World History Second Semester Final Exam Study Guide

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World History Second Semester Final Exam Study Guide Revolutions in Latin America notes

1. The French Revolution's ideals of liberty and equality inspired both ___________________ countries to revolt against their French, Spanish, and Portuguese rulers and later revolutions in Europe.P603

2. Saint Domingue was led to independence by _________________ in modern history's most successful slave rebellion.

The country was then renamed __________.P603

3. ______________ led both Venezuela and Peru to independence from Spain. P605 4. ______________ led both Argentina and Chile to independence from Spain.P605

5. _________________ and ____________ started the Mexican rebellions against Spanish rule.P607 6. Unlike the rest of Latin America, Brazil achieved independence through __________ means.P607-608

7. Most newly independent Latin American countries had a local military dictatorship replace the Spanish as their rulers.

Revolutions Disrupt Europe notes

8. After the French Revolution, the Congress of Vienna was led by Austria's Prince __________ and it restored the old ________________ overthrown by the French Revolution. P609

9. The Congress of Vienna created a balance of power which prevented any major European wars for the next century.

10. Nationalism was a belief that one's loyalty should not be to a ______________ but instead to a nation of people with a common __________________.P609

11. Nationalism was inspired by the ____________________. P609

12. Throughout Europe, in the 1830s and in 1848, ___________ and ___________ revolted against _______________


13. By 1849, however, ________________ began regaining power throughout Europe. P611 Nationalism in Italy and Germany notes

14.In 1860, _____________ and his followers the "______________" captured southern Italy from Spain. Sardinia's King ___________________ united northern and southern Italy. P616

15. The German state that led Germany's unification was ________________. P616

16. Otto Von Bismarck was Prussia's _____________________ and a master of __________________ or power politics.P617

17.To expand Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck provoked wars with both ________ and __________. P617, 618

18. After Prussia won the Franco-Prussian War, nationalistic fever caused the ____________ German Catholic states to unite with northern Protestant Prussia.P618

19. After the Franco-Prussian War (1867 ), Prussia's King Wilhelm I was crowned _________ inside the captured French palace of ______________ and the _________________ was declared P618.

20. After the Franco-Prussian War (1867,) Prussia was renamed ________________ and became Europe's strongest country in a new balance of power.P618

The Beginnings of Industrialization notes

21. The Industrial Revolution was a great increase in _________ made goods. P633 22. The Industrial Revolution started in ____________ before spreading elsewhere P633.

23. In the 1700s, improvements in _________ methods led to more food, more people, and more demand for goods.P633

24. List 3 natural resources inside Great Britain (England) that gave it an advantage for industrialization.

________________ ______________ ___________ P634

25. Great Britain (England) had a good __________ to support industrialization. P634

26. Great Britain (England) had political _____________ (no wars fought inside its country in the 1700s) which helped it to industrialize.P634

27. For its cloth industry, Britain got most of its cotton from the ____________ South. P636 28. Britain's textile industry benefitted from Eli Whitney's ________________________. P636


29. Transportations improved and expanded as more and better roads were built and the steam engine invented by ______________ led to both steamboats and railroads. P636

Industrialization notes

30. Industrialization created more ________ jobs which made cities crowded and unsanitary with widespread disease and sickness.p638

31. Industrialization made ___________ Europe's biggest city.p638

32. Industrialization created a long work week of on average ___ days at ___hours/day with no overtime pay. P639 33. Industrialized factories had __________ working conditions with harsh factory discipline. P639

34. Industrialization created class tensions as the old/traditional upper class of aristocrats resented the new rich middle class of _____________________________________.p639

35. Industrialization created class tensions as the poor unskilled workers saw _________ replace them at work and there were some ______ by them over poor working and living conditions.P639

36. Positive effects of the Industrial Revolution included it created more ________, it created _______for the nation, it created new technology, increased the production of goods, and gave many a better standard of living.

