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The Impact of Community Colleges on

The Impact of Community Colleges on

Individuals and Society:

Individuals and Society:

Trends and Implications

Trends and Implications

Keynote Address Community College National Center for Community Engagement 14th Annual National Conference

Phoenix, Arizona Frankie Santos Laanan Educational Leadership & Policy Studies Iowa State University

(2)

‹GUAM

‹ HAWAII

‹JAPAN

(3)

ƒ My home: Guam (Guahan) ƒ 1521: Ferdinand Magellan landed on Guam ƒ Southernmost island of the Northern Mariana Islands

ƒ Located in the North Pacific

ƒ 27 miles long; 4-8 miles wide

ƒ Official Language: Chamorro and English ƒ U.S. Territory

ƒ 7 hours by plane to Honolulu, Hawaii

ƒ 6,000 miles from San Francisco

(4)

Guam

Guam

(5)

Postcards of Guam

(6)

Plumeria Flower

Plumeria Flower

(7)

Coconut Crab

Coconut Crab

(8)

Family Gathering and Bar

(9)

Tumon Bay and

Tumon Bay and

Two Lovers Point

Two Lovers Point

(10)

Tumon Bay & Hotel Row

Tumon Bay & Hotel Row

(11)

Old Governor

(12)

Paseo de Oro Plaza

Paseo de Oro Plaza

(13)

Ancient Latte Stones

Ancient Latte Stones

(14)

Sunset at Tumon Bay

Sunset at Tumon Bay

(15)

Impact of Community

Impact of Community

College on me:

College on me:

My Personal Experience

My Personal Experience

(16)

Impact of CC on Me

Impact of CC on Me

„ First point of entry in higher education and open-access

„ Beneficiary of the American community college

„ Enrolled in developmental math course in 1987

„ Impact of faculty and professionals

„ High quality academic preparation and training

„ Swirled between and among institutions

„ Completed the Transfer Curriculum

„ Pathway to the baccalaureate degree and beyond

„ I have not forgotten where I started

(17)

Northern VA Community College, Alexandria, VA

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA Los Angeles City College,

Los Angeles, CA

Los Angeles Valley College, Fulton, CA

My educational journey: A swirling experience

(18)

Northern VA CC VA Commonwealth University UCLA LA City College LA Valley College START FINISH

(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)

From Island to Ivory

From Island to Ivory

Tower:

Tower:

Giving Back to the Field and

Giving Back to the Field and

Coming Full Circle

Coming Full Circle

(23)

Community College 101

Community College 101

„

Over a century old

„

System is comprised of over 1,600 institutions

„

Significant role in American higher education

„

Enrolls over 10 million students

„

Employs over 300,000 faculty members

„

Comprehensive mission and function

„

Most democratic system of education – “open

door” and “open access” philosophy”

(24)

Debunking Some Myths about CCs

Debunking Some Myths about CCs

„ Only academically challenged students attend community colleges

„ Students who start at community colleges do not transfer to 4-year institutions

„ Community college instructors do not publish scholarly work or engage in creative expressions in their field

„ No resident halls so students do not have opportunities to participate in extra curricular activities, service

learning or civic engagement activities

„ Students who pursue a career and technical education certificate or associate’s degree do not get high skilled, high-wage jobs in the world of work

„ Students have no other choice but to attend community colleges

(25)

Impact of Community

Impact of Community

Colleges on Individuals

Colleges on Individuals

and Society

and Society

(26)

No other institution in

No other institution in

American education

American education

plays a more difficult

plays a more difficult

role than the community

role than the community

college.

college.

