Coding and Billing 101: Getting Paid for What You Do

Full text

(1)

American College of Physicians

Internal Medicine 2014

Coding and Billing 101: Getting Paid for What

You Do

Faculty

Director: Jeannine Z. Engel, MD, FACP

Disclosure: Has no relationship with any proprietary entity producing

health care goods or services consumed by or used on patients.

1.What are the basics of coding and documenting office visit and preventive services?

2.How can you best select the level of office visit service to maximize revenue and minimize audit risk?

3.How can you minimize coding problems that can lead to payment denials and delays?

4.What resources are available to help you navigate this nonclinical, yet essential, part of medical practice?

Clinical questions to be addressed:

(2)

Coding and Billing 101

The Basics of Outpatient Billing

April 2014

Jeannine Z. P. Engel, MD, FACP

Assistant Professor of Medicine Physician Advisor to Health Care

Compliance Office University of Utah Medical Center

Jeannine.engel@hsc.utah.edu

Background

• HCFA, now CMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued guidelines for documentation of different service codes in 1995. They were revised in 1997. Either can be used, but not in combination. • In general, the 1995 guidelines are more favorable for General Internists • Medicaid and commercial payers may or may NOT follow CMS guidelines‐ must check in your state

Disclaimer

This session will provide basic information regarding documentation and coding. Before applying this information at your institution or practice site, YOU MUST CHECK WITH YOUR COMPLIANCE OFFICE and/or local Medicare Carrier to be sure these general principles are appropriate for your practice situation.

Session Objectives

• Review Documentation requirements for Basic Outpatient Office Visits • Learn efficient documentation of Medical Decision Making • Review time‐based coding for Counseling and Coordination of Care • Review Transitional Care Management Codes • Extra material if time • Leave time for Questions

Basic Coding

Rules and

Regulations

Three Questions

Is the patient new or established?

What level of history, PE and Medical Decision

Making MDM is will be recorded?

–Corollary: Is this a problem‐based or Annual

Exam/Annual wellness visit

(3)

New vs. Return

A new patient has not received professional

services from your group in the past 3 years

Hospital clinic

Residents Faculty Physician extenders

If established patient has not been seen in 3

years, bill them as New

CMS specialty Codes

• 01 General Practice • 02 General Surgery • 03 Allergy/Immunology • 04 Otolaryngology • 05 Anesthesiology • 06 Cardiology • 07 Dermatology • 08 Family Practice • 09 Interventional Pain Management • 10 Gastroenterology • 11 Internal Medicine • 12 Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine • 13 Neurology • 14 Neurosurgery • 15 Speech Language Pathologist in Private Practice • 16 Obstetrics/Gynecology • 17 Hospice and Palliative Care • 18 Ophthalmology • 19 Oral Surgery Dentists only • 20 Orthopedic Surgery • 21 Cardiac Electrophysiology • 22 Pathology • 23 Sports Medicine • 24 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery • 25 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation • 26 Psychiatry • 27 Geriatric Psychiatry • 28 Colorectal Surgery • 29 Pulmonary Disease • 30 Diagnostic Radiology • 31 Intensive Cardiac Rehabilitation ICR • 32 Anesthesiologist Assistant • 33 Thoracic Surgery • 34 Urology • 35 Chiropractic • 36 Nuclear Medicine • 37 Pediatric Medicine • 38 Geriatric Medicine • 39 Nephrology • 40 Hand Surgery • 41 Optometry • 42 Certified Nurse Midwife • 43 Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist CRNA • 44 Infectious Disease • 46 Endocrinology • 48 Podiatry • 50 Nurse Practitioner