Industrialization Spreads notes

37. After England, the ____________ was the second country to industrialize.p643

38. US industrialization started in 1789 when ________________ secretly brought industrialization secrets to the United States.p643

39. US industrialization started in the _________________ region.p644

40. In 1813, ___________________________mechanized making cloth for the United States. P643 41. Many factory towns attracted many young _________ workers.p643

42. The ____________ helped US industrialization expand rapidly as goods could be shipped across the country quickly and cheaply.p644

43. Late 1800s US industrial leaders included __________________ and __________________. P645 44. ___________ was the first industrial continental European country followed next by Germany. P645 45. Germany's resource-rich _______ Valley made it a strong industrial power by the late 1800s.

An Age of Reforms Notes

46. Adam Smith wrote ______________________.p647

47. Adam Smith believed in free trade and said the ______________ should not interfere with the economy.p647 48. Adam Smith’s ideas became the basis of laissez-faire ______________.P647

49. . Socialists opposed laissez-faire and believed the government should ___________ in the economy to end poverty and promote the social welfare.p648

50. Socialists wanted public ownership of _______________________________________.p648 51. The Communist Manifesto in 1848 was written by Karl ________ and Friedrich _________.p649

52. The Communist Manifesto predicted the ___________ would overthrow their middle class bosses and create Communism which would have no private property.P648-649

53. The Communist Manifesto inspired communist revolutions by ___________’s Lenin, _________’s Mao Zedong, ___________’s Ho Chi Minh, and _________’s Fidel Castro.p649

54. Workers joined ___________ for collective bargaining when faced with bad working conditions. P650 55. Unions could ________, if denied better pay and working conditions.P650

56. Eventually, unions became legal.

57. Unions led to new reform laws that limited _______________ and set regular ______________.P651 58. The Victorian Age (1837-1901,) during the reign of Queen ___________, was when the British __________

reached its height in wealth and power and when the _________ became mostly symbolic as even more power was shifted to _______________. P660

59. Women in most countries did not win the right to vote until after __________.P662 Self-Rule for British Colonies notes

60. In 1763, Britain took Canada from ____________ and most of Canada’s French speakers remained in the province of Quebec while English speakers became Canada’s main ethnic group. P664


61. In 1867, the ______________ of Canada was formed and made Canada self-governing in _____________ issues but kept Canada within the British Empire.P665

62. In Ireland, the _______________ majority struggled against the British _____________ rule.P667-668 63. In Ireland’s great famine in the 1840s, a plant fungus ruined most of Ireland’s ________ crop and ______ of Ireland’s population died of starvation and disease. 1 ½ million Irish left Ireland and most of these people went to the __________________.P667

Imperialists Divide Africa notes

64. In 1882, Henry Stanley claimed the Congo River Valley for ______________. P686

65. List 4 motives for imperialism. ______________, _____________, __________, ________ p686

66. The __________ Conference divided Africa among European countries without regard for the distribution of African _______ or linguistic groups which led to many African wars after these countries later became


67. In South Africa, the British first defeated the ______ led by Shaka and then defeated the _______ (Dutch farmers) in the Boer War to control the country.P689

Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist Demands notes

68. The Ottoman Empire once included/controlled Southwest Asia (the Middle East,) North Africa, and the Balkan Peninsula.

69. In the Crimean War, the French and British allied with the _____________ to defeat Russia who went to war seeking Ottoman lands on the _____________________.P698

70. After losing the Crimean War, Russia convinced other Slavic peoples on the Balkan Peninsula to break away from the Ottoman Empire.

71. From Egypt, ____________ seized the Suez Canal which connects the _______________ Sea to the ___________________ Sea.p699

British Imperialism in India notes

72. Before Britain took control of the country, India had been ruled by the Muslim _________ Dynasty.P701 73. As its “Jewel in the Crown,” Britain considered India its _______ important colony.P701

74. As a British colony, India had to give its __________ to Britain and its 300 million people had to ____ British manufactured goods as Indian goods such as textiles were not allowed to compete with British goods P701-702.

