Special Crime Investigation Reviewer

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Special Crime Investigation Reviewer

Special Crime Investigation Reviewer Definition of Terms

Admission - Any statement of fact made by a party which is against his interest or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he contends or inconsistent with the facts alleged by him.

AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.

Amateur Intermittent Offender - These types of robbers view themselves as lifetime robbers and commits infrequent robbery offenses, often


Armed Robbery - This involves the use of weapons such as firearm, a knife or other dangerous weapons.

Animus Lucrandi - means intent to gain, in Robbery.

Bienes Muebles - in Robbery, means personal property belonging to another.

Arrest - The legal taking of a person into a custody in order that he may be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.

Arrest Warrant - An order in writing issued in the name of the Philippines commanding or directing a peace officer to arrest the person described therein and brings it before the court.


period of 10 days.

The warrant of arrest validity continues unless: 1. Recalled by the issuing court

2. The respondent has been arrested 3. Respondent voluntary submitted himself

Arson - An act of willfully and maliciously damaging or destroying a building or other property by fire or explosion.

Autopsy - known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, autopsia cadaverum, or obduction, is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

Accused - A person who’s case was forwarded to the office of the prosecutor and filed in court.

Baseline - a method of locating object, particularly useful in in large, irregularly shaped outdoor areas.

Confession - An express acknowledgment by the accused in a criminal prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charged,

while admission refers to statements of fact not directly constituting an acknowledgment of guilt.

Corpus Delicti - Latin for the “body of the crime”.

Crime - A generic term referring to many types of misconduct forbidden by law.


has been committed.

Criminal - A person who is convicted by final judgment.

Criminalist - The officer responsible for recording a crime scene and recognizing and preserving physical evidence.

Criminal Investigation - The collection of facts in order to accomplish the three-fold aims – to identify the guilty party, to locate the guilty party and to provide evidence of his (suspect) guilt.

Criminal Investigator - A well-trained, disciplined and experienced professional in the field of criminal investigation.

Criminal Law - One that defines crimes treats of their nature and provides for their punishment.

Crime Scene - The geographical area where the crime was committed.

Crime Scene Sketch - A simple diagram that creates a mental pictures of the scene to those who are not present.

Rough Sketch - The first pencil-drawn outline of the scene and the location of objects and evidence within this outline.

DNA Profiling - (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.

DNA Fingerprinting - is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), of a person's cells.


Archimedes (287–212 BC) invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape.

Book of Xi Yuan Lu - The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele - he devised in 1773 a method for detecting arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses.

Henry Goddard - at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of bullet comparison in 1835.

Alphonse Bertillon - was the first to apply the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements.

Sir William Herschel - was one of the first to advocate the use of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects.

English Constable - early recorded professional criminal investigator.

Evidence - The means by which facts are proved.

Forcible Rape - Sexual intercourse carried out against a person’s will by the use of physical violence.

Four Basic Techniques That Can Be Used To Measure A Crime Scene 1. Rectangular/Coordinate System

2. Baseline/Station Line 3. Triangulation/Trilateration 4. Azimuth/Polar Coordinates


people; one to hold each end of a tape measure. This type of measuring convention is best suited for large open areas where there might not be any fixed reference points. A known starting point must be established in your scene which might require pounding in a stake. That point is located by using a handheld GPS (global positioning system). A large protractor or some other type of board marked with a circle and degree increments is used. The zero location on the board is oriented toward magnetic north.

Triangulation - is a method that can be used when the scene is irregularly shaped. Two control points are used for this method.

Highgrading – selling

Information - The general term referring to the knowledge acquired by criminal investigator from various sources. Data gathered by an investigator from other persons including the victim himself and other sources.

Instrumentation - The application of instrument and method of physical science in the detection and investigation of crime.

Interview - The simple friendly questioning of people who have the information officially needed by investigators.

Interrogation - The vigorous or aggressive questioning of person suspected of having committed an offense or a person who is reluctant or willing to make a full disclosure of information in his possessions, which is pertinent to the investigation of a criminal case.


has been committed and that some other person is responsible thereof.

Kastle–Meyer Test - is a presumptive blood test, first described in 1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect the possible presence of hemoglobin.

Miranda Doctrine - The principle on the rights of a suspect against forced self-incrimination during police interrogation.

Modus Operandi - Methods of Operation, Modes of Operation, Manner of committing the crime.

Murder-Suicide - An act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself.

Phenomena - A circumstance, event or occurrence as it actually exists or existed.