New Patient‐ outpatient visit

3/3 needed CPT 99201 99202 99203 99204 99205 HPI ROS PFSH 1 (PF) 1 (EPF) 1 4 (DET) 2 1 4 (COMP) 10 3 4 10 3

Exam 1 (PF) 2 (EPF) 5 (DET) 8 (COMP) 8

MDM

Straight-forward

Straight-forward

Low Moderate High

Time 10 20 30 45 60

New Patient‐ outpatient visit

3/3 needed NGS MAC CPT 99201 99202 99203 99204 99205 HPI ROS PFSH 1 (PF) 1 (EPF) 1 4 (DET) 2 1 4 (COMP) 10 3 4 10 3 Exam 1 (PF) 2-7*

(EPF) 2-7** (DET) 8 (COMP) 8

MDM

Straight-forward Straight-forward Low Moderate High

Time 10 20 30 45 60

*EPF exam: minimal detail; ** Det exam: expanded documentation of organ systems examined (NGS documentation tool)

Coding New Patient Visits

3 of 3 elements must be documented

history, exam, decision making

MEDICAL NECESSITY SHOULD DRIVE

CODING

Return Patient‐ outpatient visit

2/3 needed CPT 99211 99212 99213 99214 99215 HPI ROS PFSH Reserved for non- hospital-based practice 1 (PF) 1 (EPF) 1 4 (3 chronic) 2 (DET) 1 4 (3 chronic) 10(COMP) 2

Exam 1 (PF) 2 (EPF) 5 (DET) 8 (COMP)

MDM

Straight-forward Low Moderate High

(4)

Return Patient‐ outpatient visit

2/3 needed NGS MAC CPT 99211 99212 99213 99214 99215 HPI ROS PFSH Reserved for non- facility-based practice 1 (PF) 1 (EPF) 1 4 (3 chronic) 2 (DET) 1 4 (3 chronic) 10(COMP) 2 Exam 1 (PF) 2-7

(EPF) 2-7 (DET) 8 (COMP)

MDM

Straight-forward Low Moderate High

Time 10 min 15 min 25 min 40 min

Coding Return pt visits

Only need 2 of 3 elements documented

to meet level of service coded History,

PE, MDM

MEDICAL NECESSITY SHOULD STILL

DRIVE CODING

Medical Necessity??

It’s what you should do, not what CAN do

What the patient needs today, no more

and no less

(5)

Medical Decision Making

Number of diagnoses

–Self‐limited; established; new problem –Stable, worsening, additional testing planned

Amount/complexity of data reviewed

–Ordering tests, reviewing tests, obtaining record

Overall risk of complications

–See chart

Number of diagnoses

Self‐limited or minor: 1 pt each 2 max

Established problem, stable: 1 pt

–New England‐now limiting to 2 !!

Established problem, worsening: 2 pts

New problem, no addt’l w/u: 3 pts

New problem, with further w/u: 4 pts

Diagnosis Points 1 2 3 4 Diagnosis MDM SF Low Moderate High

Amount/complexity of data

• Review and/or order lab test: 1 pt • Review and/or order radiology: 1 pt • Review and/or order medical test: 1 pt –Includes vaccines, ecg, echo, pfts • Discussion of test w/performing MD: 1 pt • Independent review of test: 2 pts • Old records or hx from another person –Decision to do this: 1 pt –Doing it and summarizing: 2 pts Data points 1 2 3 4 Data MDM SF Low Moderate High

Overall Risk table

Learn and Love the overall risk table

3 categories: presenting problem, dx

procedures, management options

Pearls:

–Dart Board –Prescription drug management: moderate –2 stable chronic illness: moderate –Abrupt MS change: high –1 chronic illness w/severe exacerbation: high

