Survey about Mobile Secured Accessibility Control System using Android

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Survey about Mobile Secured Accessibility Control

System using Android

Dr. S. Hemalatha1, Shruthi C2, Sathya A3, Shakila R4 1

Professor, 2, 3, 4Department OF Computer Science, Panimalar institute of technology

Abstract: Versatile clients are progressively getting to be focuses of malware diseases and tricks. So as to control such assaults begin. Despite the fact that the first applications may not be the malevolent, a deliberate static examination strategy to discover advertisement libraries insert in applications and dynamic investigation technique comprising of three segments identified with activating web joins, recognizing malware and sweep battles, and deciding the provenance of such crusades achieving the client. In the procedure, we convey android based application to screen and confirm the consent of the Android application use in our cell phones. We send our very own application for Android Messaging and voice calling framework to limit the portable SMS and calling framework. We additionally relegate a different way to exchange all the imperative Image and Videos records to an organizer, so that even the allowed application can't get to these envelopes.

Keywords: web joins, sweep battles, malware diseases.


Android is the transcendent portable working framework with about 80% overall piece of the pie as indicated by the investigation by International Data Corporation[1]and Gartner[2]. In the course of the most recent five years, the Android world has been changing drastically with more highlights included, and progressively touchy activities (e.g., managing an account and wallet) getting to be prominent on cell phones. Alongside the Android stage's prevalence, the Android malware has been


The greatest danger to the maintainability of the android biological community is advertisement misrepresentation, where a knave's code gets promotions without showing them to the client. Promotion extortion has been broadly considered with regards to web publicizing yet has gone to a great extent unstudied with regards to portable advertising. We venture out examination misrepresentation and other unfortunate conduct in portable promoting. In the first place, we distinguish interesting attributes of versatile advertisement extortion. On Android, whenever at most one application is running in the frontal area, where the application has a UI. Our first perception is that when an application brings promotions while it is out of sight, this is the best bet fake, in light of the fact that the application engineer gets acknowledgment for this promotion impression without showing it to the user.1 Our second perception is that when an application clicks a promotion without client collaboration, it is certainly deceitful.

A. Architecture Diagram

Figure 1.1: android architecture diagram

Figure 1.2: architecture for mobile secured accessibility control system.


A. Jonathan Crussell, Ryan Stevens, Hao Chen, “MAdFraud: Investigating Ad Fraud in Android Applications”


ask for trees utilizing heuristics. We apply our system and instrument to two datasets: 1) 130,339 applications crept from 19 Android markets including Play and some outsider markets, and 2) 35,087 applications that feasible contain malware given by a security organization. From dissecting these datasets, we locate that about 30% of applications with promotions make advertisement demands while in running out of sight. What's more, we discover 27 applications which create clicks without client collaboration. We find that the snap extortion applications endeavor to stay stealthy while creating advertisement traffic by just intermittently sending snaps and changing which promotion supplier is being focused between establishments.

.We have ventured out investigation portable promotion extortion on an extensive scale. We built up a framework and approach, MAdFraud, for running portable applications, catching their system traffic, and distinguishing promotion impressions and snaps. To manage the wide assortment of organizations of promotion impressions and snaps, we proposed a novel methodology for consequently distinguishing advertisement impressions and snaps in three stages. We found and broke down different false conduct in versatile promotions.

B. Meng Luo, Oleksii Starov, Nima Honarmand, Nick Nikiforakis ,“Hindsight: Understanding the Evolution of UI Vulnerabilities in Mobile Browsers”.

Much of ongoing exploration on versatile security has concentrated on noxious applications. Albeit cell phones have amazing programs that are normally utilized by clients and are powerless against at any rate the same number of assaults as their work area partners, portable web security has not gotten the consideration that it merits from the network. Specifically, there is no longitudinal examination that explores the development of portable program vulnerabilities over the various arrangement of programs that are accessible out there. In this paper, we embrace the primary such investigation, concentrating on UI vulnerabilities among portable programs. We examine and evaluate vulnerabilities to 27 UI-related assaults—incorporated from past work and expanded with new varieties of our own—crosswise over 128 program families and 2,324 individual program adaptations traversing a time of over 5 years. All the while, we gather a broad dataset of program renditions, old and new, from different sources. We likewise structure and execute a program rationalist testing system, called Hindsight, to naturally open programs to assaults and assess their vulnerabilities. We use Hindsight to direct the a huge number of individual assaults that were required for this examination. We find that 98.6% of the tried programs are helpless against somewhere around one of our assaults and that the normal portable internet browser is winding up less secure as time passes. By and large, our discoveries bolster the end that portable web security has been overlooked by the network and should get more consideration.

