distributed by gender and had a computer laboratory. The experimental groups were

taught using Computer Animations while control groups were taught using conventional teaching/ learning

methods. There were 95 female and 112 male students who participated in the research. A Mathematics Test

(MAT) which was an adoption of past KCSE questions on geometry was used to assess students' achievement.

Piloting of the instrument was done to estimate its reliability. The instrument was validated for face and content

validity by experts from Egerton University. The instrument had a reliability coefficient of 0.8826 computed

using the K-R 20 formula. A control and one experimental group sat for a Pre-test before the interventions were

done. All the four groups sat for the same pre-test after intervention as a Post-test. The testing of the hypothesis

was done t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA at a significant level of 0.05. The results of the study revealed that

Computer Animated improves students' mathematics achievement. Both female and male students, when

exposed to the Teaching Technique, performed significantly the same. The findings may be beneficial to

students in high schools, mathematics teachers, Universities and mathematics curriculum developers since the

automate goal of teaching is to ensure student achievement their optimum.

Keywords: Gender, Computer-Animated Teaching Technique on Loci, Mathematics Achievements

**1. INTRODUCTION **

**1.1 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STUDENTS' MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS **

Gender issues and differences have been a topic of educational research, particularly in Mathematics for a long

time. Leder (1996) found out a lot of factors that influence gender differences in learning mathematics. He

multiplicity of forces and environments factors that operate apart from the gender which influences a child's

learning. Mutai (2017) researched and suggesting the factors that influence gender differences in mathematics

may include: (i) peer influence against female students serious study of mathematics particularly during

adolescence; (ii) indoctrination by parents as mathematics being for men (iii) the roles given to female

characters in the mathematics textbook depict them playing society "stereotype" feminine roles such as buying

items in the market cooking while male characters are depicted playing role such as flying airplanes. (iv) lack

of women role models as mathematicians. Cultural differences may influence how mathematics is performed

and taught through different approaches in secondary schools (Seah, 2003). The cultural differences may vary

due to socio-economic status, ethnicity, environment, among other things.

Globally, many types of research have been done on mathematics achievement disparity by gender which has

given different findings where in some cases difference is found to be significant and in other cases, no

difference is found. Fennema (2000) found that gender differences exist in grade twelve schools in the USA.

On the contrary in Australia Vale's (2009) research revealed that both male and female students perform

significantly the same in mathematics achievement; though males obtain higher mean scores. This agrees with

Ericikan, McCreikth and Lapointe (2005) whose research revealed no significant difference in mathematics

achievement of male and female students in Mexico. Laura, Mendolia and Contini (2016) found that the gender

gap in educational outcomes advantaging boys has been filled up in most industrialized countries such as Italy

and Germany. In the United Arab Emirates, a study by Alkhateeb (2001) observed that female students perform

better than their male counterparts in high school mathematics.

Achor, Imoko and Ajai (2010) found out that in Nigeria male students perform better than their female

counterparts in mathematics despite being subjected to the same classroom situation. On the other hand,

Kuruma (2004) and Gimba (2006) observed that girls outperform boys in geometrical mathematics in Nigeria

when taught using computer animations. The same view is shared by Etukudo (2002). However, a study by

Abiam and Odok (2006) found no significant between boys and girls in mathematics achievement in some

topics in Nigeria. Studies in Botswana by Finn (1980) and Duncan (1989) indicated that cultural expectations

of society may be a contributing factor in mathematics achievement differences between girls and boys.

The underachievement and gender differences in mathematics performance in Kenya are attributed to

ineffective teaching methods employed in mathematics classrooms (O'Connor, 2000). Most girls underestimate

their academic ability and believe boys to be relatively more superior and intelligent in handling difficult

subjects like mathematics (Mondoh, 2001). The stereotypical perception in society makes girls feel inferior to

boys in studying what is perceived as hard subjects (Githua, 2002). Mathematics is regarded as a male domain

by many secondary school students, parents and some teachers (Shuard, 1982). Many people in society

worldwide belief that boys are better in mathematics than girls as noted by Burton (1989). Reports by KNEC

performance at the KCSE national mathematics examinations. The KCSE national examinations results from

the year 2013 to 2017 reveals that the mathematics performance has consistently been low with notable gender

disparities. The boys have been performing slightly better than girls at the KCSE national mathematics

examinations as indicated in Table 1.