75. A positive impact of colonialism for India was Britain built _________________ and __________________

networks to make the country more interconnected. P702

76. Another positive impact of colonialism for India was Britain built dams, bridges, and irrigation canals to help India _____________.P702

77. Another positive impact of colonialism for India was India’s _____________/health improved and ____________

were formed to increase literacy rates. P702

78. A negative impact of colonialism for India was losing its political ____________ and __________ power to Britain.P703

Western Powers Rule Southeast Asia notes

79. The Dutch controlled the ________________ (today’s Indonesia.) P706

80. France controlled Indochina (which included ________, _______, and _________.) P707

81. Siam (today’s ______________) was the Southeast Asian country to remain ___________ from European control.


82. Seeking new markets and trade routes, the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish American War in 1898 to take control over _____________, ____________, and _______________. P708

83. In Hawaii, US companies overthrew Hawaii’s _____________ to create a republic with Samuel B. _______ as its president before being annexed by the United States in 1898. P709

China Responds to Pressure from the West notes

84. European nations and Japan took advantage of China’s weak military to create _________________ in China where they each controlled a section of China’s economy. P718


85.The Boxer Rebellion was by Chinese who wanted _______________ to have less privileges and created a strong sense of Chinese __________ while causing the Qing Dynasty to reform the government. P719

Japan Modernizes notes

86. From the early 1600s-mid 1800s Japan isolated itself from the world until 1852 when Commodore Perry forcibly delivered US President __________________’s demand to open its ports to trade.P720

87. During the Meiji Era (1867-1912,) Japan began to modernize by borrowing ________ ways such as education and industrialization.P721

88. In the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905,) Japan defeated ________ to get control of ________ which it occupied and treated the people there harshly. P723

89. The Russo-Japanese War disproved the racist myth that Europeans were militarily superior to Asians.

The Mexican Revolution notes

90. In the 1830s, Americans in the Mexican territory of _______ rebelled against Mexico and their territory was later annexed by the United States. P729

91. The Mexican War (1846-1848) ended with the United States defeating Mexico and taking __________ and the American ___________ from Mexico.P730

92. In 1863, France under Napoleon III took over Mexico and made Austria’s archduke _____________ Mexico’s emperor.P731

93. Benito Juarez led Mexican resistance to ________ rule and as a Liberal reform leader was later reelected Mexico’s president and left Mexico more prosperous and peaceful. P731

The Stage is Set for War

94. Prior to World War I, ___________ unified European countries while also creating commercial and territorial rivalries among them. P743

95. Prior to World War I, arms races led to big European ____________. P744

96. Prior to World War I, ________ and other Balkan groups wanted independence from either the Ottoman Empire or the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.P743

97. Prior to World War I. ______________ started to challenge Britain’s industrial dominance. P743

98. Prior to World War I, France wanted _______________ back from Germany which it had lost in the Franco-Prussian War.p743

99. Prior to World War I, there was a system of tangled ____________. P744

100. After its heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, Austria-Hungary declared war on __________ which caused Russia to mobilize against Austria-Hungary. P746

101. In support of its ally Austria-Hungary, ___________ declared war on Russia and France (Russia’s ally.) P747

102. Germany’s __________ Plan involved a ___ front war seeking to quickly defeat France in the west and then shifting its focus to Russia in the _________. P747

103. On its way toward France, Germany’s invasion of neutral ________ caused Britain to enter the war. P747 104. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were the _________ Powers and Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and Japan were the __________ Powers (Allies.) p748

World War I (1914-1918) Consumes the World notes

105. On the Western Front (fought mostly in France,) World War I turned into a _____________ with _________ warfare where neither side gained much territory. P748-749

106. List 5 new weapons used in World War I: _________, __________, ________, _________, ________ p750-751 107. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army, which was not ____________, was driven back by Germany and Austria- Hungary and withdrew from World War I in 1917.p751

108. In Asia, T.E. Lawrence (__________________) led the Allies in freeing Baghdad, Jerusalem, and Damascus from the Ottoman Empire. P753

109. The United States entered World War I after Germany sank the British passenger ship _________ and sank American ships too.P754

110. The United States entered World War I after the Zimmerman Note which was a German offer to help _____________ regain lands lost to the United States in return for an alliance. P755


111. The United States entered World War I on the side of the Allies partly because of closer cultural and _________ ties to Britain instead of to Germany. P755

112. On the Home Front of World War I, total war developed and governments took control over national ___________

to focus them on the war effort. P755

113. On the Home Front of World War I, _________ greatly decreased as more jobs helping the war effort were created.


114. On the Home Front of World War I, citizens had to _______ items needed for the war effort and many __________

started working in the factories. P755-756 The Allies Win the War and a Flawed Peace

115. Russia withdrew from World War I in 1917 when Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin seized power. Germany had now achieved victory on the Eastern Front.

116. In 1918, the arrival of fresh __________ troops provided the difference for the Allies in the West and led to Germany’s defeat.p756

117. The Treaty of Versailles was a __________ peace as it officially ended World War I. p761

118. The Treaty of Versailles took land from Germany including _______________ which was returned to France. P761 (box)

119. The Treaty of Versailles reduced the size of Germany’s ____________. (p761, box)

120. In the Treaty of Versailles, Article 131 was the “____________” clause which made _________ solely responsible for starting World War I and made Germany pay the Allies billions in _______________. P761

121. The Treaty of Versailles broke up empires into separate countries of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.

122. The Treaty of Versailles broke up the Ottoman Empire which lost all of its lands except for _________. P762 123. The _________ was created with a goal of maintaining peace but given too little power to act effectively.P762 124. Because it wanted to stay out of European issues and wars, the ______________ never joined the League of Nations.p762

Totalitarianism in Russia notes

125. Led by _______________, the Bolsheviks overthrew Russia's government. P772

126. The causes of the Bolshevik Revolution were widespread Russian ___________, the weak leadership of Czar _____________, ________ losses, and ____________ and riots.P772 (box)

127. Under Lenin, Russia was renamed the _______________________________ (USSR) and the Bolshevik Party was renamed the _____________ Party.P774

128. In a totalitarian state/government, the ______ has complete control, absolute loyalty is required, and force is used against any opposition. P775

129. __________ made the Soviet Union a totalitarian state. P775

130. List 4 weapons of totalitarianism _________________, __________________, ____________________, _____________________. P777-778

131. In the ______________, Communist opponents of Stalin were targeted. P778 Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule notes

132. In 1925, __________________ (Chang Kai-shek) became the Nationalist leader and later led the Nationalists against the Communists in China's civil war. P782-783

133. During China's civil war,___________ invaded Manchuria causing the Nationalists and Communists to temporarily unite against a common enemy.P784

134. After Japan lost World War II and left China, the Communists won the renewed civil war to make China communist and the Nationalists fled to __________________. P863

Nationalism in India notes


135. Gandhi used civil disobedience and non violent methods such as _____________ and strikes to lead India to independence from Britain.P786-787

136. In 1947, while being given full independence, India was partitioned into these 3 countries: ______________, _____________, and East Pakistan (Bangladesh.( P886

A Global Depression notes

137. After World War I, most European countries were ____________ with less influence over world affairs while the US economy was strong.P881

138. The new postwar European ________ were weak. P801

139. Germany blamed their new ___________ Republic democratic government for its postwar problems.p802 140. In October 1929, the US ___________________ crashed sending the world into a depression.p804

141. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's _________ reform programs started a slow US economic recovery.p806 142. As a result of the Great Depression, some of Europe's newer struggling democracies such as Germany and Italy turned to _________.p807

Aggressors on the March notes

143. Japan wanted a ___________ empire to get raw materials and markets. P811

144. In 1931, Japan invaded __________ and, in 1937, Japan invaded mainland _________. P811, 812 145. Italy invaded __________.p812

146. In Spain, Fascists led by ______________ won a civil war.p813-814

147. The West failed to stop Fascist aggression because it was preoccupied with ____________ problems from the Great Depression.p814

148. The West also failed to stop Fascist aggression because Britain and France practiced _____________ hoping some concessions to Hitler would prevent war.p815

149. The West also failed to stop Fascist aggression because the United States had an _____________ foreign policy.p814 150. in 1938 at the Munich Conference, practicing appeasement, Britain and France let Hitler take the ___________ from Czechoslovakia but Hitler later also took the rest of the country too.p815

151. In 1939, Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with __________ in which Germany and the Soviet Union promised not to attack each other.p815

Hitler's Lightning War notes

152. In 1939, Britain and France declared war when Germany attacked __________ to start World War II. P821 153. Germany had a lightning war military strategy called ________________.p822

154. In 1940, Germany conquered ________ and _________ and then swept through Belgium and Luxembourg and around France's Maginot Line to enter France.p822

155. While being attacked by German bombers from the air, British ships crossed the English Channel to rescue Allied troops at ___________. P823

156. By June 1940, after France fell to Germany and had a puppet government installed, ________ was the only Western European country standing against Germany and the Axis Powers after surviving the Battle of Britain. P823

157. In Operation _____________ ,in June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. P825 Japan Strikes in the Pacific notes

158. In July 1941, Japan captured French Indochina leading to Roosevelt ending US ____ shipments to Japan which led to Japan attacking ___________ on December 7, 1941.p827

159. In 1942, US bombers led by _________________ bombed Tokyo and other Japanese cities in retaliation for the attack on Pearl Harbor.p829

160. In 1942, the Battle of the Coral Sea stopped Japan from capturing______________. P829

161. In 1942, the Battle of the _________ turned the tide of the Pacific war against the Japanese. P829 The Holocaust notes

162. In 1935, the ___________________ took away German citizenship from Jews in Germany.p831 163. In 1938, on _______________ ("Night of Broken Glass") the Nazis attacked Jewish businesses.p831


164. The Nazis then forced thousands of Jews to ______________ and later forced Jews into segregated areas called ______________. P832

165. By 1942, Hitler decided on his "Final Solution" which was ___________- the planned killing of an entire people.p833

166. As part of the "Final Solution" the Nazis sent Jews and others to death camps the largest of which was ____________ in Poland. P833-834

167. The Holocaust killed over ______ million Jews. P834

168. ___% of Poland's Jewish population died in the Holocaust. P834 (box) The Allies are Victorious notes

169. In 1942, once the United States had entered the war, the Allies opened up a ______ front where American and British troops defeated German troops led by Erwin Rommel in _______________. P835

170. After victory in North Africa, in 1943 the Allies invaded southern ________ and Mussolini was overthrown and later executed.P836-837

171. The US home front experienced total ____ as factories changed their operations to wartime production. P837 172. On the US home front, there was __________ due to a shortage of consumer goods mixed with wartime demand.


173. On the US home front, over 30,000 _________________ were interred in camps due to a fear of the Japanese.P837- 838

174. On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies launched the biggest land and sea _______ in history by landing at Normandy in northern France. P838

175. After the D-Day invasion, the allies freed both ______ and Benelux. P838-839

176. In March 1945, the Allies approached __________ from the West while the Soviets approached the city from the East. p839

177. In April of 1945, ________ committed suicide. P839

178. In May of 1945 was ________ Day as Germany surrendered. P839

179. To save Allied lives, President ________ decided to drop the A-bomb on Japan. P841

180. In August of 1945 A bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of ________ and ________ and Japan surrendered soon afterward.P841

The Devastation of Europe and Japan notes

181. List 3 of the major European cities especially damaged during World War II. ___________, __________, _____________. P842

182. ______________led the US forces occupying Japan after World War II. P844

183. During the US occupation of Japan, the Japanese _________ was disbanded and is still disbanded today. P844 184. During the US occupation of Japan, Japan became a _________ with a new constitution and the Japanese _______

was reduced to a figurehead. P844

185 As a result of the US occupation of Japan, the United States and Japan became strong _______ with each other.





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