As cell phones increment in prominence and, for a few, swap the requirement for a personal computer, it is imperative that we comprehend their security pose and what regions we have to enhance. In this paper, we examined the apparently overlooked issue of UI vulnerabilities in portable programs where assailants can exploit versatile program eccentricities to better social specialist clients and exfiltrate their information. Inspired by the craving to move far from preview based estimations (i.e., where scientists consider what is accessible to them at the season of their investigations) we gathered a large number of versatile program variants spreading over many program families and created Hindsight, the principal dynamic-examination, program skeptic testing system for measuring the powerlessness of portable internet browsers to UI assaults. Utilizing Hindsight, we could measure the weakness of portable programs through time, finding, among others, that I) most by far of internet browsers are helpless against at least one of our assessed assaults, ii) versatile programs appear to get less secure as years pass by, and iii) the ubiquity of a program and security are not really related. Our expectation is that this examination will persuade the working of greater security-accommodating UIs for versatile internet browsers and the assessing of a portion of the current structure choices that assailants can direct maltreatment to mislead clients.

C. Fengguo Wei1 , Yuping Li1 , Sankardas Roy2 , Xinming Ou1 , and Wu Zhou3,“Deep Ground Truth Analysis of Current Android Malware”.


manual investigation is fundamental. In this work we present our way to deal with setting up a substantial Android malware dataset for the exploration network. We influence existing enemy of infection check results and robotization methods in arranging our substantial dataset (containing 24,650 malware application tests) into 135 assortments (in light of malware conduct semantics) which have a place with 71 malware families. For every assortment, we select three examples as delegates, for a sum of 405 malware tests, to lead top to bottom manual investigation. In light of the manual investigation result we produce nitty gritty depictions of each malware assortment's practices and incorporate them in our dataset. We additionally report our perceptions on the present scene of Android malware as portrayed in the dataset. Besides, we present point by point documentation of the procedure utilized in making the dataset, including the rules for the manual examination. We make our Android malware dataset accessible to the examination network.

We made an extensive volume of very much marked and all around contemplated Android malware dataset containing 24,650 examples, ordered in 135 assortments among 71 families running from 2010 to 2016. For every assortment of this dataset we direct an exhaustive report to profile their practices and development patterns. We report in subtleties the way toward making this dataset to empower different specialists to reproduce the procedure. We see that Android malware are advancing towards 20 adaptation, and getting to be complex and determined. The broad utilization of hostile to examination systems in the malware tests demonstrates the critical requirement for cutting edge de-jumbling and dynamic investigation strategies. We will make the dataset accessible to explore network.

D. Wei Meng, Ren Ding, Simon P. Chung, Steven Han, and Wenke Lee,“The Price of Free: Privacy Leakage in Personalized Mobile In-App Ads”.

In-application publicizing is a fundamental piece of the environment of free versatile applications. Superficially, this makes a success win circumstance where application designers can benefit from their work without charging the clients. Notwithstanding, as on account of web promoting, advertisement organizes behind in-application publicizing utilize personalization to enhance the adequacy/productivity of their promotion arrangement.

This requirement for serving customized commercials thus rouses promotion systems to gather information about clients and profile them. In that capacity, "free" applications are just free in money related terms; they accompany the cost of potential security concerns. The inquiry is, what amount of information are clients offering ceaselessly to pay "for nothing applications"? In this paper, we think about the amount of the client's advantage and statistic data is known to these real promotion organizes on the versatile stage. We likewise contemplate whether customized advertisements can be utilized by the facilitating applications to recreate a portion of the client data gathered by the promotion organize. By gathering in excess of two hundred genuine client profiles through reviews, just as the advertisements seen by the studied clients, we found that versatile promotions conveyed by a noteworthy advertisement organize, Google, are customized dependent on the two clients' statistic and intrigue profiles. Specifically, we demonstrated that there is a measurably huge connection between's watched advertisements and the client's profile. Since clients of various socioeconomics will in general get advertisements of various substance, we likewise exhibited the probability of learning clients' touchy statistic data, for example, sex (75% precision) and parental status (66% exactness) through customized promotions. These discoveries represent that in-application publicizing can spill conceivably delicate client data to any application that has customized promotions, and advertisement systems' present insurance components are not adequate for safe-guarding clients' touchy individual data.