Cohen & Brawer (2003), p. 427

(27)

Impact on Individuals and Society

Impact on Individuals and Society

„

Education and training for welfare recipients –

pathway to self-sufficiency and economic

prosperity

„

Access to education for marginalized

populations

„

Second chance opportunity for low-income and

low-skilled workers

„

Pathway to the baccalaureate degree

„

Community college degrees or credentials

provide economic advantages over a high

school diploma

(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)

Impact on Individuals and Society

Impact on Individuals and Society

„

Vehicle to re-connect disconnected youth

„

Educate and train future scientists

„

Role in economic development

„

“The Great Equalizer”

„

Gateways to Democracy

(35)

Service Learning in

Service Learning in

Community Colleges

(36)

National Norms: Fall 1999

National Norms: Fall 1999

Essential or Very Important

Essential or Very Important

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Influence political structure Influence social values Helping others in difficulty Participating in community action program Helping promote racial understanding Becoming a community leader Pub 2-YR Pub 4-YR Pub Univ

(37)

National Norms: Fall 1999

National Norms: Fall 1999

Student

Student

s Estimates: Chances are very good

s Estimates: Chances are very good

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Work full-time while attending college

Get a bachelor's degree Participate in student protests

Be satisfied with your college Participate in volunteer or community service work Pub 2-YR Pub 4-YR Pub Univ

(38)

Prentice, Robinson, & McPhee (2003). Service Learning in Community Colleges: 2003 National Survey Results.

(39)

Prentice, Robinson, & McPhee (2003). Service Learning in Community Colleges: 2003 National Survey Results.

(40)

Prentice, Robinson, & McPhee (2003). Service Learning in Community Colleges: 2003 National Survey Results.

(41)

Prentice, Robinson, & McPhee (2003). Service Learning in Community Colleges: 2003 National Survey Results.

(42)

Prentice, Robinson, & McPhee (2003). Service Learning in Community Colleges: 2003 National Survey Results.

(43)

Role of Faculty

Role of Faculty

„ View service learning as an integral part of the curriculum

„ Use service learning as a vehicle

„ Facilitate and build faculty awareness of different teaching methodologies

„ Encourage faculty to include service learning in syllabi and learning objectives

„ Hire faculty with experience in community service and/or service learning

„ Integrate service learning into the college culture

„ Convene stakeholders to use a rubric for assessing stages of institutionalization

„ Network with other colleges and colleagues

„ Focus on service learning as a means to address civic responsibility and public policy

(44)

Keeping America

Keeping America

s

s

Promise:

Promise:

Challenges for Community Colleges

Challenges for Community Colleges

(45)

Trends That Matter

Trends That Matter

„

Trend 1.

Escalating demand for

postsecondary education

„

Trend 2.

Continuously changing

student mix

„

Trend 3.

Going to college: Not what

it used to be

(46)

Trend 1.

Trend 1.

Escalating Demand for

Escalating Demand for

Postsecondary Education

(47)

Benefits of Education

Benefits of Education

More likely to…

„ Be gainfully employed

„ Pay taxes

„ Participate in civic life and democratic

processes

„ Be able to provide for education and health of children

Less likely to…

„ Be dependent on public support

„ Be on welfare

„ Be in prison

(48)

Trend 2.

Trend 2.

Continuously Changing

Continuously Changing

Student

(49)

Community College Student

Community College Student

Characteristics

Characteristics

„ Work full-time 54%

„ Have dependents 34%

„ Single parents 16%

„ Commute to class 6-20 hrs. per week 23%

„ First-generation college students 45%

„ Age 25 or older 44%

„ English not spoken in the home 15%

„ Married 30%

„ Disability (learning, physical) 11%

(50)

The Nontraditional Student

The Nontraditional Student

„ The Part-time student: 67% are part-time students

„ The Multiple-Role Student: employed, single parents, care for dependents

„ The Working Student: challenges in level of

engagement, and course taking options, and access to library (NCES, 2002)

„ The At-Risk Student: A nontraditional student is a

student at risk. Among students seeking an associate’s degree, 62% of highly nontraditional students (3+

nontraditional characteristics) leave without a degree, compared with 19% of traditional students.

„ The Dual-Enrollment Student: High school students enrolled in community colleges to get college credit prior to attaining a diploma

(51)

Trend 3.

Trend 3.