*Table 1: KCSE Mathematics Examination Results 2013 to 2017 by Gender *

*Source: KNEC, 2013 pp (xii), 2015 pp 10& 2018 pp 12 *

The KCSE mathematics performance in Kitui County has consistently been poor. The County had in 2013,

2015, 2016 and 2017 got the mean grades 3.912, 4.106, 4.4106 and 4.222 respectively for boys and 2.310,

2.908, 3.206 and 3.220 for girls (KCEO, 2015; 2018). The performance index of both genders was below 5

points out of 12 points with the male students performing better than girls, which shows some gender disparity

in mathematics achievement in the County.

Despite the consistent effort by the Kenyan Government to improve the students' performance in science and

Mathematics within the country (CEMASTEA, 2012), Kitui County has continually performed poorly in

mathematics at the KCSE level. There are several reasons identified by researchers as causes of poor

mathematics performance which include: poor methodology, lack of teachers and inadequate teaching/learning

materials, poor infrastructures and lack of monitoring. According to Mbugua (2012), males outperform their

female counterparts in Science, Mathematics and Technology subjects in Baringo County. The same results can

be confirmed from other counties in Kenya (Wambua, 2007). In this study, gender was studied to find out if

using the Computer Animated Loci Teaching Technique can reduce the gender difference in mathematics

achievement.

**1.2 THE CONCEPT LOCI A TOPIC OF GEOMETRY IN MATHEMATICS **

Roe (2003) defines Geometry as that branch of mathematics in which such figures as squares, triangles, cubes,

among others are studied; specifically, students construct and measure the angles, length of various geometric

figures and study the relationship that exists between their parts. Geometry is used in Traffic Road signs as

noted by Sibawu and Thembinkosi (2017) geometry is also used in such fields as astronomy, survey,

architecture and engineering (Gale & Davidson, 2006). Loci is a set of points in one, two or three dimensions

where its location is determined by one or more specified conditions. Kinyua, Maina and Ondera (2005)

describe loci to be all about tracing where a line traces a line, a line traces area and are traces volume. In Kenyan

secondary schools the topic loci is taught to Form Four students. The prerequisites to loci are taught in Form

One as geometrical construction, in Form Two is angle properties of circle and in Form Three as tangent and

circle. Some of the common categories of loci are circles; parallel line; perpendicular line; angle bisector locus;

Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Female KCSE Mean% Scores 24.51 21.26 24.27 18.25 23.54

Male KCSE Mean% Scores 30.13 26.40 29.16 23.03 27.29

constant angle locus; loci of a chord, loci involving inequalities and intersecting loci (MOE, 2006). Some

students find the question on Loci very difficult and where the questions are optional they avoid them

(CEMASTEA, 2012), an indication that the topic needs more attention on it is taught and learn. In South Africa,

Sibiya and Mudaly (2018) observed that geometry is regarded as a difficult topic to teach and learn at the

secondary school level. In an attempt to improve students' performance in Loci a topic of Geometry Computer

Animations were used to teach the topic.

**1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM **

Mathematics is the cornerstone for many careers such as technology, medicine, economics and engineering

among others science-related careers. It is generally performed poorly globally and specifically in Kitui County.

Some of the factors attributed to the learners' poor performances in mathematics are poor methodology, lack of

teaching/learning resources and gender stereotype among others. Loci is taught in secondary schools to Form

Four students where it has been found to be very difficult to teach and learn. The use of animations in

Chemistry, Biology and three-dimensional geometry has been found to students' performance. Computer

Animated Teaching Technique was used during the instruction of the Loci topic. Traditional Teaching

Techniques are more teacher-centred and put less emphases on students' active participation.

**1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY **

The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of Computer Animated Teaching Technique on loci during

instruction on secondary school students' mathematics achievement by gender in Kitui County, Kenya.

** 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY **

The objective that guided the study was the determination of whether there was gender disparity in Student's

Mathematics achievement in learning of "Loci" by use of the Computer Animated Loci Teaching Technique.

** 1.6 THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY **

The null hypothesis that was tested at a significant level of 0.05 stated that:

HO: There is no significant gender disparity in mathematics achievement when secondary school students are taught mathematics using

Computer Animated Teaching Technique and those taught using conventional methods.