We have examined how client data is used by real promotion suppliers for in-application advertisement personalization on cell phones and to what degree advertisement systems think about the client's advantage and statistic data. We have additionally examined if in-application ads can be a channel for spilling client data gathered by promotion systems to applications facilitating these ads. By gathering both the profile and watched versatile advertisement traffic from 217 genuine clients in a study, we found that portable promotions conveyed by a noteworthy promotion organize (for example Google AdMob) are very customized dependent on the two clients' statistic and intrigue profiles.


E. Guangliang Yang, Abner Mendoza, Jialong Zhang, and Guofei Gu ,“ Precisely and Scalably Vetting JavaScript Bridge In Android Hybrid Apps”.

We propose a novel framework, named BridgeScope, for exact and versatile verifying of JavaScript Bridge security issues in Android mixture applications. BridgeScope is adaptable and can be utilized to dissect a different arrangement of WebView usage, for example, Android's default WebView, and Mozilla's Rhino-based WebView. Besides, BridgeScope can naturally produce test misuse code to additionally affirm any found JavaScript Bridge defenselessness. We assessed BridgeScope to exhibit that it is exact and successful in discovering JavaScript Bridge vulnerabilities. All things considered, it can vet an application inside seven seconds with a low false positive rate. An extensive scale assessment recognized many possibly powerless true mainstream applications that could prompt basic abuse. Moreover, we additionally exhibit that BridgeScope can find malevolent functionalities that influence JavaScript Bridge in genuine vindictive applications, notwithstanding when the related pernicious disjoins were inaccessible

The combination of versatile and web using WebView expects bargains to be made in the security of the two stages. In this way, we find that the present plan and practices in the execution of WebView causes a class of conventional vulnerabilities that can be abused by assailants to cause difficult issues on cell phones. We actualize an examination system, BridgeScope, which can naturally find vulnerabilities in a half and half portable application and create test assault code that is then consequently checked as a plausible adventure. Our framework is actualized in Android, and we give assessment that demonstrates our framework is a plausible way to deal with consequently and exactly find vulnerabilities everywhere scale.

F. Bin Liu∗, Suman Nath‡, Ramesh Govindan∗, Jie Liu‡, “DECAF: Detecting and Characterizing Ad Fraud in Mobile Apps”.

Advertisement systems for versatile applications require review of the visual design of their promotions to distinguish particular sorts of position fakes. Doing this physically is mistake inclined, and does not scale to the sizes of the present application stores. In this paper, we structure a framework called DECAF to consequently find different arrangement fakes scalably and successfully. DECAF utilizes mechanized application route, together with improvements to look over a substantial number of visual components inside a restricted time. It additionally incorporates a structure for effectively identifying whether advertisements inside an application abuse an extensible arrangement of principles that administer promotion situation and show. We have actualized DECAF for Windows-based portable stages, and connected it to 1,150 tablet applications and 50,000 telephone applications so as to describe the predominance of advertisement fakes. DECAF has been utilized by the advertisement extortion group in Microsoft and has helped find numerous cases of promotion cheats.

DECAF is a framework for distinguishing position misrepresentation in portable application notices. It proficiently investigates the UI state progress chart of portable applications so as to identify infringement of terms and conditions set somewhere around advertisement systems. DECAF has been utilized by Microsoft Advertising to recognize advertisement misrepresentation and our investigation of a few thousand applications uncovers intriguing inconstancy with regards to the predominance of extortion by sort, classification, and distributer. Later on, we intend to investigate strategies to build the inclusion of DECAF's Monkey, extend the suite of cheats that it is fit for recognizing, assess different measurements for deciding state significance, and investigate assaults intended to sidestep DECAF and create countermeasures for these assaults.

G. Chuangang Ren, Peng Liu, Sencun Zhu, “WindowGuard: Systematic Protection of GUI Security in Android”.


viable to be immediately conveyed on an extensive number of client gadgets. Our assessment demonstrates that WindowGuard can effectively recognize all realized GUI assaults, while yielding little effects on client experience and framework execution.