Going to College: Not What it

Going to College: Not What it

Used to Be

(52)

How students go to college

How students go to college

Source: CCSSE, 2003; Hamm, 2004; Wilson, 2004

„

Characteristics of today’s students

„

35% of community college students

began their college somewhere other than

their current institution (CCSSE, 2003)

„

Increase of concurrently enrolled high

school and community college

„

BA degree recipients or higher attend

community colleges at increasing rates

(53)

Why students go to college

Why students go to college

Want to obtain knowledge in a specific area 62% Aspire to obtain an associate degree 58% Plan to transfer to a 4-year institution 47% Want to obtain job-related skills 59%

Aim to complete a certificate 35%

Need to update their job skills 33%

Want to change careers 28%

Take courses for self-improvement 23%

(54)

Nontraditional Learning Options

Nontraditional Learning Options

For-Profit Institutions „ 10% of all associate degrees „ 28% of community college market Corporate Universities „ 2,000+ in U.S. „ Associate and baccalaureate degrees Online Courses „ 54,000 online courses „ 1.6 million students enrolled „ 75% of public associate-degree granting institutions offered distance education options

(55)

Trend 4.

Trend 4.

Funding Squeeze

(56)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

Promise 1.

Provide and Promote Access

to College

Promise 2.

Improve Student Attainment

Promise 3.

Focus on Learning

Promise 4.

Embrace Accountability

Promise 5.

We Must – and We Will –

Close the Gap

(57)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

„

Promise 1.

Provide and Promote

Access to College

– Financing higher education – Academic preparation

(58)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

„

Promise 2.

Improve Student

Attainment

– Challenge for community college – Open-access admissions

– Serve disproportionately high numbers of poor students and students of color

– Students have higher odds of being at-risk of not completing their education

(59)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

„

Promise 3.

Focus on Learning

– Focus on student learning (O’Banion, Barr, Tagg)

– Characteristics of learning-centered institutions

1. Defined outcomes for student learning 2. Assess and documents student learning

3. Diverse array of engaging learning experiences 4. Data about student learning

5. Emphasize student learning in its processes for recruiting, hiring, orienting, deploying, evaluating, and developing personnel

6. Institutional documents and policies, collegial efforts, and leadership behavior consistently reflect a focus on learning

– Assuming collective responsibility for student learning

(60)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

„

Promise 4.

Embrace Accountability

– Community colleges are public institutions – Community colleges are making public

promises

– Community colleges have an obligation to publicly report results

– Important for community colleges to

proactively define appropriate indicators of performance

(61)

Community College Promises

Community College Promises

„

Promise 5.

We Must – and We Will –

Close the Gap

– Role of community colleges in closing the gap in educational of student outcomes, including retention and graduation

– Gaps between and among racial/ethnic groups

“…to be successful in this work is not just a

professional challenge. It is a moral obligation.”

(62)

Making Good on the Promises

Making Good on the Promises

1.

Create stronger connections with K-12

education

2.

Build a new “culture of evidence” in

community colleges

3.

Provide effective remediation

4.

Strengthen student engagement in the

community college leaning experience

5.

Rethink and redesign

(63)

Looking Ahead

Looking Ahead

„ Understand your institution’s cultural context

„ Think strategically about your SL activities and your student demographics

„ Create SL opportunities that are conducive, flexible, and responsive to a diverse student body

„ Demonstrate your SL activities using solid assessment and evaluation approaches

„ Collect quantitative and qualitative data

„ Celebrate your successes

„ Tell your story about your SL initiatives broadly

„ Contribute to the literature and influence the field

„ Understand your role and impact on students

„ You make a significant difference to - students, college, community, and to society

(64)

Contact Information

Contact Information

Frankie Santos Laanan, Ph.D. Assistant Professor

Educational Leadership & Policy Studies College of Human Sciences

Iowa State University N243 Lagomarcino Hall Ames, Iowa 50011-3195 Office: 515.294.7292 Fax: 515.294.4942 E-mail: laanan@iastate.edu Homepage: www.public.iastate.edu/~laanan/

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