Risk Level Presenting Problem s Diagnostic Procedure s Ordered Management Options Selected Minimal • One self‐limited or minor problem, e.g., cold insect bite, tinea corporis • Laboratory tests requiring venipuncture • Chest X‐rays • EKG/ EEG • Urinalysis • Ultrasound, e.g., echo • KOH prep • Rest • Gargles • Elastic bandages • Superficial dressings Low • Two or more self‐limited or minor problems • One stable chronic illness, e.g., well controlled hypertension or • noninsulin dependent diabetes, cataract, BPH • Acute uncomplicated illness or injury, e.g., cystitis, allergic rhinitis, simple sprain • Physiologic tests not under stress, e.g., pulmonary function tests • Noncardiovascular imaging studies with contrast, e.g., barium enema • Superficial needle biopsies • Clinical laboratory tests requiring arterial puncture • Skin biopsies • Over‐the‐Counter drugs • Minor surgery with no identified risk factors • Physical therapy • Occupational therapy • IV fluids without additives Moderate • One or more chronic illness with mild exacerbation, progression, or side effects of treatment • Two or more stable chronic illnesses • Undiagnosed new problem with uncertain prognosis, e.g., lump in breast • Acute illness with systemic symptoms, e.g., pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, colitis • Acute complicated injury, e.g., head injury with brief loss of consciousness • Physiologic tests under stress, e.g., cardiac stress test, fetal contraction stress test • Diagnostic endoscopies with no identified risk factors • Deep needle or incisional biopsy • Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast and no identified risk factors, e.g., arteriogram cardiac catheter • Obtain fluid from body cavity, e.g., lumbar puncture, thoracentesis, culdocentesis • Minor surgery with identified risk factors • Elective major surgery open, percutaneous or endoscopic with no identified risk factors • Prescription drug management continuation & new prescription • Therapeutic nuclear medicine • IV fluids with additives • Closed treatment of fracture or dislocation without manipulation High • One or more chronic illnesses with severe exacerbation, progression, or side effects of treatment • Acute or chronic illnesses or injuries that may pose a threat to life or bodily function, e.g., multiple trauma, acute MI, pulmonary embolus, severe respiratory distress, progressive severe rheumatoid arthritis, psychiatric illness with potential threat to self or others, peritonitis, acute renal failure • An abrupt change in neurologic status, e.g., seizure, TIA, weakness or sensory loss • Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast with identified risk factors • Cardiac electrophysiological tests • Diagnostic endoscopies with identified risk factors • Discography • Elective major surgery open, percutaneous or endoscopic with identified risk factors • Emergency major surgery open, percutaneous or endoscopic • Parental controlled substances • Drug therapy requiring intensive monitoring for toxicity • Decision not to resuscitate or to de‐escalate care because of poor prognosis

Overall Decision Making Table

need 2 of 3 elements to qualify for given level Level of MDM Straight-forward 99201/02 99212 Low 99203 99213 Moderate 99204 99214 High 99205 99215 # dx 1 2 3 4 Amt data 0 or 1 2 3 4 Overall

(6)

Case #1:LBP, New pt

IMP: Mechanical LBP; R/O HNP

Plan: Taper off NSAIDs; tylenol prn;

Xray of LS spine

Work on Hamstring stretching

Will call with xray results

If xray neg, or symptoms persist, will consider

MRI of spine to R/O HNP. Pt understands

plan.

Xray results noted personally reviewed??

Case #1: LBP PM&R

Presenting Problems: 1 new with workup 4

points‐high

Data: xray; 1 points‐ SF

Risk: OTC meds; exercises: Low

Overall: From MDM perspective: Low; 99203

Level of MDM Straight-forward Low Moderate High

# dx 1 minimal 2 limited 3 Moderate 4 Extensive

Amt data ≤1 minimal 2 limited 3 Moderate 4 Extensive

Risk minimal low moderate high

(7)

Elements for E&M visits

History

–CC –HPI bullets 8 •Location •Quality •Severity •Duration • Timing • Context • Modifying Factors • Associated signs and symptoms

For Acute or Chronic Patient

D

uration –Years/months/days/hours

S

everity –6/10 pain; BP 190/110; sugars over 250 at home/4 pads/hour bleeding/Hgb 5.1/needs nebs Q2 hrs

M

odifying Factors –PT treatments; medications taking; position changes; a good cry…

A

ssociated Symptoms –Anything you ask!