Taking everything into account, we propose another security display - Android Window Integrity - to methodically shield Android GUI framework from assaults that trade off GUI honesty and accessibility. We create WindowGuard, a Xposed module that executes AWI show while saving the first Android client experience. Our assessment demonstrates that WindowGuard can effectively crush all realized GUI assaults and yields little effect on ease of use and execution.

H. Tongxin Li1,2,∗ , Xueqiang Wang2 , Mingming Zha3,4 , Kai Chen3,4 , XiaoFeng Wang2 , Luyi Xing2 , Xiaolong Bai5 , Nan Zhang2 , Xinhui Han1, “Unleashing the Walking Dead: Understanding Cross-App Remote Infections on Mobile WebViews”.

As a basic element for upgrading client experience, cross-application URL summon has been accounted for to cause unapproved execution of application parts. Despite the fact that assurance has just been set up, little has been done to comprehend the security dangers of exploring an application's WebView through a URL, a genuine requirement for showing the application's UI amid cross-application associations. In our exploration, we found that the present plan of such cross-WebView route really opens the way to a cross-application remote contamination, enabling a remote enemy to spread pernicious web content crosswise over various applications' WebView examples and gain stealthy and determined control of these applications. This new danger, named Cross-App WebView Infection (XAWI), empowers a progression of multi-application, conspiring assaults never thought, with critical certifiable effects. Especially, we found that the remote enemy can all things considered use various contaminated applications' individual abilities to raise his benefits on a cell phone or coordinate an exceedingly sensible remote Phishing assault (e.g., running a malignant content in Chrome to stealthily change Twitter's WebView to counterfeit Twitter's own login UI). We demonstrate that the enemy can without much of a stretch find such assault "building squares" (mainstream applications whose WebViews can be diverted by another application) through a programmed fluff, and found about 7.4% of the most famous applications subject to the XAWI assaults, including Facebook, Twitter, Amazon and others. Our examination uncovers the dispute between the interest for advantageous cross-WebView correspondence and the requirement for security control on the channel, and makes the initial move toward building OS-level insurance to defend this quickly developing innovation

We report our finding of a key plan test in cross-WebView route, a truly necessary capacity for incorporating the administrations from various applications. Our investigation uncovers another XAWI shortcoming disregarded by the earlier research, through which a remote enemy can gain tenacious, stealthy control on various applications, when his web content is activated by Chrome. We exhibit that a progression of multi-application, conspiring assaults can be propelled to perform exceedingly reasonable remote Phishing assaults and raise the remote foe's benefits. Additionally such defenseless applications are observed to be unavoidable, at any rate 7.4% among well known applications, including Facebook, Google Drive, Twitter, TripAdvisor, and so on. To secure Android clients, we built up another system to naturally control cross-WebView correspondence. In particular, our examination exposes the dispute between the solid interest for helpful web-to-application connecting and the security requirement for controlling the channels for such correspondence. We demonstrate that current security on the channels has not been well thoroughly considered and frequently can be effectively avoided. Further exertion is required to all the more likely comprehend the issue and discover the arrangement that shuts the assault roads without undermining the utility of the channels

I. Drew Davidson ,Yaohui Chen ,Franklin George, “Secure Integration of Web Content and Applications on Commodity Mobile Operating Systems”.


and 20 uncommonly chose applications, demonstrates these strategies take a shot at complex applications and acquire adequate start to finish execution overhead.

As talked about in this work and others, Web-inserting applications progressively draw in assaults from various edges. A few current risk vectors stay unprotected, because of the absence of commonsense security instruments that can meet security necessities all things considered, including application designers, application clients and web content suppliers. We propose the utilization of a safe, outsider application called WIREframe to give reliable web-inserting while at the same time upholding configurable and inception put together security approaches with respect to the collaborations between Android applications and implanted web content. WIREframe permits both applications and web substance to verify their very own assets at fine-granularities. We have demonstrated that our answer is compelling in averting maltreatment of the application web connect by either malignant web content or malevolent applications. In the meantime, our framework keeps up the appearance and usefulness of customer applications. Our answer is anything but difficult to convey. It requires no change to the Android working framework or structure. Using our disconnected application changing apparatus, WIRE, we can retarget inheritance applications to profit by the upgraded security of WIREframe without engineer intercession.

J. Antonio Bianchi, Jacopo Corbetta, Luca Invernizzi, Yanick Fratantonio, Christopher Kruegel, Giovanni Vigna ,“What the App is That? Deception and Countermeasures in the Android User Interface”.