Photography - The most reliable means of preserving the crime scene or evidence.

Political terrorists - The use of force or the fear of force to achieve a political end.

Power-Reassurance Rapist - The rapist who psychologically doubt his masculinity and seeks to dispel this doubt by exercising power and control over women.

Professional Robber - This characterized as having a long-term commitment to crime as a source of livelihood, planning and organizing crimes before committing them and pursuing money to support a particular lifestyle.


RA 7438 - An act defining certain rights of person under custodial investigation.

RA 8353 - The Anti-Rape Law of 1997.

RA 9514 - The Fire Code of the Philippines.

Rectangular - a method of obtaining measurement to locate an object by making a measurement at right angles from each of two walls. Works well for indoor measurements.

Special Crime Investigation - The investigation of cases that are unique and often require special training to fully understand their broad significance.

Spectrometry - modern detection method of alcohol and drugs.

Suspect - A person arrested for a crime.

Terrorism - The unlawful use of threat of violence against person or property to further political or social objectives.

Three Fold Aim of Criminal Investigation 1. Identify the Perpetrator

2. Locate the Perpetrator 3. Provide Evidence

Triangulation - method of locating object where measurements are taken from two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to locate.






Introduction to Criminology

Prof. Pacifico


Philippine Criminal Justice


Prof. Jeffrey Bajita

Juvenile Delinquency and Crime


Prof. Jeffrey Bajita

Human Behavior and Crisis


Prof. Pacifico


Seminar on Contemporary Police


Prof. Pacifico






Police Organization and

Administration with Police


Prof. Anthony


Police Personnel and Records


Prof. Anthony


Patrol Operation and Police

Communication System

C/Insp. Felino


Industrial Security Management

Prof. Jeffrey Bajita

Police Intelligence

C/Insp. Felino


Comparative Police System

Prof. Pacifico






Personal Identification


Dr. Alfredo Kahanding

Forensic Ballistics

Mr. Ronan Masacupan

Forensic Photography

Mr. Nick Guanco

Questioned Document

Prof. Antonio



P/Supt. Cenon Manalo

Forensic Medicine

Dr. Wilfredo Tierra

Forensic Chemistry and


Prof. Nicanor Cruz





Fundamentals of Crime Investigation

C/Insp. Felino Bragado

Special Crime Investigation and

Investigation of Organized Crime

Prof. Anthony Mondejar

Fire Technology and Arson


Engr. Garry Lunas

Traffic Operations and Accident


P/Supt. Cenon Manalo

Drug Education and Vice Control

Prof. Jeffrey Baj


E. CORRECTION (16 hours)




Correctional Philosophy and


Dr. Janet Padua

Probation and Parole

(Non-Institutional Correction)

Dr. Janet Padua





Criminal Law (RPC, Book 1)

Atty. Makamasa Gapit

Criminal Law (RPC, Book 2)

Atty. Makamasa Gapit

Criminal Procedure

Atty. Makamasa Gapit

Criminal Evidence

Atty. Makamasa Gapit

Practice Court and Special Law

Atty. Molina

Case Analysis in Criminal Law

Atty. Molina


Criminal Jurisprudence and LEA

Review Staff

Criminalistics and CDI

Review Staff

Criminal Sociology and


Review Staff


Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation

Investigation - an inquiry, judicial or otherwise for the discovery and

collection of facts concerning the matters involved.

- it is the process of inquiring, eliciting, soliciting and getting vital information, facts, circumstances in order to establish the truth.


Criminal Investigator - a public safety officer who is tasked to conduct the investigation of all criminal cases as provided for and embodied under the revised penal code, criminals laws and special laws which are criminal in nature.

- a well trained, disciplined and experienced professional in the field of criminal investigation.

Custodial Investigation - investigation conducted by law enforcement

officers after a person has been arrested or deprived of his freedom of action.

Neighborhood Investigation - one of the most crucial steps in kidnap

for ransom cases which is often overlooked. The objective is to identify and interview in person all individuals in the area where the victim was

kidnapped or last known sighting area during the window of opportunity.(last time seen until the time discovered missing.

Crime scene - a venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event

has been committed.

Corpus delicti - (latin for the body of the crime) - used to describe the

physical or material evidence that a crime has been committed. ex. corpse of a murder victim.

Confession - is an express acknowledgement by the accused in a criminal

prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charge.

Admission - refers to statement of facts not directly constituting an

acknowledgement of guilt.

Organized criminal group - a structured group of three or more persons


for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crime or offenses.