1997 revisited

• 1997 guidelines: An extended HPI consists of at least four elements of the HPI or the status of at least three chronic or inactive conditions • For level 4 of 5 return visit, can document, “pt here to f/u HTN, DM, and rash” works for 1995 and1997 guidelines as of September 2013 • http://www.cms.gov/Outreach‐and‐Education/Medicare‐Learning‐ Network‐MLN/MLNEdWebGuide/EMDOC.html 99214/99203 99215/99204‐5 HPI Status 3 chronic Status 3 chronic

(8)

Elements for E&M visits

Exam

–# of organ systems 12 •Constitutional‐VS, general appearance •Eyes •Ears, nose, mouth, throat •CV edema, pulses •Respiratory •GI •GU •Musculoskeletal •Skin •Neurologic •Psychiatric •Heme/lymph/im‐ munologic Extremities? Edema? Neck? Thyroid?

Elements for E&M visits

Exam

–# body parts 10 1. Head includes face 2. Neck 3. Chest includes breasts and axilla 4. Abdomen 5. Genitalia, groin, buttock 6. Back including spine 7‐10. Each extremity

Physical Exam

• How many PE elements can you document before examining the patient? • At least 7 –General appearance –Eyes‐ sclera anicteric/injected

–HENT‐ hearing intact hard of hearing

–MSK‐ normal gait/limping

–Psych‐normal depressed/flat affect

–Skin‐no rash on face, arms

–Immunologic‐NKDA use for PMH or PE

Pearls for Documenting Exam

Notations such as “negative” or “normal” are

sufficient to document normal findings

related to

unaffected

body areas or

asymptomatic organ systems

HEENT‐Normal: only counts as 1 organ

system, so:

–Eyes‐ sclera anicteric –ENMT‐ OP clear/red/whatever…

95 versus 97

Physical exam is the difference

1995

–Organ systems –Body part –Loosy goosy

1997

–General –Various specialty exams –Proscriptive

97 exam example: Respiratory

Problem Foc: 1-5 bullets Exp Prob Focused: 6+ bullets Detailed: 12+ bullets

(9)

• Problem Focused: 1‐5 bullets in 1 or more systems 99201/99212 • Expanded Problem Focused: 6‐11 bullets in 1 or more systems 99202/99213 • Detailed: 12 bullets in 2 or more organ systems or 6 systems w/2 bullets each 99203/99214 • Comprehensive: 2 bullets from 9 organ systems 99204/5 and 99215 –audit tool available as part of electronic handout

1997 PE guidelines(Gen)

Case #1:PM&R

39 yo male, no sig PMH evaluated in ED 1 month ago. He had fallen in the tub and experienced R leg pain. Was seen and given IM injection and Rx for NSAIDs. Pain is improving, x mild ? flare up about 1 week ago, no back pain. R leg pain involving posterior aspect of thigh, popliteal fossa, not _____________. HPI: Context (fallen in tub)

Duration (1 month) Location (right leg) Alleviating (NSAIDs) 4+ ROS: 1; PMH: meds EPF (level 2 new)

(10)
(11)

Counseling is:

“a discussion with the pt and/or family concerning one

or more of the following areas” CPT book

–Recommended tests, diagnostic results, impressions

–Prognosis

–Risks/benefits of treatment management options

–Instructions for treatment management options and

follow up –Importance of compliance with treatment management options –Risk factor reduction –Patient and family education

New(ish) and exciting

TCM codes; new 2013

99495 and 99496

30 days post hospital D/C care

–Contact patient/caregiver with 2 days –FTF visit in 7/14 days –Moderate/high complexity and MDM –Non FTF services provided by clinical staff and physician related to coordination of care –Medicine reconciliation prior to FTF visit

Non‐face‐to‐face services

• Contact with home health • Patient/family education • Medication management • Assistance with services needed • Obtaining/reviewing discharge information • Review of pending diagnostic tests • Interaction with other healthcare providers • Assistance scheduling other follow‐up

Clinical Staff Provider

(12)

Opportunities?