Versatile applications are a piece of the regular daily existences of billions of individuals, who frequently trust them with touchy data. These clients recognize the at present centered application exclusively by its visual appearance, since the GUIs of the most well known portable OSes don't demonstrate any confided in sign of the application inception. In this paper, we break down in detail the numerous manners by which Android clients can be confounded into misidentifying an application, hence, for example, being tricked into giving delicate data to a malevolent application. Our examination of the Android stage APIs, helped by a mechanized state-investigation apparatus, drove us to recognize and classify an assortment of assault vectors (some recently known, others novel, for example, a non-escapable fullscreen overlay) that permit a malignant application to clandestinely supplant or emulate the GUI of different applications and mount phishing and click-jacking assaults. Constraints in the framework GUI make these assaults altogether harder to see than on a work area machine, leaving clients totally vulnerable against them. To moderate GUI assaults, we have built up a two-layer barrier. To distinguish noxious applications at the market level, we built up an apparatus that utilizes static investigation to recognize code that could dispatch GUI disarray assaults. We show how this instrument recognizes applications that may dispatch GUI assaults, for example, ransomware programs. Since these assaults are intended to befuddle people, we have additionally planned and actualized an on-gadget barrier that tends to the basic issue of the absence of a security pointer in the Android GUI. We add such a pointer to the framework route bar; this marker safely educates clients about the root of the application with which they are associating (e.g., the PayPal application is sponsored by "PayPal, Inc."). We exhibit the adequacy of our assaults and the proposed on-gadget barrier with a client contemplate including 308 human subjects, whose capacity to distinguish the assaults expanded altogether when utilizing a framework furnished with our safeguard

We examined in detail the numerous manners by which Android clients can be confounded into misidentifying an application. We ordered known assaults, and unveil novel ones, that can be utilized to befuddle the client's observation and mount stealthy phishing and protection attacking assaults.

K. Jianjun Huang1 , Yousra Aafer1 , David Perry1 , Xiangyu Zhang1 , Chen Tian2, “UI Driven Android Application Reduction”.


We propose a static technique to get rid of code components in mechanical man apps.The code components square measure relevant to user such as unwanted UI components.The approach identifies the program locations directly referring to the specific UI elements and applies a type system to infer removable code elements.Each approachable code component is labelled with a sort that's propagated.The types are used to determine whether the corresponding code elements are removable or not. In addition to removing code elements that are related to the specified UI elements, our technique is also able to discover the associated background functionalities and type the corresponding code components within the background functionalities such they will be removed too.We implement a paradigm and assess it on ten real-world mechanical man apps.The results show that our approach can accurately identify removable code elements associated with the specified UI elements and removing those functionalities leads to substantial resource savings..

L. Feng Dong1 , Haoyu Wang1∗ , Li Li2 , Yao Guo3 , Tegawende F. Bissyande4 , Tianming Liu1 , Guoai Xu1 , Jacques Klein4, “FraudDroid: Automated Ad Fraud Detection for Android Apps”.

Albeit portable promotion fakes have been far reaching, best in class approaches in the writing have for the most part centered around distinguishing the alleged static position fakes, where just a solitary UI state is included and can be recognized dependent on static data, for example, the size or area of advertisement sees. Different kinds of extortion exist that include various UI states and are performed progressively while clients interface with the application. Such unique connection fakes, albeit now generally spread in applications, have not yet been investigated nor tended to in the writing. In this work, we explore a wide scope of portable advertisement fakes to give an exhaustive scientific categorization to the examination network.

We at that point propose, FraudDroid, a novel half breed way to deal with distinguish advertisement fakes in versatile Android applications.

FraudDroid investigations applications powerfully to manufacture UI state progress charts and gathers their related runtime arrange deals, which are then utilized to check against a lot of heuristic-based principles for distinguishing promotion false practices. We show exactly that FraudDroid identifies advertisement fakes with a high accuracy (∼ 93%) and review (∼ 92%). Trial results further demonstrate that FraudDroid is fit for identifying advertisement fakes over the range of misrepresentation types. By breaking down 12,000 advertisement upheld Android applications, FraudDroid recognized 335 instances of extortion related with 20 promotion systems that are additionally affirmed to be genuine positive outcomes and are imparted to our kindred specialists to advance propelled advertisement misrepresentation location

Through an exploratory examination, we portray advertisement cheats by researching approaches set up by promotion systems. We at that point assemble a scientific classification as a source of perspective in the network to empower the examination line on advertisement misrepresentation location. This scientific classification exhaustively incorporates four existing kinds of static arrangement cheats and five new sorts concentrating on unique connection fakes, which have not been investigated in the writing. We along these lines devise and execute FraudDroid, a device bolstered methodology for exact and adaptable identification of advertisement cheats in Android applications dependent on UI state change


A methodical static examination philosophy to discover advertisement libraries install in applications and dynamic investigation approach comprising of three parts identified with activating web joins, identifying malware and sweep battles, and deciding the provenance of such crusades achieving the client.


