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A Paper presented by Mr. Henry Kemoli Manani

Ag. Deputy Director, Kenya Institute of Education at Hilton

Hotel Addis Ababa, Ethiopia





1.1 Background... 1



3.1 Accelerated Programmes ... 4

3.2 Rapid School Readiness Initiative... 5

3.3 Islamic Integrated Education Programme (I.I.E.P).……….6

3.4 Loipi ECD Centres... 7

3.5 Community Support Grants ... 8


4.1 Objectives of Non-Formal Education ... 12

4.2 Basic Non-Formal Education Programme ... 13

4.2.1 Subjects offered in Basic NFE programme ... 14

4.3 Alternative Secondary Education Programme ... 15

4.4 Undugu Basic Education Programme (UBEP)... 17

4.5 Planned and ongoing Reforms in Non-Formal Education Sector ... 18


5.1 Teacher Training ... 19 6.0 E-LEARNING ... 20



9.1 Challenges of mainstreaming Accelerated Learning

programmes ... 27 10.0 CONCLUSION ... 28 APPENDIX... 29



AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

AL - Accelerated Learning

ALP - Accelerated Learning Programmes

ASALS - Arid and Semi Arid Lands

CBO - Community Based Organizations

CD - Compact Discs

DICECE - District Centre for Early Childhood


ECD - Early Childhood Development

EFA - Education For All

FBO - Faith Based Organizations

FPE - Free Primary Education

FPESP - Free Primary Education Support


HIV - Human Immuno Virus

ICT - Information Communication and


IIEP - Islamic Integrated Education Programme


KISE - Kenya Institute of Special Education

KESSP - Kenya Education Sector Support


MDG - Millennium Development Goals

MOE - Ministry of Education

NACECE - National Centre for Early Childhood Education

NFE - Non-Formal Education

NFECs - Non-Formal Education Centres

NFSs - Non-Formal Education Schools

NGOs - Non-Governmental Organizations

SWAP - Sector Wide Approach to Programme


TOT - Trainer of Trainers

UBEP - Undugu Basic Education Programme

UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund

USAID - United States Agency for International


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the Jomtien Declaration of Education For All (1990), the Dakar Declaration of Education For All-EFA (2000), Millennium Development Goals and the Kenya Children Act (2001), all state that every child is entitled to basic rights, among which education is key.

In Kenya, the Ministry of Education (MOE) has adopted a Sector Wide Approach to Programme Planning (SWAP). SWAP is a process of engaging all stakeholders in education in order to attain national ownership, alignment of objectives, harmonization of procedures, approaches and a coherent financing arrangement. In addition, SWAP process involves broad stakeholder consultations in designing a coherent and rationalized sector programme at micro, meso and macro levels and the establishment of a strong coordination mechanism among Development Partners and between the Government and the Development Partners.


The Government and Development Partners have developed the Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) comprising of twenty three Investment Programs focusing on the education sector as a whole. KESSP is based on the rationale of the overall policy goal of achieving Education For All (EFA) and the Government’s commitment to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s). The broad objective is, to give every Kenyan quality education and training no matter his/her back ground or socio-economic status, by providing an all inclusive quality education that is accessible and relevant.


Many people think of Accelerated Learning as any activity that speeds up the learning process. Such things as studying in groups and occasional activities may increase learning, but as valuable as these teaching tools may be, true Accelerated Learning methodology is much more than that. Accelerated Learning is a systematic approach to teaching the whole person, containing specific core elements that, when used together, empower students to learn faster, more effectively and joyfully.


Today's Accelerated Learning is multifaceted, encompassing a wide variety of methods and techniques. An effective Accelerated Learning program may include new findings in multiple intelligences, learning styles, neurosciences and cognitive psychology.



These programmes are intended to accelerate leaning at the early childhood development level especially through:

- Increased access to ECD services by children.