**2. THE THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY **

Adom, Emad and Adu (2018) noted that theoretical and conceptual frameworks of a research depict the roadmap

on which the research-based. The two frameworks aim to primarily ensure that the research findings are

meaningful and acceptable to be contributing to the growing body of knowledge.

**2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK **

Ravitch and Carl (2016) see the theoretical framework as a guide that helps researchers align and put in context

Constructivist Theory of Cognitive Functioning, which states that learning is attained through 'construction'

(Piaget, 1970). The constructivist theory proposes that humans beings cannot be "given" information which

they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must "construct" their own knowledge through

experience.

**2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK **

Adom, et al. (2018) noted that the conceptual framework is essential in linking the key concepts for the study

in a logical manner. The logically visual display of how variables relate to one another helps in the interpretation

of the researched concepts or ideas (Grant & Osanloo, 2014). The framework in this study shows independent

variables as Computer Animated Teaching Technique as an intervention in the teaching/learning of Loci and a

Conventional Teaching Techniques as a control. The dependent variable in the research was students'

mathematics achievement in Loci. The purpose of the study was to establish how the use of the Computer

Animated Teaching Technique influences students' mathematics achievement as compared to the use of

Conventional Teaching Techniques.

The outcome of the study may be influenced by extraneous variables and as such caution need to be taken to

minimize the influence. The extraneous variable should be critically analysed when planning research and when

evaluating the results after the data have been collected. Some extraneous variables can be anticipated and

others are revealed during the study. Those that are anticipated can be addressed by using specific experimental

design techniques. Those that are revealed during the study help in the interpretation of the research findings.

The teachers', schools' and students' factors are some of the extraneous variables identified in this research. The

teachers' academic qualification and professional experience were anticipated and controlled in such a way that

only graduate teachers who had taught Form Four class for more than two years participated in the research.

According to Walklin (1982), before using any teaching aid the teacher must be fully conversant with its

operation and application. The teacher must also rehearse his presentation before confronting the class. The

teachers using the Computer Animated Teaching Technique had a five days training on how to use the

Animation in line with the teaching guide. The teaching of the loci topic took three weeks as stipulated by KIE

(2002). The research focused on Co-educational Secondary Schools which are the majority. Loci is taught to

Form Four students and as such the research was confined to them only, with an assumption that they are

relatively the same age. Gender as an extraneous variable was used to interpret the research. A representation

*Figure 1: The Diagram of Relationship Between the independent, Extraneous and dependent variables of the *
*Study *

**3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY **

The Research Design used in the study was Quasi-Experimental specifically Solomon Four, Non-Equivalent

Control Group with two treatment groups (Gall, Borg & Gall, 2003). This design allows the researchers to use

the classes as constituted in education institutions. The schools administrators do not allow disruption of classes

for research purposes (Borg & Gall, 1989). The design is useful in that it accounts for how pretesting before

exposure to an intervention may influence subsequent posttest results after the intervention is done. The

researchers use a pretest-posttest design to show that when subjects are exposed to an intervention then

differences between the pretest and posttest scores are a result of the intervention (Tingen & McGahee, 2014).

The Solomon four-group design is used to combat threats to internal and external validity.

Group Pre-test Intervention Post-test

E1 𝑂1 X 𝑂2

C1 𝑂3 𝑂4

E2 X 𝑂5

C2 𝑂6

*Figure 2: Solomon Four, Non-Equivalent Control Group Research Design *

C1 and C2 denote control groups while E1 and E2 represent experimental groups. O1and O3 represent Pretest

while O2, O4, O5andO6 represent Posttest. The experimental treatment was denoted by X while the absence

of pretest and intervention for some groups is indicated by (―) (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999).

**3.1 THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY **

The study was done at Kitui County where the target population was secondary school students. The county

has 268 Co-educational secondary schools out of 380 secondary schools (KCEO, 2017). The study may not

cover the entire target population and hence the need to identify a portion of the population that can be reached

Yount (2006). Loci is taught to Form Four students in secondary school hence they formed the accessible

population; particularly in Co-educational secondary school. Kitui County had 16,532 Form, Four students, the

majority of them being in Co-educational schools (KCEO, 2015; 2017).

Purposive random sampling was used to choose the four schools to participate in the study from the sixteen

Sub-Counties in Kitui. This ensured that the chosen schools had mathematics graduate teachers teaching Form

Four; students that are evenly distributed by gender and had a computer laboratory. There were 95 female and

112 male students who participated in the research.

**3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS **

A Mathematics Test which was an adoption of past KCSE questions on geometry was used to assess students'

achievement. The test took two hours under supervision mathematics teachers. It had a total of 31 items where

a student who scored all the items correct was awarded 100 marks. The instrument was administered to two

groups as a pretest and the same instrument was administered to the four groups as a posttest.

**4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS **

**4.1 RESULTS OF THE PRE-TEST ON MAT **

*Table 2: Participants in the Research by Group and Gender *

C1 E1 C2 E2 TOTAL

FEMALE 24 26 26 19 95

MALE 35 25 19 33 112

TOTAL 59 51 45 52 207

The distribution of males and females in the sampled school was fairly well with an exemption of E2 where

60% of the students were male. Most of the classes were big enough to accommodate the students only C1

where the students were overclouded. Only one class C2 had the recommended class size for secondary schools

in Kenya of 45 students per class (MoEST, 2005).

**4.2 SAMPLE TEST ITEM ACHIEVEMENT ANALYSIS IN MAT **

The teaching started with the students being given a pre-test to find out their entry behaviour and ascertain

whether the groups are homogeneous and comparable. The students were given some time to think and put their

solutions in writing. The question statement was that a solid 30 cm ruler which lies on a flat surface is rotated

about one of its shorter edge until it is flat on the surface again. The students were to state and sketch the loci

traced by the ruler. The question was testing on Three–Dimensional locus and was awarded four marks. Table

3 shows the results of the pre-test by gender.

*Table 3: Pre-Test results Result for MAT by Gender *

Gender Blank 0

Marks 1 Marks

2 Marks

3 Marks

4 Marks

Mean

Mark Total
**Control **

**group- C1 **

M 10 12 5 4 3 1 1.040 35

**F ** 8 9 4 1 2 0 0.750 24

**Experiment**
**al group E1 **

**M ** 6 8 6 4 2 0 1.000 26

Table 3 shows that male and female students' achievements are relatively the same with male students' overall

achievement being slightly better than their female counterparts. This indicated that the students were

comparable by gender. After the intervention where E1 was taught using the Computer Animation Teaching

technique and C1 learned through traditional teaching methods, all the students sat for post-test MAT. Figure 3

shows the expected results of the test item.

*Figure 3: The expected solutions to the test in the MAT *

In the pre-test, only one student managed to get the test item correctly. Indicating all the other students faced

some challenges in answering the question. Table 4 shows the results post-test results of the same test item after

the intervention.

*Table 4: Pro-Test results Result for MAT by Gender *

Gender Blank 0

Marks 1 Marks

2 Marks

3 Marks

4 Marks

Mean

Mark Total
**Control **

**group- C1 **

M 2 6 6 6 6 9 2.182 35

**F ** 2 5 4 2 5 6 2.137 24

**Experiment**
**al group E1 **

**M ** 1 2 2 4 7 10 2.840 26

**F ** 0 2 2 3 7 11 2.920 25

The performance of male and female students as indicated in Table 4 is relatively the same within the group

but overall, the experimental group outperformed the control group. In the experimental group, the female

students had performed better than the male students. Hunter and Greever (2007) also found that by using

computer animation, the female students outperformed the male students in mathematics indicating that female

students experienced a greater benefit from exposure to technology during classroom instruction than male

students.

**4.3 EFFECTS COMPUTER ANIMATED LOCI TEACHING TECHNIQUE ON THE GENDER **
**DIFFERENCE IN STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENTS IN LOCI TOPIC OF MATHEMATICS **

Hypothesis HO was analyzed to establish whether gender disparity exists in mathematics achievement among

Co-educational school students when Computer Animated Teaching Technique is used as a treatment. It was

also important to establish if the disparity exists, whether it was significant or not. The results of the post-test

*Table 5: Post-Test Achievement Result for MAT by Gender per group *

The post-test results show that Male students performed better than their female counterparts in all the groups

except one. Overall the boys performed slightly better than girls in MAT. Table 6 shows the overall results of

the post-test MAT score by gender.

*Table 6: Overall posttest Achievement Result for MAT by Gender *

GENDER N Mean sd

POSTTEST

Female 95 40.79 17.47

Male 112 43.79 19.17 Total 207 42.41 18.43

In overall Posttest achievement on MAT results, boys performed slightly better than girls. This agrees with the

reports by KNEC (2015) that boys' performance in mathematics is slightly better than girls in KCSE. Table 7

shows the independent sample t-test of posttest scores on MAT by gender. The posttest was done by a total of

95 females and 112 males.

*Table 7: Independent sample t-test of post-test mean scores on MAT by gender *

Variable Group N Mean SD df t-computed t-Critical p-value

MAT Female 95 40.79 17.47 205 -1.167 1.645 0.257

Male 112 43.79 19.17

*Critical values (df= 120, t =1.645, p<0.05) Calculated values (df=205, t = -1.167, p = 0.257)

The t-test revealed that the gender disparity mathematics achievement score was not significant at t (205)

=-1.167, p > 0.05. The performance was relatively the same for both male and female students. The difference

between male and female students was no statistically significant when animations are used in teaching Loci.

This agrees with Milagros and Jacquelynne (2012) when computer animations were used to teach algebra.

*Table 8: Pretest and Posttest mean scores gain in MAT *

Test Male Female

Pre-test 27.68 25.36

Post-test 43.79 40.79

Mean gain 16.1 15.43

Table 8, shows that the boys did slightly better than girls in both pre-test and post-test. The mean gain in the

post-test over the pre-test for male students' achievement scores was slightly higher than that of girls. The

results agree with Van Dijk (2005) who found that although the gap exists between male and female students

in mathematics achievement tests when computer animations are used the difference is not significant.

POST TEST C1 E1 C2 E2 Total

Gender F M F M F M F M

Mean 34.7 37.1 47.6 48.8 30.6 33.7 53.2 52.9 42.4

N 24 35 26 25 26 19 19 33 207

However, he ascertains that more research into the outcomes of female students using technology in

mathematics is necessary to identify instructional practices that eliminate, rather than exacerbate, this disparity.

**5. DISCUSSION **

According to Milagros and Jacquelynne (2012), the gender disparity in achievement scores is no significant

when algebra is taught using computer animations. The results also agree with Abdulrasaq, Ganiyu and

Olakanmi (2017) who noted when students are taught practical biology using computer animations instructional

package then the gender difference in academic achievement is not significant. Computer animation has been

used to improve students' academic achievement in Biology practicals irrespective of gender (Hamzat, Bello &

Abimbola, 2017). On the contrary in Nigeria Ikwuka and Samuel (2017) noted in their research that male student

performs significantly better than female students when animations are used in chemistry. The findings of

Hunter & Greever (2007) were that when computer animation and simulations are used, the female students

outperformed the male students in mathematics indicating that female students experienced a greater benefit

from exposure to technology in the classroom than male students. Despite there being no clear direction on

gender differences in achievement when computer animations are used, academic improvement is observed in

most of the researches. This makes computer animations a preferred technique of teaching where concepts can

be animated.

**6. CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY **

**6.1 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY **

When computer animations are used to teach Geometry in general and Loci in particular then all students

improve academically irrespective of gender.

The gender difference in mathematics achievement is not significant when computer animations are used

to teach Loci.

**6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS **

Computer animations should be developed in all mathematics concepts as a partnership between

mathematics teachers and Computer graphic designers.

Computer animations should be used in the mathematics classroom since it improves the academic

achievement of students irrespective of gender.

The student-teacher should be trained on how to make computer animations of mathematics concepts on

ICT that will warrant the mathematics teachers' use of modern ICT tools during the teaching and learning

process. The problem of dismal performance in mathematics may be addressed by the use of computer

Mathematics Education stakeholders such as QASO and KICD should encourage teachers to use

Computer animations in their teaching. Caution should be observed since the success entirely depends on

the effectiveness of the animator. Computer animations are a supplementary teaching tool but should not

entirely replace other methods of instruction.

In-service courses organised by the Ministry of Education, such as CEMASTEA, TSC and KICD, should

incorporate Computer animations in their teaching programmes.

**6.3 SUGGESTED AREAS OF FURTHER RESEARCH **

This study suggests that Computer Animated Loci Teaching Technique can effectively improve

mathematics instruction in Co-educational Secondary Schools causing minimal gender differences.

However, some areas warrant further research.

Effects of computer animations in mathematics topics that are deemed as difficult to teach and learn to

students' mathematics achievement, misconception, motivation and self-confidence by gender.

The relationship of anxiety, misconceptions interest and mathematics achievements when students are

exposed to Computer animations by gender.

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