Organized crime - a combination of two or more persons who are

engaged in a criminal or virtual criminal activity on a continuing basis for the purpose of profit or power using gangland style to attain their purpose.

Physical evidence - evidenced addressed to the senses of the court that

are capable of being exhibited, examined or viewed by the court. This includes but not limited to fingerprints, body fluid, explosives, hazardous chemicals, soil/burned debris, bombs, electronic parts used in the

commission of the crime.

Victimology/victim profiling - a detailed account of the victims lifestyle

and personality, assist in determining the nature of the disappearance, the risk level of the victim and the type of person who could

have committed the crime. Complete information regarding the victims physical description, normal behavior patterns, the family dynamics and known friends and acquintances should be obtained as soon as possible.


kidnapping, after two hour interrogation. Because the interrogators failed to inform Miranda of his right to counsel and remain silent, his conviction was overturned.

Waterboarding - refers to the practice of strapping a suspect to a board

with his or her head lowered, then the face is covered and water is poured over it causing the suspect to gag and experience the sensation of


Chinese water torture - interrogation technique, repeatedly dripping

water on the forehead of the suspect. The goal is to drive the suspect to near insanity thereby obtaining a confession.

Serial Killer - is someone who murders 3 or more people with "cooling

off" periods in between.

Police Blotter - is an 18" x 12" logbook with hard bound cover that

contains the daily register of all crime incident reports, official summary of arrests and other significant events reported in a police station. A separate police blotter shall be maintained for offenses requiring confidentiality like violence against women and children and those cases involving a child in conflict with the law to protect their privacy pursuant to RA 9262 (anti violence against women and children act of 2004) and RA 9344 ( juvenile justice and welfare act of 2006).

Actus Reus - proof that a criminal act has occurred.

Sketch - a rough drawing or painting, often made to assist in making a

more finished picture.

Types of Sketches

1. Floor plan (Birds Eye View) 2. Elevation Drawing

3. Exploded View 4. Respective Drawings

Allan Pinkerton - a Scottish american detective who created the

Pinkerton National Detective Agency, the first detective agency in the US.Pinkerton foiled a plot to assassinate President Lincoln.

Rouges Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of

criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.A compilation of descriptions, methods of operation having places and names of criminal and their associates.

Mugshot - is a photographic portrait taken after one is arrested.

Criminal investigation - it is the collection of facts in order to accomplish

the three fold aims:

3 Fold Aims Of Criminal Investigation


2. To locate the guilty party 3. To provide evidence of his guilt

6 Cardinal points of investigation

1. What specific offense was committed 2. How the offense was committed 3. Who committed it

4. Where the offense was committed 5. When it was committed

6. Why it was committed

Tools of an investigator in gathering facts

1. Information - data gathered by an investigator and other person including the victim himself and from:

1. public records 2. private records 3. modus operandi file

2. Interview - skillful questioning of witness and suspects.

3. Instrumentation - scientific examination of real evidence, application of instruments and method of physical sciences in detecting crime.

Phases of investigations

1.Phase 1 - identify the suspect through: 1. confession

2. eyewitness testimony 3. circumstantial evidence 4. associate evidence

2. Phase 2 - locate and apprehend suspect. 3. Phase 3 - gather and provide evidence to establish the guilt of the accused.

Composition/Organization of an investigation team:

1. Team leader 2. Investigator/recorder 3. Photographer 4. Evidence Custodian 5. Composite illustrator/Artist Equipment of an Investigator


1. Police line 2. Video camera 3. Voice recorder 4. Camera 5. Measuring device 6. Gloves 7. Flashlight 8. Fingerprint kit 9. Evidence bag 10. Evidence tag 11. Evidence bottles/vials 12. Investigators tickler Investigators Tickler 1. Investigators checklist 2. Anatomical diagram form 3. Evidence Checklist

4. Turn-over receipt

Standard Methods of Recording Investigative Data:

1. Photographs

2. Sketching crime scenes

3. Written notes (what you have seen/observed)

4. Developing and lifting fingerprints found at the crime scene. 5. Gathering physical evidence

6. Plaster cast

7. Tape recording of sounds 8. Video tape recording of objects

9. Written statement of objects and witnesses.

2 Kinds of Information

1. Regular sources - ex. citizen, company records 2. Cultivated sources - ex. paid informant

 Interrogation or questioning witness or suspect who is reluctant to divulge or reveal information with the goal of extracting a

confession or obtaining information while an Interview is simple questioning of a person who cooperate with the investigator.