- Improved quality of ECD services offered

Some of the objectives of Early Childhood Development Program in Kenya include:

i) To provide education geared towards development of the child’s mental and physical capabilities.

ii) To improve the status of the child’s health, care and nutritional needs, and link him/her with health services such as immunization, health check-ups and growth monitoring and promotion.


iii) To enrich the child’s experiences to enable him/her cope better with primary schools life.

3.1 Accelerated Programmes

Community capacity building and mobilization The activities under this component include:

i) Build capacity of TOTs, School Management committee members and parents through training.

ii) Provision of community support grants

Since ECD education in Kenya is not free as yet, unlike education at primary level. The need was felt to mobilize and sensitize parents and other community members on the importance of the ECD programmes. Parents and members of the community particularly opinion leaders were trained on identifying and using local resources to start, support and sustain educational and other care and development programmes such as payment of ECD teachers salaries, establishing and supporting feeding programmes and establishment of kitchen gardens at the centres and their homes. Several communities own ECD centres which have been established through their initiative leading to enhanced enrollments of young children into the ECD centres countrywide.


School management committee members have also been trained on the best methods of procuring and managing financial, human and other resources.

Other areas of training to both parents and community members are related to monitoring and promotion of their children’s growth and development. At most, parents received training on how to weigh children, measure height and plotting same on paper and interpret the obtained data. This has gone a long way to help alleviate the problems of nutrition and health. Hence, enabling children access, retain and complete the ECD and primary cycles of education.

3.2 Rapid School Readiness Initiative

This programme targets children of ages 5 years and above who are out of the ECD centres and the primary schools. It encompasses a three month intensive training package to both ECD trainers and teachers in order to provide them with knowledge, skills and attitude. The initiative is organized for parents and communities in order to mobilize and sensitize them on the importance of providing education to their children. This is


especially carried out among the pastoral/nomadic communities in North Eastern region and slum dwellers especially in Nairobi.

Through the programme, ECD going children are identified; parents and communities sensitized on the importance of ECD education and encouraged to take their children to identified centres. The trained teachers are provided with learning/teaching materials and food for the children especially porridge for mid-morning snack. They are also paid salaries for the period of three months. They offer a one month intensive teaching to the children to enable such children access class one. As a result of such intensified training packages, the participation rates have increased more than doubling the expected numbers. This programme is co-supported by the government of Kenya and UNICEF.

3.3 Islamic Integrated Education Programme (I.I.E.P)

Muslim children normally attend Koranic schools known as Madrassa or duksi. Here, they are purely taught religion, some basic arithmetic and Arabic language. The National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) realized that such children especially among the pre-dominantly Islamic religion were missing


out in the area of ECD experiences that are very critical for the holistic growth and development of an individual. Following series of discussions with Muslim leaders, it was agreed that the Integrated Islamic Education Programme be developed and the Madrassa and duksi teachers be trained on how to integrate religious learning with the secular ECD activities. The move has been accepted and children from Muslim dominated regions are reaping immense benefits from the Islamic Integrated Education Programme which is now a national programme. Enrolment has increased and quality of leaning boosted.

3.4 Loipi ECD Centres

Due to low participation in the ECD centres among the Samburu community of Kenya, NACECE with the support of Bernerd Van Leer Foundation initiated a community based ECD programme. Community members were invited to discuss about traditional child rearing practices among their people. Following these discussions, the participants came up with the local Samburu name ‘Loipi’ which means taking care of children under the shade of indigenous trees. Through the programme, communities were supported in establishing several Loipi centres for ECD going children. Parents were also trained on child health, nutrition,


personal and environmental hygiene. Volunteer parents were trained on early stimulation activities, preparation of balanced diets, importance of cleanliness and immunization. Follow up of this initiative showed that regions where Loipi were functional, the participation rates soured up and this gradually improved the Samburu ECD participation unlike in other regions where this initiative was lacking.

3.5 Community Support Grants

Through support of multilateral partners, very poor communities are provided with financial assistance in form of support grants to improve ECD services at the Centre level. The grants are normally used to start feeding programmes, improve physical facilities such as classrooms, construction of toilets and initiation of income generating activities to sustain the ECD programmes. Community members are encouraged to network with Government ministries and departments such as Ministries of Health, Agriculture, and Gender and Sports in order to access services such as food production, immunization, growth monitoring and general maternal-child care.