We have taken a small step to study mobile security and discussed about the third-party access to the app .Our system is implemented in android. It requires no modification to the android operating system or framework as it based on the creation and development of our own application for security purpose.



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[2] Viveca Woods and Rob van der Meulen. Gartner Says Emerging Markets Drove Worldwide Smartphone Sales to 15.5 Percent Growth in Third Quarter of 2015., 2015.

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[4] Management by objectives. Originally published in The 1972 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators by J. William Pfeiffer & John E. Jones (Eds.), San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company.

[5] The value of banner advertising on the web by Kelvin Kozlen in December 2006.

[6] Interactive Journal of Medical Research. Published on 21.07.17 in Vol 6, No 2 (2017): Jul-Dec.

[7] Jonathan Crussell, Ryan Stevens, Hao Chen ,“MAdFraud: Investigating Ad Fraud in Android Applications” in June 16–19, 2014, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA.

[8] Meng Luo, Oleksii Starov, Nima Honarmand, Nick Nikiforakis ,“Hindsight: Understanding the Evolution of UI Vulnerabilities in Mobile Browsers” in CCS ’17, October 30-November 3, 2017, Dallas, TX, USA.

[9] Fengguo Wei1 , Yuping Li1 , Sankardas Roy2 , Xinming Ou1 , and Wu Zhou3,“Deep Ground Truth Analysis of Current Android Malware” in 14th international conference,DIMVA 2017,bonn,germany,july 6- 7-2017,proceedings.

[10] Wei Meng, Ren Ding, Simon P. Chung, Steven Han, and Wenke Lee,“The Price of Free: Privacy Leakage in Personalized Mobile In-App Ads” in NDSS ’16, 21-24 February 2016, San Diego, CA, USA.

[11] Guangliang Yang, Abner Mendoza, Jialong Zhang, and Guofei Gu ,“ Precisely and Scalably Vetting JavaScript Bridge In Android Hybrid Apps” in 20th international symposium,RAID 2017,Atlanta,GA,USA,September 18-20,2017,proceedings.

[12] Bin Liu∗, Suman Nath‡, Ramesh Govindan∗, Jie Liu‡, “DECAF: Detecting and Characterizing Ad Fraud in Mobile Apps” in proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI ’14). April 2–4, 2014 • Seattle, WA, USA.

[13] Chuangang Ren, Peng Liu, Sencun Zhu, “WindowGuard: Systematic Protection of GUI Security in Android” in NDSS ’17, 26 February - 1 March 2017, San Diego, CA, USA.

[14] Tongxin Li1,2,∗ , Xueqiang Wang2 , Mingming Zha3,4 , Kai Chen3,4 , XiaoFeng Wang2 , Luyi Xing2 , Xiaolong Bai5 , Nan Zhang2 , Xinhui Han1, “Unleashing the Walking Dead: Understanding Cross-App Remote Infections on Mobile WebViews” in CCS’17, October 30-November 3, 2017, Dallas, TX, USA.

[15] Drew Davidson ,Yaohui Chen ,Franklin George, “Secure Integration of Web Content and Applications on Commodity Mobile Operating Systems” in ASIA CCS '17, April 02 - 06, 2017, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

[16] Antonio Bianchi, Jacopo Corbetta, Luca Invernizzi, Yanick Fratantonio, Christopher Kruegel, Giovanni Vigna ,“What the App is That? Deception and Countermeasures in the Android User Interface” SP '15 Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Symposium.

[17] Jianjun Huang1 , Yousra Aafer1 , David Perry1 , Xiangyu Zhang1 , Chen Tian2, “UI Driven Android Application Reduction” in ASE 2017, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA Technical Research.


Figure 1.1: android architecture diagram

Figure 1.1:

android architecture diagram p.2