ALL CODING TALKS, PARAPHRASED

“it’s the EMR…I don’t have enough time…so many patients each day…”

Why should you care?

• Audit scrutiny‐ NGS: National Govt Services; Jurisdiction K: includes NY, CT, MA, RI, VT, NH, ME –Pre‐payment audit May‐June 2013 GIM 99205 • 2500 services; error rates exceeded 70% • “majority recoded to lower E&M level due to lack of documentation in H; PE; or high comp MDM” –Pre‐pay audit for 99215 for Oncology June‐August 2013 • 2000 services reviewed; error rates 75%

–99223 initial hosp Gen Surg June‐August 2013

• 700 services reviewed; error rates 80%

–99233 subs hosp Cardiology and Gastroenterology June‐

August 2013 • 4500 services reviewed; error rates 70% –October 2013: All above expanding to all specialties

THANK YOU!!

CMS you

Other material if time

Prolonged Services

Preventive services

IPPE/AWV

• Add‐on code used when at least 30 minutes of time is spent beyond the usual time per E&M visit • Requirements –Medically necessary services beyond the usual time for the base services –Must be face to face service provided by the billing provider. –Can not count time spent by nursing staff 99354 first 30‐59 minutes 99355 each additional 30 minutes

Prolonged services

Prolonged services

Prolonged services codes:

Inpatient Outpatient First 60 minutes

(min 30 min) 1.71 wRVUs99356

(13)
(14)
(15)

AWV Jan 2011

• To DO cument • To PROVIDE/ESTABLISH for patient still document –Written 5‐10 yr schedule of Medicare‐covered, USPSTF‐recommended preventive services –List of RF or conditions for which 1°, 2°, or 3° interventions are recommended or underway –Including Mental Health conditions Provide list of treatment options and risks/benefits –Furnish personal health advice and referral as appropriate wt loss, exercise, nutrition, smoking cessation...

IPPE and AWV: my opinion

To provide these well AND get reimbursed:

–Make templates: EHR or typed –Have nursing/support staff do as much as possible‐data gathering prior to/during visit –Depression screening tool Beck or other –Pre‐made sheets for diet; tobacco cessation; exercise; –Checklist of Medicare‐covered preventive services that you can check and give to pt

IPPE/AWV plus E/M same day?

• YES!!! Reporting a Medically Necessary E/M Service Furnished During the Same Encounter as an IPPE or AWV When the physician or qualified NPP, or for AWV the health professional, provides a significant, separately identifiable medically necessary E/M service in addition to the IPPE or an AWV, CPT codes 99201 – 99215 may be reported depending on the clinical appropriateness of the circumstances. CPT Modifier –25 shall be appended to the medically necessary E/M service identifying this service as a significant, separately identifiable service from the IPPE or AWV code reported HCPCS code G0344 or G0402, whichever applies based on the date the IPPE is performed, or HCPCS code G0438 or G0439 whichever AWV code applies . Medicare Claims processing Manual Chapter 12 AWV 99213 2 /3 needed 99214 2/ 3 needed 99215 2 /3 needed ‐HPI ‐ROS ‐PFSH None ‐Cognitive deficits, depression,  ADLs, safety ‐PMH, Allergies, Meds,  FH ‐Brief (2‐4) ‐Problem Pert (1) ‐None ‐Extended (4+) ‐Extended (2‐9) ‐Pertinent (1) ‐Extended (4+) ‐Complete  (10) ‐Complete Physical  Exam Height, weight, BMI,  BP,  “other routine measurements  as deemed appropriate” Expanded Prob Foc (2‐4) Detailed (5‐7) Compre‐ hensive (8+) MDM Low Complexity Moderate High