Non Formal Education (NFE) was initiated as a means through which the problem of out-of school children and youth would be addressed. NFE is increasingly becoming necessary and complementary component of a comprehensive strategy to provide education for all.

NFE is defined as any organized education activity operating outside the established formal education system and targets learning needs of certain sub groups in the population. It is flexible and relevant to educational needs and interests of out-of-school children and youth, linking classroom and home experiences and including practical skills for self employment.

The target groups for the NFE are school-age children, who for any reasons have been unable to join the formal system and are learning in either Non-Formal Schools (NFSs) or Non-Formal Centers (NFCs). Both categories of non-formal institutions which may or may not be registered by the Ministry of Education (MOE) have been established to provide education and other services (such as shelter, health, nutrition, counseling, and protection) to school-age children. Initially, NFE was provided by NGOs, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs), donor agencies, Community Based


Organizations (CBOs) and individuals. The centers providing this programme had been operating without a standardized curriculum with each provider deciding on what curriculum to use.

Generally, NFSs and NFCs target primary school-age children and youth below 18 years who cannot attend formal schools, using various curricula including Ministry of Education NFE curriculum. There is an overlap between the Adult Education Act, which makes provision for learners aged 15 years and above to access adult education and the Children’s Act 2001, which defines a child as one below 18 years. Under this Act all children are entitled to free and compulsory basic education.

Despite the FPE initiative, in 2004 there were an estimated 1.7 million children and youth (1.5 million aged 6-14 and 200,000 youth) who for various socio-economic reasons had been unable to access education through formal school delivery channels. This problem is particularly acute in informal urban settlements, Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASALs), and pockets of poverty across the country. This affects a number of vulnerable groups including child workers, orphans, nomadic children, street children/youth


and adolescent parents. The Ministry of Education’s capacity to coordinate and support Formal Schools (NFSs) and Non-Formal Education Centres (NFECs) based service providers has been inadequate. As a result the quality of education provided in NFSs and NFECs varies from very good to poor.

The government has put in strategies to provide Free Primary Education to children in NFSs and NFECs. However, many of the children learning in these schools or centres have not benefited from the Free Primary Education Support Programme (FPESP) due to several challenges, including weak management of the centres. Thus, both types require government support in terms of quality assurance and resources.

The drop out rate in the formal system of education had continued to rise while the enrolment rate had continued to decline. This scenario was brought about by a number of factors among them cost-sharing bottlenecks, high population growth as well as rigidity of the formal education system.

In order to ensure that quality education is provided to all children, the Government of Kenya in conjunction with UNICEF-KCO carried out a needs assessment survey in 1994. It is this


survey that determined the learning needs of out-of-school children and youth. This consequently led to the development of basic Non-Formal Education curriculum aimed at harmonizing non-formal education in all learning centres.

4.1 Objectives of Non-Formal Education

The objectives of Non-Formal Education are to:

• Develop literacy, numeracy, creativity and communication skills

• Enjoy learning and to develop desire to continue learning • Develop ability for critical thinking and logical judgment • Appreciate and respect the dignity of work

• Develop desirable social standards, moral/ethical and religious values.

• Develop into self-disciplined, physically fit and healthy persons

• Develop aesthetic values and capacity to appreciate own and other people’s cultures

• Develop awareness and appreciation of the environment • Develop awareness and appreciation of other nations and


• Develop respect and love for own country and the need for harmonious co-existence

• Develop individual talents for the benefit of self and others • Promote social responsibility and make proper use of leisure


• Develop awareness and appreciation of the role of technology in national development

4.2 Basic Non-Formal Education Programme

The basic NFE curriculum is broad in nature and provides the learners with the opportunity to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for their individual and national development. It is flexible and has linkages and equivalences with the formal education. The flexibility allows entry, dropping out and re-entry at any level. The target group for this curriculum is out-of-school children and youth aged 6-17 years.

The curriculum is structured in three levels (I, II and III) each of which takes two years to complete. This is an accelerated education programme which enables learners to complete within six years taking in cognizance some learner’s advanced age and experiences. The curriculum has vertical and horizontal linkages


and equivalences with formal education curriculum. In each level, learners are expected to acquire the same competences as learners in the corresponding levels in the formal education. Level I is equivalent to Formal Education Standard 1-4, Level II Standard 5-6 and Level III Standard 7-8.

4.2.1 Subjects offered in Basic NFE programme

i) Academic subjects • English

• First Language (Mother Tongue) • Kiswahili

• Arabic • Science

• Mathematics • Social Studies

• Christian Religious Education (CRE) • Islamic Religious Education (IRE).


- First language will be offered at Level I only

- Learners will take one of the Religious Education subjects offered i.e CRE and IRE.


ii) Technical/Trade subjects • Agriculture

• Art and Craft • Garment Making • Wood Work • Masonry

• Welding and Fabrication • Motor Vehicle Mechanics • Home Science

In this category of subjects, the learner will be expected to take one (1) technical/trade subject.

iii) Support subjects • Basic Geometry • Entrepreneurship

The two support subjects will help to facilitate learning and application of knowledge and skills acquired in technical/trade subject.

4.3 Alternative Secondary Education Programme

Despite the Government’s efforts to improve access, participation and completion rates in education, the transition rate is still low


due to various challenges. For instance, in 2004, 650,000 pupils sat for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) of which 231,595 were enrolled in Form One. This was only a transition rate of 47%. In 2005, 671,550 pupils sat for KCPE out of which 380,589 enrolled in secondary education leaving out a critical number of 290,961. In 2006, 666,451 candidates sat for KCPE and only 395,377 were enrolled in Form One (Ministry of Education, Draft Secondary Education Strategy Paper, 2007).

The low transition rate is a critical issue that requires realistic solutions, recognizing that Secondary education enrolment is projected to increase as a result of Free Primary Education implemented in 2003. The inference is that formal schooling only will not lead to the realization of the EFA and MDGs aspirations. Consequently other complementary modes of education delivery have to be explored.

From the foregoing and the research findings (KIE Research Report

Series No.81), there is need for Alternative Secondary Education.

This would provide an opportunity for school dropouts to complete or further their secondary education and acquire recognized certificates. This underscores the need to develop


Secondary Alternative Education as a flexible, learner friendly mode of education delivery that is tailored to meet specific needs of the learners. Strategies for the development of this much awaited accelerated education programme are at an advanced stage.

4.4 Undugu Basic Education Programme (UBEP)

The education programme was developed by Kenya Institute of Education in collaboration with the Undugu Society of Kenya to give some Basic instruction to the disadvantaged out-of-school children and youth particularly the street children. The programme is an accelerated learning that takes three years to complete.

The education programme offers basic skills in reading, writing and arithmetic. The children are also expected to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for self-reliance. Graduates are expected to further their education by joining polytechnics.


The programme therefore is an alternative education programme that enables children realize their worth and to contribute in the development of themselves and the nation.

4.5 Planned and ongoing Reforms in Non-Formal Education Sector

The Government is in the process of conducting mapping of the NFSs and NFECs in order to facilitate legal recognition through the Education Act so that they can benefit from the government support just like the formal education.

• The Government support for NFE initiatives are being developed or piloted so as to encourage greater participation and open doors for more children who have not been to school

• The Government has embarked on provision of quality inputs in NFE programmes by providing professional support in curriculum development, teachers training, monitoring and evaluation and resources sharing between formal and



To facilitate accelerated learning among children with special needs and especially the Gifted and Talented, the Kenya Government has established National schools that admit learners who perform quite highly at the end of the primary level. In some of these National Schools, students are offered specialized skills such as aviation. The Kenya Institute of Education is in the process of developing Assessment Tools to help in the identification of children with special talents in order to provide them with the necessary skills related to their gifts and/or talents.

5.1 Teacher Training

The national teacher training curriculum in Kenya prepares teachers in identifying learners with various educational needs and teaching them accordingly. One of the objectives of primary teacher education is for the teacher to bear in mind that the child is the center of education and that they should assist the children develop their potential abilities to maximum through a variety of creative learning experiences. Another major objective is that of assisting the children develop their ability in critical imaginative thinking in problem solving and self/expression and also to provide suitable opportunities for children with diverse needs.


The country has a special Institution; the Kenya Institute of Special Education (KISE) which train teachers specifically on how to work with different categories of children with special needs among them, the gifted and talented who in most instances are left out when normal teaching takes place. These are the children who drop out of school as their needs tend to be ignored.


E-learning or electronic learning is a general term used to refer to computer-enhanced learning. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have a great impact in education and the issue of integrating ICTs in education is a contemporary global concern. However, the Kenyan curriculum has been lacking digital curriculum support materials for a long time since traditional classroom teaching was the only viable option. This means that even those schools with computers have not used them effectively to teach other subjects in the curriculum and have therefore confined the computers as tools for only Computer Studies as a subject.

It is with this in mind that Kenya Institute of Education started a project on digital materials development in line with the national


curriculum. The broader goal of the project is to design and develop curriculum support materials in digital format for all the subjects offered in the Kenyan Early Childhood education, Secondary schools, Primary schools, non-formal and tertiary institutions. The project started with the Secondary school curriculum because the infrastructure was already established in some of the schools.

The e-content curriculum development team is working on the digital content and has managed to produce draft compacted discs (CDs) for eleven (11) subjects in Form 1 and is in the process of finalizing the CDs so as to disseminate them to the schools.

The institute has also partnered with USAID (through Mind-Set of South Africa) in a project known as ‘Tafakari’ a Kiswahili word, to develop e-content learning materials in Science and Mathematics for Std. 4 and 5. These materials will be used by Tutors in Teacher Training Colleges (TTCs), Pre-service students and In-service teachers in the field.

The use of computer in curriculum delivery in particular promises better and improved methods of content delivery, methodology


and pedagogy as well as expanding the available teaching and learning resource base. Whereas technology cannot replace a teacher in the instructional process, it forms an important and additional resource for both the teacher and the learner. E-learning has several benefits in that it:

• Is very interactive because the student is fully involved

• Accommodates different learning styles and fosters learning through a variety of activities that apply to different learning styles

• Fosters self paced learning whereby students can learn at their own pace since it gives them a chance to speed up or slow down where necessary

• Is convenient for students to access any time, any place • Reduces travel time and travel costs for students

• Encourages students to browse information through hyperlinks to sites on the worldwide web and thereby find information relevant to their personal situations

• Is self-directed in that it allows students to select learning materials, content and tools appropriate to their different interests, needs, and skill levels in order to perform more effectively in a particular activity


• Encourages students to take responsibility for their learning and success builds self-knowledge and self-confidence

• Eliminates geographical barriers, opening up broader education options

• Is flexible in that the e-learning materials can be accessed in a non-sequential way, enabling students to navigate content in different ways, obtain a global view before tackling the details of the individual units

It is therefore anticipated that the development of digital content will accelerate learning in that it will:

ƒ Improve the quality of teaching and learning

ƒ Expand teaching and learning resources

ƒ Make learning more interactive, captivating, interesting and increase concentration span of the learners

ƒ Enable learners to learn faster by covering a lot within a short time, hence reducing the number of years one has to be in school

ƒ Support individualized learning

ƒ Enable out-of-school learners to engage in learning hence improve access and equity of education


ƒ Offer a solution to specific problems especially in sciences for most schools who might not afford a science laboratory and special subject specific equipment


Another area KIE is contributing to Accelerated Learning is through Radio Broadcast to Schools. Kenya Institute of Education through its Educational Media Service develops broadcast content which is transmitted through the National broadcaster, Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) on week days from 8.25 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. The Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP), proposes the establishment of an Educational Broadcasting Channel at KIE. When this is achieved, KIE will be able to transmit live programmes from its studios instead of going through KBC.

The broadcast content is mainly on the formal school curriculum. It also covers pertinent issues in the society such as HIV and AIDS, environmental education, drug preventive education and life skills. The programmes are developed through a panel system


made up of practicing teachers and other specialized people in specific areas.

Radio lessons are an important option for improving educational quality on schools in most developing countries around the world. It can lead to significant and consistent improvement in school achievement and can help to overcome equity gaps among learners. Since the radio is relatively low-cost technology, it can have broad coverage and impact. A particular benefit of radio broadcast is its ability to improve classroom practices by exposing teachers to the different pedagogical skills.

Learners are able to interact with the characters in the radio lesson that is the radio teacher and pupils. The radio lesson applies one of the principles of Accelerated learning (AL) by the radio teacher creating an interaction to invite learners, to take an active role and become a creator of their learning. It is therefore a learner centred approach. Since the lessons are meant to supplement the teachers’ work, they can greatly benefit slow learners who will be going through the topic a second time. In addition there are the revision programs which capture what has been learnt in the course of a given duration.


The radio lessons motivate the learner through sharing of knowledge, use of variety of activities and programme formats such as story telling, drama and discussions.

The Radio Broadcast in Kenya has a large audience of about 18,000 primary and 4,000 secondary schools across the country. The radio broadcast can also be an effective strategy for reaching children and youth who do not have access to formal schooling.


The current technical, industrial, vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TIVET) programmes developed by the Institute are structured to produced graduates who are responsive to the rapidly changing technological and industrial environment and can survive as self-employed or salaried citizens.

The programmes are competency based and modular hence flexible to accommodate diverse interests of trainees in employment and advanced learning. The curriculum modules are self-contained hence allow for placement of a trainee in employment at the end of each module. Trainees can therefore exit and re-enter training at any module as they wish.


The programmes place premium on personal and social development of the trainee, hence allowing for faster integration into society. To this end, subjects such as Life Skills, Entrepreneurship and Communication skills have been incorporated.


9.1 Challenges of mainstreaming Accelerated Learning programmes

• Lack of a clear policy framework to guide and regulate various players in the sub-sector

• Inadequate funding of accelerated education programmes • Shortage of qualified and competent personnel

• Inadequate physical facilities , teaching and learning resources

• Negative societal attitudes towards accelerated and Non-Formal Education programmes

• Lack of effective tools to assess learners with specific educational needs

• Lack of special curriculum for accelerated learning • Irregular monitoring and evaluation mechanisms


• Accreditation of accelerated learning programmes

• Inadequate data on out-of-school children and those attending NFE programmes

• The training especially for the e-content team is very basic due to time constraint. The team has been doing production alongside training.

• Inadequate equipment such as scanners, digital cameras and other required software for e-content.

• Lack of an independent Broadcasting channel • Need for refurbishment of Broadcasting facilities

• Need for further training for broadcasting staff in both production and technical areas.


In Kenya, the accelerated learning strategies have been positively received and taken on board in the Education Sector. In Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE), this strategy is employed in programmes such as Rapid Schools Readiness Initiative (RSRI) and Islamic Education Programme (IEP)

The Basic Non-Formal and the Alternative Secondary education are accelerated programmes initiated as a means through which


the problem of out-of-school children and youth could be addressed.

For the E-learning, this accelerated learning strategy is being employed through the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT). The Kenya Institute of Education has started a project on the digitalization of various curricula and curriculum support materials geared toward enhancing the accelerated learning for the learners.

The Ministry of Education through the Kenya Institute of Education is now airing radio programmes through the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) to all learners in the country. This is one of the effective strategies employed to reach children and youth who do no have access to formal schooling.

For Kenya to achieve its overall goal of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), it has to enhance, sustain and mainstream the strategy of accelerated learning into all levels of education.








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