How the Suspect is Identified

1. Confession or Admission - is a declaration of an accused acknowledging his guilt.


3. Circumstantial evidence

How circumstantial Evidence Obtained

1. Motive 2. Opportunity

3. Associative Evidence

Types of Interview

1. Informal (on the scene interview) - conducted by police/investigator at the crime scene to get description of criminal if seen.

2. Formal - interview conducted by the investigator assigned to the case.

Types of Formal Interview

1. Normal - for willing or cooperative witness. 2. Group/Pretext Interview - for hostile witness or witness who refuse to cooperate.

3. Follow Up - additional interview in addition to vital points if necessary. Qualifications of Interviewer 1. Salesman 2. Actor 3. Psychologist Requisites of an Interview 1. Establish rapport 2. Forcefulness of personality 3. Breadth of interest Setting of Interview

1. Background Interview - time and place of

interview are not a consideration except for busy person.

2. Routine Criminal Cases - interview should be carefully planned. Busy person can be interviewed at night, privacy is important.

3. Important Criminal Cases - should be conducted in places other than the subjects home/office to prevent him/her feeling confident. Investigator should get interviewees respect.

4. Appropriate Time - General rule - (ASAP) as soon possible while facts are fresh in the memory of interviewees.

Methods of Crime Scene Search

1. Strip method - the area is blocked out in the form of a rectangle. The searchers (3 person is good) proceed slowly at the same pace along paths parallel to one side of the rectangle.

2. Double Strip Search Method - modification of the strip search method. The rectangle is traversed


first parallel to the base then parallel to a side. 3. Spiral Search Method - The searchers (3 person is good) follow each other along the path of a spiral beginning on the outside and spiraling in towards the center.

4. Zone Search Method - one searcher is assigned to each subdivision of a quadrant and then each quadrant is cut into another set of quadrants. 5. Wheel Search Method - the area is considered to be approximately circular. The searchers gather at the center and proceed outward along radii or spokes. Procedure is repeated several times depending on the size of the circle and the number of searchers.

strip search method

spiral search method

wheel search method

double strip search method

zone search method

Related Readings: Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation

1. Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation Reviewer 1 2. Drug Education Definition of Terms

Fundamentals Of Criminal Investigation Reviewer 1

 Questions and answer

 Reviewer

 Crime scene investigation

 Jonathan

 In the world

1. America's most famous private investigator and founder of


A. Alec Nayhem

B. Allan Pinkerton

C. Thomas Byrnes

D. None of these

2. The first woman detective in the history of

criminal investigation


A. Kathleen Jacob

B. Candy Miles

C. Kate Wayne

D. Pines Hamilton

3. He was known to be the creator of the "bow street runners", a

group of police officers attached to the Bow Street Court, and not

in uniform, performing criminal investigative functions.

A. Henry Fielding

B. John Fielding

C. John Howard

D. Robert Peel

4. The founder and chief organizer of the London Metropolitan Police,

the Scotland Yard, which became famous police organization

in the world.

A. Henry Fielding

B. John Fielding

C. John Howard

D. Robert Peel

5. As a rule, do not touch, alter or remove anything at the crime

scene until the evidence has been processed through notes,

sketches and photographs, with proper measurements.This refers to

A. the golden rule in investigation

B. the number one SOP in investigation

C. the act of note taking

D. the act of

crime scene


6. An Englishman who published a handbook for Examining Magistrates

in Munich, Germany and advocated the use of scientific methods


criminal investigation


A. Hans Gross

B. Thomas Byrnes

C. Alphonse Bertillon


D. Francis Galton

7. The SC ruled the illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible in

state criminal prosecutions in the famous case of

A. Miranda vs Arizona

B. Otit vs Jeff

C. Mapp vs Ohio

D. Milkey vs Wett

8. The continues accountability of persons handling evidences, and

having responsibility of taking care and preserving the evidences

from the time it was found until brought to court for presentation

is called

A. Chain of events

B. Key events

C. Chain of custody of evidence

D. Chain of command

9. In England, he was a buckle maker then a brothel operator; a

master criminal who became London's most effective criminal

investigator. He was the most famous Thief-Catcher in 1720s.

A. Alexander Macanochie

B. Jonathan Wild

C. Billy Cook

D. John Howard

10. What is the Latin term for criminal intent?

A. Mens Rea

B. Magna Culpa

C. Inflagrante Delicto

D. Mala Vise


Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation

1. B

2. C

3. A

4. D

5. A

6. A


7. C

8. C

9. B