OTHER ‐Written 5‐10 yr screening  schedule based on USPSTF ‐List RF/conditions  &  interventions needed  including mental health ‐Personalized health advice  and referral for  health  education and screening ‐List of current providers  involved in pt’s care The key to documentation of additional  E/M service will be that it is  MEDICALLY NECESSARY and  SEPARATELY IDENTIFIABLE from  AWV documentation AWV 99203 3/3 needed 99204 3/3 needed 99205 3/3 needed ‐HPI ‐ROS ‐PFSH None ‐Cognitive deficits, depression,   ADLs, safety ‐PMH, Allergies, Meds,  FH ‐Extended (4+) ‐Extended (2‐9) ‐Pertinent (1) ‐Extended ‐Complete ‐Complete ‐Extended ‐Complete ‐Complete Physical  Exam Height, weight, BMI,  BP, “other  routine measurements as  deemed appropriate” Detailed (5‐7) Compre‐ hensive (8+) Compre‐ hensive (8+) MDM Low Complexity Moderate High

(16)

 

1997 Physical Exam Audit Tool 

System  Elements of exam 

total 

Constitutional  ● Measurement of any three of the following seven vital signs: 1) sitting/standing BP 2) supine BP   3) pulse  4) resp5) temp 6) 

ht 7) wt (May be measured and recorded by staff)   ● General appearance of patient 

 

Eyes  ● Inspection of conjunctivae and lids   ● Examination of pupils and irises (eg, reaction to light and accommodation, size and symmetry)   **EOMI  ● Ophthalmoscopic examination of optic discs and posterior segments  

 

Ears, Nose, Mouth  and Throat  ●External inspection of ears and nose (eg, overall appearance, scars, lesions, masses)  ●Otoscopic exam of external auditory canals and tympanic membranes   ●Assessment of hearing (eg, whispered voice, finger rub, tuning fork)   ●Inspection of nasal mucosa, septum and turbinates   ●Inspection of lips, teeth and gums   ●Exam of oropharynx: oral mucosa, salivary glands, hard/soft palates, tongue, tonsils and posterior pharynx 

 

Neck  ●Examination of neck (eg, masses, overall appearance, symmetry, tracheal position, crepitus)  ●Examination of thyroid (eg, enlargement, tenderness, mass) 

 

Respiratory  ●Assessment of respiratory effort (intercostal retractions, use of accessory muscles) ●Percussion of chest (eg, dullness, flatness, hyperresonance)   ● Palpation of chest (eg, tactile fremitus)   ●Auscultation of lungs (eg, breath sounds, adventitious sounds, rubs) 

 

Cardiovascular  ●Palpation of heart (eg, location, size, thrills) ●Auscultation of heart with notation of abnormal sounds and murmurs   ●Examination of:      • carotid arteries (eg, pulse amplitude, bruits)      • abdominal aorta (eg, size, bruits)      • femoral arteries (eg, pulse amplitude, bruits)      • pedal pulses (eg, pulse amplitude)   ●Exam of extremities for edema and/or varicosities  

 

Chest  ● Inspection of breasts (eg, symmetry, nipple discharge) ●Palpation of breasts and axillae (eg, masses or lumps, tenderness) 

 

GI/Abd  ●Examination of abdomen with notation of presence of masses or tenderness ●Examination of liver and spleen   ●Examination for presence or absence of hernia   ●Examination (when indicated) of anus, perineum and rectum, sphincter tone, hemorrhoids, rectal masses   ●Obtain stool sample for occult blood test when indicated  

 

GU (Male)   ●Examination of the scrotal contents (eg, hydrocele, spermatocele, tenderness of cord, testicular mass)   ●Examination of the penis   ●Digital rectal examination of prostate gland (eg, size, symmetry, nodularity, tenderness) 

 

GU (Female)  ●Pelvic examination (with or without specimen collection for smears and cultures), including     • Exam of external genitalia (gen appearance, lesions) and vagina (gen appearance, estrogen effect, discharge, lesions, pelvic  support, cystocele, rectocele)       • Exam of urethra (eg, masses, tenderness, scarring)      • Exam of bladder (eg, fullness, masses, tenderness)      • Cervix (eg, general appearance, lesions, discharge)   ●Uterus (eg, size, contour, position, mobility, tenderness, consistency, descent or support)   ●Adnexa/parametria (eg, masses, tenderness, organomegaly, nodularity) 

 

Lymph  Palpation of lymph nodes in two or more areas:   ●Neck   ●Axillae   ●Groin   ●Other

 

(17)

Complexity of Medical Decision Making:

I. Type and Number of Presenting Problems

A x B = C  single self-limited or minor problem: stable, improved or worsening max = 2 1

 established problem (to examiner): stable, improved, resolving/resolved 1  established problem (to examiner): worsening, inadequately controlled 2

new problem (to examiner): no additional work-up planned max = 1 3

new problem (to examiner): with additional assessment, consult or diagnostic studies 4

Total

II. Amount and Complexity of Data

Points

 review and/or order of clinical tests 1

 review and/or order of tests in CPT radiology section 1

 review and/or order of tests in CPT medicine section 1

 discussion of test results with performing physician 1

 independent review of image, tracing or specimen 2

 decision to obtain old records and/or obtain history from someone other than patient 1

 review and summarization of old records &/or obtaining hx from someone other than patient 2 Total

III. TABLE OF RISK

Level of

Risk

Presenting Problem (s)

Diagnostic Procedures

Ordered

Management Options Selected

Minimal

 One self-limited or minor problem (rash or oral ulcers, cold, insect bites)  Lab tests requiring venipuncture  Chest x-rays  EKG/ECG  UA  Ultrasound  Rest  Splints  Superficial dressings Low

 Two or more self-limited or minor problems or symptoms  One stable chronic illness (well-controlled HTN or NIDDM, BPH)  Acute uncomplicated illness (e.g., cystitis, allergic rhinitis,simple sprain)

 MRI/CT, PFT’s  Superficial needle biopsies  Clinical lab test requiring arterial

puncture  Skin biopsies

 OTC drugs

 Minor surgery w/ no identified risk factors  PT/OT

 IV fluids w/o additives

Moderate

 One or more chronic illness w/ mild exacerbation, progression, or side effect of treatment

 Acute illness with systemic symptoms, eg. pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, colitis

 Two or more stable chronic illnesses

 Acute complicated injury (vertebral compression fracture, head injury w/ brief LOC)

 Undiagnosed new problem with uncertain prognosis, eg. lump in breast

 Diagnostic endoscopies with no identified risk factors

 Cardiovascular imaging studies w/ contrast, no risk factors (arteriogram)  Arthrocentesis, LP

 Physiologic tests under stress test eg,(cardiac stress test)  Deep needle or incisional biopsy

 Prescription drug management  Minor surgery w/ identified risk factors  IV fluids w/ additives

 Therapeutic nuclear medicine

 Elective major surgery(open, percutaneous or endoscopic) w/ no identified risk factors  Closed treatment of fx or dislocation without

manipulation

High

 One or more chronic illnesses w/ severe exacerbation, progression, or side effects of tx

 Acute or chronic illness that may pose a threat to life or bodily function ( eg. progressive severe RA, multiple trauma, acute MI, PE, severe respiratory distress, psych illness w/ threat to self or others, acute renal failure)

 An abrupt change in neurological status, eg. Seizure, TIA, weakness, or sensory loss

 Cardiac EP tests

 Cardiovascular imaging studies w/contrast, w/ identified risk factors  Diagnostic endoscopies w/ identified

risk factors  Discography

 Elective major surgery w/ risk factors  Emergency major surgery  Administration of parenteral controlled

substances

 Drug therapy requiring intensive monitoring for toxicity

 Decision not to resuscitate or to de-escalate care because of poor prognosis **The highest level of risk in any one category (presenting problem(s), diagnostic procedure(s) or management options determines the overall risk**

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :