Assessment against MSC Principles and Criteria for:
ARGENTINE ANCHOVY FISHERY
)Certificate code: F-OIA-P-0200
AUTHORS: Dr. Leszek Prenski (Team Leader), Lic. Gabriel Sesar and Eng. Carolina Medina Foucher (OIA Technical)
Contact: Martin Di Scala
Address: San Salvador 3235, (7600) Mar del Plata, Prov. Buenos Aires. Argentina Tel: (+54 0223) 489 2814
Contact: Ricardo José Angeleri
Address: Diagonal Garibaldi 4825, (7600) Mar del Plata, Prov. Buenos Aires. Argentina Tel: (+54 0223) 480 6979
Alleloccic S.A. / Nuevo Viento S.R.L. Contact: Pablo Esteban Ciccolella
Address: Posada 347, (7600) Mar del Plata, Prov. Buenos Aires. Argentina Tel: (+54 0223) 480 8565
Organización Internacional Agropecuaria S.A. (OIA)
Address: Av. Santa Fe 830, Acassuso (B1641ABN), Buenos Aires, Argentina Tel/Fax: (+54) 11 4793-4340
email@example.com ∙ www.oia.com.ar
THIRD SURVEILLANCE VISIT
Assessment against MSC Principles and Criteria for
ARGENTINE ANCHOVY FISHERY (Engraulis anchoita)
Table of Contents.
1. General background about the fishery. ... 4
2. Assessment process. ... 5
2.1 Determination of the surveillance level ... 5
2.2 Date(s) of the surveillance visit ... 5
2.3 Surveillance team ... 5
2.3.1 OIA technical ... 6
2.4 Description of the audit process ... 6
2.4.1 Scope and history of assessment ... 8
2.4.2 A statement on the fishery’s position in relation to the scope criteria ... 8
3. Results, conclusions and recommendations. ... 9
3.1 Discussion of findings and statement confirming the status of the certification ... 9
3.2 Status of previously raised conditions ... 15
3.3 Conclusions and recommendations ... 23
4. Catch data. ... 24
5.Appendix. ... 29
5.1 Opening surveillance meeting with Client Group ... 31
5.2 Groupal meeting with scientists ... 32
5.3 Individual meetings ... 34
1. General background about the fishery.
The certification process of the Argentinean Bonaerense anchovy fishery started in December 2010, and it was certified in December 2010 as sustainable against Principles and Criteria of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) by Organización Internacional Agropecuaria (OIA), therefore is well managed and sustainable fishery.
The certification was subject to satisfactorily implementation of 7 conditions for PIs 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, 2.2.3, 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3, and 9 recommendations for PIs 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.4, 2.2.1, 2.3.1, 2.5.1, 2.5.3 and 3.2.4, by client group. The client group´s response to the conditions and recommendations of certification was set out in an Action Plan, which was appended to the Certification Public Report.
The MSC requires certified fisheries to be audited periodically against MSC standard to ensure that the certification is in place and the fishery is complying with the condition requirements imposed by the assessment team in the full-assessment process. These actions were examined as part of the first and second surveillance reports completed in August 2012 and October 2013. In the last audit, the assessment team detected that 1 to 7 conditions (PI 1.2.4) is identified as Behind Target.
Since the last surveillance, there are registered a change in the client group. OTESA S.A. left the client group and MSC program by administrative status and not the result of non-conformities. The Sustainable Fishing’s certificate of OTESA S.A. was cancelled for formal request by the company on 09th September 2014. However, the certificate of Argentinean Bonaerense anchovy fishery not
changed its status as certified.
Table 1. Summary of fishery and vessels certified
The fishery has completed the third annual surveillance since certification. The surveillance team finds that the Argentinean Bonaerense anchovy fishery still complies with the Action Plan established and the MSC standard. Therefore recommends maintaining the MSC Fishing Sustainable Certificate.
Species Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita)
Location Southwest Atlantic (Argentine and Uruguayan seas)
FAO statistical area 41
Fishing method Semi-pelagic Mid-water trawl
01401 RAFFAELA Delicias S.A.
0145 ATREVIDO Centauro S.A.
0142 ARGENTINO Centauro S.A.
0177 DESAFÍO Centauro S.A.
0482 CENTAURO 2000 Centauro S.A.
01741 ALDEBARAN Alleloccic S.A.
01449 NUEVO VIENTO Nuevo Viento S.R.L.
Number of fishery 1
2. Assessment process.
2.1 Determination of the surveillance level
Table 2. Criteria to determine surveillance score (Table C3, 184.108.40.206 – MSC CR v1.3)
Criteria Surveillance Score
1. Default Assessment Tree used? 0
2. Number of conditions 2
3. Principles Level Scores 0
4. Conditions on outcomes PIs? 2
Total scoring: 4
2.2 Date(s) of the surveillance visit
Table 3. Surveillance level and summary of certification
Certification Date May 22th, 2012
Expiry date of certification May 21th, 2017
Surveillance score (from Table C4, MSC CR v1.3 – 220.127.116.11) 4 (Normal Surveillance) Surveillance stage (from Table C4, MSC CR v1.3 – 18.104.22.168) Year 3 – On site visit surveillance audit
On –site visit activities November 27
to 28th, 2014 in Mar del Plata and continuing the next week in Buenos Aires Reference of the MSC requirements used in the surveillance MSC Certification Requirements version 1.3, 14th January, 2013 2.3 Surveillance team
The surveillance team selected with knowledge of stock assessment, ecosystem impact and management framework applicable to Argentinean Bonaerense anchovy fishery, has been part in the certification process.
Dr. L. B. Prenski, Team Leader, Principles 1 and 2 expert
Dr. Prenski is a fishery scientist, with over thirty years of experience in policy and management fishery issues. Among many others, he has been a Technical Director of CAPECA (Argentinean Freezers Fishery Association), Demersal and Inland Fisheries Research Area Coordinator, Research at INIDEP (National Fishery Research and Development Institute, Argentina) and actively participates at ICSEAF (International Commission for the Southern Atlantic Fishery, Poland).
He has been a member of the Animal Health and Food Sanitary Service (SENASA), administration council in representation of the fishery sector, external adviser in Foreign Office of Commission of Joint Marine Front between Argentina and Uruguay, and technical coordinator on CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of the Marine Living Resources). Actually, he is Assistant in FAO Argentina.
Dr. Prenski has served as team member in Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) (2011), Patagonian scallop (Zygochlamys patagonica) and Argentine hoki (Macruronus magellanicus) (2012) certification processes against Principles and Criteria of the MSC.
Lic. G. Sesar, Principle 3 expert
He is expert in the fishery management and operations, and current knowledge of the country, language and local fishery context. Lic. Sesar has a degree in economics sciences and has been Consulter in many national fishery management projects. He has 29 years of experiences in fishery managements and operations. He was trained against the MSC certification requirements and has
been participated in the Annual Surveillance audit (2014) for the Argentine hoki fishery as team member. For more information, consult his CV in the MSC website.
2.3.1 OIA technical
Eng. C. Medina Foucher, OIA Technical and MSC’s standards expert
Eng. Medina Foucher is Aquaculture Engineer and is in charge of OIA Sustainable Systems' Department since 2011. She is responsible for the technical implementation of all certification standards for fisheries products in Argentina and being qualified to perform pre-assessment, certification process and CoC audits. She participated in certification process and annual surveillances audits against MSC Principles and Criteria as theirs respective chain of custody of the following Argentinean fisheries: Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita), Patagonian scallop (Zygochlamys patagonica), Argentine hoki (Macruronus magellanicus) and Argentine Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides).
2.4 Description of the audit process
This is the third report in the surveillance process of fishery certification. OIA notified to stakeholders and client group on 28 October 2014 where and when the Annual Surveillance Visit would take place. All stakeholders who had expressed interest and contributed to the Full-Assessment process were directly contacted by email and later by telephone. The intention to conduct on-site visit was posted on the MSC.
The surveillance audit was carried out following the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Certification Requirements version 1.3, January 2013. It was documented progress of conditions as “on target”, “ahead of target” or “behind target”, as well as its rationale for such a judgement. If progress against the measurable outcomes, expected results or milestones specified when setting the condition is judged to be “behind target”, it will specify the remedial action, and any revised milestone, that are required to bring process on track at the next surveillance audit to achieve the original condition by the original deadline. In the case that OIA determines that progress against a condition is not back “on target” within 12 months of failing “behind target”, OIA shall consider progress as inadequate and apply the requirements of 7.4 (suspension or withdraw).
The Surveillance Team reviewed the fishery status analysing whether the fishery was complied with the required conditions set forth in the original certification report, and whether current scenarios compromises the performance of the fishery in regard to the MSC Standard.
The annual surveillance audit process was comprised of the following parts:
• Provision of information: The Action Plan elaborated by the Client Group containing the conditions established by Assessment Team for the third annual surveillance, were provided to all stakeholders, including the Client Group, fisheries management authorities and scientist previously to the meetings.
• Meetings: Individual meetings started with the Client Group and followed with scientists; wherein an exchange of relevant information and documents regarding the third surveillance audit took place. All interesting parties were invited to consultation with assessment team in Mar del Plata, on November 27th and 28th, 2014. The meetings were
conducted by the Surveillance Team and focused on the ongoing activities associated with the certification conditions established on the fishery as well as the eventual changes occurred after the achievement of MSC Sustainable Fishing Certification. In addition, stakeholders provided with responses to questions regarding the following issues:
b) Any changes or additions/deletions to regulations.
c) Any changes in the science, management and industry staff to evaluate impact of the management of the fishery.
d) Any potential changes in the scientific base of information, including stock assessments.
• Documentation: Relevant documents in regard to the progress of the Action Plan add related issues were provided to Assessment Team by Client Group and stakeholders prior and during the meetings. After these, follow up emails were sent to stakeholders to request additional information. All relevant documents analyzed by Assessment Team were listed in section 6. “REFERENCES”.
The Surveillance Audit ended on November 28th, 2014, within stakeholders' consultation and additional information received. The information received allowed the Surveillance Team to assess the advances in the implementation of the Action Plan made by the Client in order to comply with the conditions established for certification.
Table 4. Outline of surveillance activities
Stakeholders notification: surveillance visit scheduled October 28th, 2014
Surveillance year 2: visit on-site Mar del Plata, November 27th and 28th, 2014
MEETING ATTENDEES AND ORGANIZATIONS
Eng. Rocío González Quality Manager, Delicias S.A. Méd. Vet. Laura Martínez Souto Quality Manager, Centauro S.A.
Dr. Marcelo Pájaro Chief of Pelagic Fisheries and Environment Program, INIDEP
Lic. Gabriel Blanco Chief of Observer On Board of Commercial Vessel and Sampling Program, INIDEP
Lic. Ana Massa Chief of Chondrichthyans Fisheries Program, INIDEP Lic. José Luis Flaminio Research Member of Observer On Board Program,
Lic. David Garciarena Research Member of Pelagic Fisheries and Environment Program, INIDEP
STAKEHOLDER’S WRITING COMMENTS
Dr. Marco Favero Independent researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET) Dr. Juan Pablo Seco Pon Researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET) Lic. Sofía Copello Researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET)
2.4.1 Scope and history of assessment
The full-assessment process followed the MSC Fisheries Certification Methodology (FCM) v.6.1 and the Risk Based Framework on the Outcome Indicators for retained, by-catch, habitat and ecosystem components, while the MSC default narrative and metric, including the Scoring Guideposts (SGs), were applied to the rest of the Performance Indicators (PIs) (MSC Fisheries Assessment Methodology (FAM) v.2.1).
The fishery was certified as an MSC Sustainable Fishery in August 2011 and this is the third surveillance audit after certification, conducted under the MSC Certification Requirements (CR) v.1.3-Part C and MSC Fisheries Standard v.1.1.
2.4.2 A statement on the fishery’s position in relation to the scope criteria
Tasks to comply with the conditions (established at certification and accepted by the Client through its Action Plan) are still in progress. No re-scoring of the performance indicators where conditions were established was required.
Table 5. Summary of Performance Indicators with conditions
1st Annual Surveillance 2nd Annual Surveillance 3rd Annual Surveillance Performance Indicators Status of conditions Status of conditions Status of conditions
1.2.1 Ahead of target On target On target
1.2.2 Ahead of target On target On target
1.2.4 On target Behind target On target
2.2.3 On target On target On target
2.3.1 On target On target On target
2.3.2 On target On target On target
3. Results, conclusions and recommendations.
3.1 Discussion of findings and statement confirming the status of the certification
a)Principle 1 – Stock status and harvest strategy
The statistical catch at age model was continued to develop, adjusting available observations on the anchovy fishery between 1990 and 2013. This data were: annual yields, catch by age and some direct assessments of abundance, obtained by acoustic and method of daily egg production. During the spring (main spawning activity of stock), total biomass would has ranged between 0.81 and 5.68 million t, while the range limits for the total breeding range fraction would have set in 0.65 and 4.15 million t.
Fig. 1. Annual catch and model estimations
The last few years seem to represent an unfavorable period both the size of the population and the recruits, but their cause has not been generated by fishing and by an amount that departs from the expected natural fluctuations. Total biomass at the beginning of last year fishing was estimated at 1.43 million t, generating more abundant in spring brood of two years or more that exceed levels estimated reference points.
The variability associated with the results joined a simulation process by which the performance of the stock was projected assuming different values of fishing mortality (F). Although the population of anchovy north of 41° S remains "healthy" today and away from overfishing, there are different reasons to continue to maintain a precautionary approach and therefore recommend keeping 120,000 t maximum catch for 2014.
Fig. 2. Projections: risk curve in terms of catches in 2014 (indicated on abscissa) resulting from applying different rates of fishing mortality. Risk is the probability that the spawning Biomass mass of players in the year
(BR2 +, 2014) is less than the limit value BR40. Theoretical yields F66 indicated rate, causing more than 10% risk, and final rate that meets the condition suggested to recommend a maximum annual catch.
Fig. 3. Projections: Simulated evolution of the average spawning biomass BR2 + under different constant rates of fishing mortality: the absence of fishing (F = 0), security level (FSEG = Ffinal) and threshold level (F40).
b)Principle 2 – Ecosystem impacts from fishing
It was continued to analyze the data collected from harvests of 2013 and 2014.
During 2013 data from 7 fishing trips which were attended by observers onboard were analyzed: - Number of observed days: 31
- Number of sets: 166
Table 7. Catch data grouped per area and month (Source: Flaminio et al., 2013).
During 2014 data from 2 fishing trips which were attended by observers onboard were analyzed - Number of observed days: 14
- Number of sets: 57
- Area observed with higher anchovy catches: Area N° 3858 with 260 t Table 8. Catch and effort per species (Source: Flaminio et al., 2014).
Fig. 5. Catch distribution per area (Source: Flaminio et al., 2014)
Progress in the Observer Program in 2013 Harvest and verification of deadlines and objectives of the Action Plan were evaluated. It can verify a significant increase in the number of trips with observer in 2013 (7) for the previous two years (2). Samples in 42 hauls more than double the years 2011 (20) and 2012 (18) were obtained. It was established that it was necessary to increase the sample size, improve temporal representation and, where possible, cover the different types of vessels working. The possibility of using cameras that take pictures sequenced to have comments from other boats was also identified.
The anchovy working group continues to report that it has work on trophic interactions between this species and other fisheries. In principle, there is carried out joint with researchers in charge of studying the nutritional aspects of the species Hake (Merluccius hubbsi).
It was established a closed area for cartilaginous protection by Resolution N° 13/14. Meanwhile, with the intention of caring for the development of the cartilaginous species (Rays, gatuzo, flathead, sharks, etc.), the agency renewed the ban on bottom trawling in the area bounded by the following geographical references area:
c) north by latitude 36ºS and its intersection with the Outer Limit of the Rio de la Plata, d) south by latitude 37 ° S,
e) west by the Outer Limit of the Argentine territorial sea; and f) east by the meridian 56º00'W
Due to the operating conditions of the harvest of anchovy (mackerel fleet primarily aimed at finding no size commercial anchovy) data collected by observers went to our zero knowledge. Consequently, for the 2014 harvest no data to report in relation to seabird bycatch. Seabird researcher group take this opportunity to refer broadly to the information collected during the harvest 2011-2013 when a number of species of seabirds associated with fishing activities. Some of these species (Magellanic penguins, black-browed albatross, shearwaters black head and white-chinned petrels) were recorded in the bycatch. A preliminary processing the information collected during the previous three harvests indicates a mortality rate of around 0.70 birds per day of fishing. Some of these species caught during fishing operations has threatened conservation status. Depending on the reduced fishing effort in recent years it could be inferred that the exact effect of the fleet in terms of mortality is low, especially if it is compared it with other fleets and white species. However, at the moment, due to the limited data available (in number of days fishing and diversity observed vessels), it is not possible to reliably determine the cumulative mortality levels observed in the fishery effect. An article recently published (Seco Pon et al. In press) briefly refers to the available information on the fishery. For 2015 it is expected to have a complete processing of the information available from the 2013-2015 harvests.
c) Principle 3 - Management and regulation
During the third surveillance, the Assessment Team consulted with officials of the Under-Secretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (SSPyA) and INIDEP. In parallel, websites of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (www.minagri.gob.ar); the Joint Technical Commission for the Maritime Front (www.ctmfm.org); Federal Fisheries Council (www.cfp.gob.ar) and INIDEP (www.inidep.edu.ar) were also consulted. Since previous surveillance, there have been no changes at the level of management system structures.
All administrative and supervisory structures remain the same missions, roles and responsibilities held at time of Fishery’s certification.
It has NOT been detected that the fishery is in any controversy incurring any international treaty or systematic failures to current regulations. In consultations with stakeholders, none of them found any new information that might be changed in any aspect of the certification or the scoring assigned during the assessment process.
Finally, the SSPyA has submit (Note SSPyA N° 566 (12/11/14)) to the consideration of the FFC the report: “Contributions to the creation of the Commission of Analysis and Monitoring of Pelagic Fisheries”, so the Council included the requirement between their issues to be addressed, and will consider the creation of the Follow-up Commission over the next year (Minute N° 46/14).
Since the last surveillance, there have been three new regulations applying on anchovy fishery, two of them establishing 2014 TAC for The Uruguayan - Argentinean Common Fishing Zone (ZCPAU) and AEEZ and the last one lays down a set of fishing regulation in the area of ZCPAU (CTMFM Resolution N° 14/2014). While Federal Fisheries Council Resolution N° 4/2014 set up a TAC by 120.000 tons over the whole distribution area, the Mix Technical Commission of Maritime Front (CTMFM) establishes a TAC by 80.000 tons exclusively in the area of ZCPAU (CTMFM Resolution N° 15/2014). All CTMFM regulations are signed by the national fisheries authorities of both countries.
CTMFM Resolution N° 14/2014 lays down: • A 120 mm minimum catch size;
• Allowed Fishing Gears: mid water trawl net and encircling nets. • Prohibits night fishing;
• Ordered joint research between the technical bodies of both countries; • Repeal CTMFM N° 3/2002; and,
• Establishes the penalties for noncompliance.
The information has been confirmed in three different ways: a) review of the official websites (www.infoleg.gob.ar, www.cfp.gob.ar, www.minagri.gov.ar and http://ctmfm.org), b) consultation with stakeholders, and c) by telephone interview with the person in charge of the SSPyA National Directorate of Fisheries Planning, Lic. Gabriela Navarro.
3.2 Status of previously raised conditions - Conditions 1 and 2:
1) PI. 1.2.1. Harvest strategy SCORE: 75
There is a robust and precautionary harvest strategy in place.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
The harvest strategy is expected to achieve stock management objectives reflected in the target and limit reference points.
The harvest strategy is likely to work based on prior experience or plausible argument.
Monitoring is in place that is expected to determine whether the harvest strategy is working.
The harvest strategy is responsive to the state of the stock and the elements of the harvest strategy work together towards achieving management objectives reflected in the target and limit reference points.
The harvest strategy may not have been fully tested but monitoring is in place and evidence exists that it is achieving its objectives.
The harvest strategy is responsive to the state of the stock and is designed to achieve stock management objectives reflected in the target and limit reference points.
The performance of the harvest strategy has been fully evaluated and evidence exists to show that it is achieving its objectives including being clearly able to maintain stocks at target levels.
The harvest strategy is periodically reviewed and improved as necessary.
2) PI. 1.2.2. Harvest control rules and tools SCORE: 75 There are well defined and effective harvest control rules in place.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
Generally understood harvest control rules are in place that are consistent with the harvest strategy and which act to reduce the exploitation rate as limit reference points are approached.
There is some evidence that tools used to implement harvest control rules are appropriate and effective in controlling exploitation.
Well defined harvest control rules are in place that are consistent with the harvest strategy and ensure that the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached.
The selection of the harvest control rules takes into account the main uncertainties.
Available evidence indicates that the tools in use are appropriate and effective in achieving the exploitation levels required under the harvest control rules.
The design of the harvest control rules take into account a wide range of uncertainties. Evidence clearly shows that the tools in use are effective in achieving the exploitation levels required under the harvest control rules.
Conditions to 1.2.1 and 1.2.2: To ensure that:
o The target reference points are explicit defined, taking into account the low trophic level of the species, are consistent with management objectives and are independent of market demand.
o The formal harvest strategy takes into account target reference points that would maintain the informal harvest strategy currently in place.
o There is a rule to ensure that the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached.
o Specific harvest controls rules should be proposed for periods of low stock productivity since the current TAC/ABC is set by the probabilistic approach taking into account normal productivity levels and the BRL. This does not seem to ensure that particular action is taken in periods of low productivity.
Action Plan Timescales/Milestones
By the third annual audit, provide documented evidence that:
(1) Target and limit reference points are computed and the stock is assessed against them.
(2) Rules that will ensure that the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached are agreed upon.
(3) Discussions of potential harvest control rules when recruitment is low are finalized.
YEAR 3: Provide evidences that:
(1) Target and limit reference points are computed and the stock is assessed against them.
(2) Discussions about rules that will ensure that the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached are performed.
(3) There are discussions of potential harvest control rules towards precaution in years when productivity can be low.
Progress on conditions:
The target and limit references points are computed and the stock is assessed against them. They were presented in the technical report N° 15/2013 (Hansen et al., 2013) and are updated in the technical report N° 06/2014 (Hansen et al., 2014). Discussions of potential harvest control rules were carried out by the proposed commission (conformed by INIDEP and Client Group) in the action plan framework. As consequence, a similar harvest control rule used into Australian fisheries (SESSF, 2010) was applied for Argentine anchovy fishery.
All technical reports have been submitted and approved by FFC (Federal Fisheries Council) for the Bonaerense anchovy fishery (Hansen et al., 2013 and 2014). In the period 1990-2013, the average yields for north stock of anchovy were lower than 22,000 t / year, representing a fraction of point estimates of available abundance. Accordingly, in this period the annual value of γ(M) varied between 0.735 and 0.845 (mean = 0.803, SD = 0.028), reflecting the distribution of catches in different periods. The most striking results are the low magnitudes of Fy (mean = 0.04), well below the rate M = 1.01 natural mortality, confirming that the stock is under-exploited (Hansen et al., 2014). The catch of 2014 was extremely low (not exceeds 12,500 t).
The creation of the Commission for the Bonaerense Anchovy Tracking was discussed by authorities in the FFC, and successive meetings will be carried out in the first months of 2015. This will allow that rules ensure that the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached are performed.
Status on conditions:
- Condition 3:
3) PI. 1.2.4. Assessment of stock status SCORE: 75
There is an adequate assessment of the stock status.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
The assessment estimates stock status relative to reference points.
The assessment identifies major sources of uncertainty.
The assessment is appropriate for the stock and for the harvest control rule.
The assessment takes uncertainty into account. The assessment of stock status is subject to peer review.
The assessment takes into account the major features relevant to the biology of the species and the nature of the fishery.
The assessment takes into account uncertainty and is evaluating stock status relative to reference points in a probabilistic way.
The assessment has been tested and shown to be robust. Alternative hypotheses and assessment approaches have been rigorously explored. The assessment has been internally and externally peer reviewed.
Condition to 1.2.4: To ensure that:
o The assessment of stock status uses all available scientific information in a more transparent and integrated way.
o The report of the annual assessments includes details of the methodology as well as trends in stock status in relation to target and limit reference points.
o There is exploration of different models, rather than just the current cohort analysis, that could clearly explicit target reference points that take into account the recruitment-environment coupling and the ecological role of a low trophic level species.
Action Plan Timescales/Milestones
By the third annual audit, to provide documented evidence that:
(1) Target and limit reference points are computed and the stock is assessed against them.
(2) Trends in stock status in relation to target and limit reference points are included in the annual stock-assessment report.
(3) Produce annual, submitted a peer review, report about the Bonaerense anchovy stock including recruitment and stock assessment models, acoustic survey estimates, details of the methodology, early stages of development, spawning and nursery areas and environment.
(4) Provided the proposal is accepted, use the alternative stock assessment model which take into account the recruitment-environment coupling and the
YEAR 3: Provide documented evidences that (1) Formal reference points are computed and the stock is compared those points.
(2) Alternative stock assessment models that explicit target reference points which take into account the recruitment-environment coupling and the ecological role of this low trophic level species are being proposed.
ecological role of this low trophic level species. Use explicit target reference points.
Progress on conditions:
As it was mentioned in the Second Annual Report, from 2008 it has not conducted a research fishing survey, so the Assessment team has not had an updated report about acoustic survey and the total biomass derived from the spawners’ egg production method.
The catch of 2014 was extremely low and did not exceed 12,500 t (see section 4. Catch data). This was a drawback, because the fishery started in September (Fishing season: August-November), due to the unavailability of anchovy in the fishing area (climatic conditions/stock behavior). So, many vessels targeting anchovy changed their fishing plans to go to another fishery (common hake). This not gave to companies the necessary time to board observers to cover what had been proposed. In any case from the time that the certification started, the catch was always very small and never reached to complete the TAC. The low magnitudes of Fy (mean = 0.04), well below the rate of natural mortality (M = 1.01), confirm that the stock is under-exploited (Hansen et al., 2014). The creation of the Commission for the Bonaerense Anchovy Tracking will allow better organization of research.
Moreover, the proposal of the alternative stock assessment model which take into account the recruitment-environment coupling and the ecological role of this low trophic level species was discussed. However, researchers believe that the alternative model can be replaced for environmental indicators that could be used complementarily to the catch control rules submitted due the particularity of the fishery of the Bonaerense anchovy stock. Studies developed for several years by INIDEP comprise a large amount of research whose objectives are to analyse comprehensively the ecosystem, including aspects of oceanography to bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton, among others.
The assessment survey planned includes a series of objectives with a strong environmental component in the whole area of reproduction of the species. These data are used to estimate an index of population abundance applying the Daily Egg Production's method. The results of this campaign are part of the studies prepared by the Joint Technical Commission for Maritime Front Argentine-Uruguayan which aim to use environmental indicators to determine the health of the coastal ecosystem and Río de la Plata's platform, and the effects of fishing of species with economic value. The results must be provided to assessment team to the next surveillance, before start the re-certification process.
Status on conditions:
The assessment team considered that the progress of condition 3 is “On target”.
- Conditions 4, 5, 6 and 7:
4) PI 2.2.3 By-catch species information / monitoring SCORE: 75
Information on the nature and amount of by-catch is adequate to determine the risk posed by the fishery and the effectiveness of the strategy to manage by-catch.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
Qualitative information is available on the amount of main by-catch species affected by the fishery.
Information is adequate to broadly understand outcome status with respect to biologically based limits.
Qualitative information and some quantitative information are available on the amount of main by-catch species affected by the fishery.
Information is sufficient to estimate outcome status with respect to biologically based
Accurate and verifiable information is available on the amount of all by-catch and the consequences for the status of affected populations.
Information is sufficient to quantitatively estimate outcome status with respect to
Information is adequate to support measures to manage by-catch.
Information is adequate to support a partial strategy to manage main by-catch species. Sufficient data continue to be collected to detected any increase in risk to main by-catch species (e.g. due to changes in the outcome indicator scores or the operation of the fishery or the effectiveness of the strategy).
biologically based limits with a high degree of certainty. Information is adequate to support strategy to manage by-catch, and evaluate with a high degree of certainty whether a strategy is achieving its objective.
Monitoring of by-catch data is conducted in sufficient detail to assess ongoing mortalities to all by-catch species.
5) PI 2.3.1 ETP species outcome SCORE: 75
The fishery meets national and international requirements for protection of ETP species
The fishery does not pose a risk of serious or irreversible harm to ETP species and does not hinder recovery of ETP species.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
Known effects of the fishery are likely to be within limits of national and international requirements for protection of ETP species.
Known direct effects are unlikely to create unacceptable impacts to ETP species.
The effects of the fishery are known and are highly likely to be within limits of national and international requirements for protection of ETP species. Direct effects are highly unlikely to create unacceptable impacts to ETP species.
Indirect effects have been considered and are thought to be unlikely to create unacceptable impacts.
There is a high degree of certainty that the effects of the fishery are within limits of national and international requirements for protection of ETP species.
There is a high degree of confidence that there are no significant detrimental direct effects of the fishery on ETP species.
There is a high degree of confidence that there are no significant detrimental indirect effects of the fishery on ETP species.
6) PI 2.3.2 ETP species management strategy SCORE: 60
The fishery has in place precautionary management strategies designed to: -meet national and international requirements;
-ensure the fishery does not pose a risk of serious or irreversible harm to ETP species; -ensure the fishery does not hinder recovery of ETP species; and
-minimize mortality of ETP species.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
There are measures in place that minimize mortality, and are expected to be highly likely to achieve national and international requirements for the protection of ETP species. The measures are considered likely to work, based on plausible argument (e.g. general
There is a strategy in place for managing the fishery’s impact on ETP species, including measures to minimize mortality that is designed to be highly likely to achieve national and international requirements for the protection of ETP species. There is an objective basis for
There is a comprehensive strategy in place for managing the fishery’s impact on ETP species, including measures to minimize mortality that is designed to achieve above national and international requirements for the protection of ETP species.
comparison with similar fisheries/species.
work, based on information directly about the fishery and/or the species involved.
There is evidence that the strategy is being implemented successfully.
information directly about the fishery and/or species involved, and a quantitative analysis supports high confidence that the strategy will work.
There is clear evidence that the strategy is being implemented successfully.
There is evidence that the strategy is achieving its objective.
7) PI 2.3.3 ETP species information SCORE: 60
Relevant information is collected to support the management of fishery impacts on ETP species, including: -information for the development of the management strategy;
-information to assess the effectiveness of the management strategy; and -information to determine the outcome status of ETP species.
SG 60 SG 80 SG 100
Information is sufficient to qualitatively estimate the fishery related mortality of ETP species.
Information is adequate to broadly understand the impact of the fishery on ETP species.
Information is adequate to support measures to manage the impacts on ETP species.
Sufficient information is available to allow fishery related mortality and the impact of fishing to be quantitatively estimated for ETP species.
Information is sufficient to determine whether the fishery may be a threat to protection and recovery of the ETP species.
Information is sufficient to measures trends and supports a full strategy to manage impacts on ETP species.
Information is sufficient to quantitatively estimate outcome status of ETP species with a high degree of certainty. Accurate and verifiable information is available on the magnitude of all impacts, mortalities and injuries and the consequences for the status of ETP species.
Information is adequate to support a comprehensive strategy to manage impacts, minimize mortality and injury of ETP species, and evaluate with a high degree of certainty whether a strategy is achieving its objectives.
Conditions to 2.2.3, 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3:
The client group must provide documented evidence that:
PI 2.2.3. To continue collecting sufficient data to detect any increase in risk to main bycatch species (e.g. due to changes in the outcome indicator scores or the operation of the fishery or the effectiveness of the strategy) for example applying the current video camera system and/or on board observers.
o To sample fishing trips in order.
o To estimate number of individuals of the main bycatch species impacted by fishing gears (including bycatch birds).
o To estimate size of all individuals impacted by fishing gears (including bycatch birds). o To discriminate mortal impact from injury impact in bycatch birds.
o To ensure that population studies on birds keep going.
PI 2.3.1. To assess impacts of the Bonaerense anchovy fishery on Sooty shearwater (“Pardela oscura”, Puffinus
griseus) and white-chinned petrel (“Petrel Barba Blanca”, Procellaria aequinoctialis), ensuring:
o That mortal impact and injuries on species are determined under international standards. o That the assessment of fishery impacts on ETP species considers all available scientific information.
o That the annual reports of fishery impacts on ETP species include details of the methodology applied.
PI 2.3.2. To define and implement a strategy for managing the fishery’s impact on ETP species, including Sooty shearwater (Pardela oscura”, Puffinus griseus) and white-chinned petrel (“Petrel Barba Blanca”, Procellaria aequinoctialis).
o To collect information to allow fishery related mortality and the impact of fishing to be quantitatively estimated for ETP species.
o To ensure that mortal impact and injuries on ETP species information is collected under international standards.
Action Plan Timescales/Milestones
(1) The best number of observers will cover the whole fishing season on board in different ships of the anchovy fleet. Mitigation methods should be experimentally deployed in part of the fleet to test practically, efficacy, and safety issues.
(2) Mitigation in place for the whole fleet. ETP attendance and bycatch, along with mitigation efficacy and compliance is monitored.
(1) To provide documented evidence that data on main bycatch species impacted by fishing gear has been collected and has been adequate to estimate any change in risk to main bycatch species.
(2) Outcomes of the defined program has been obtained and analyzed.
(3) A strategy for managing the fishery’s impact on ETP species has been implemented, which includes measures to minimize mortality and is designed to be highly likely to achieve national and international requirements (including ACAP requirements established for Procellaria aequinoctialis) for the protection of ETP species. (4) Data continue to be collecting to allow proper assessments.
Progress on conditions:
All milestones for these conditions were complete in the last annual surveillance. It was provided the Technical Report N° 48/2013 which shows the interactions between fishing gear and the main by-catch and ETP species (marine mammals and seabirds) in the 2012 harvest.
According reduced fishing effort in recent years can be inferred that the timely effect of the fleet in term mortality is lower especially when compared with other fisheries. The ice-trawl fleet occasionally targets pelagic species like Argentine anchovy. However, at the moment, due to the limited data available (in number of days fishing and quantity of vessels observed), it is not possible to reliably determine the cumulative mortality levels in the fishery effect. An article recently published by Seco Pon et al. briefly refers to the available information on the fishery. For 2015 is expected to have a complete processing of the information available from the 2013-2015 harvests. Research group of marine mammal and chondrichthyan species indicated that the impact on these species is not significant, missing improving data collection (p.eg. use of cameras, electronic
measuring board, etc.) to ease the sampling process and its analysis more efficient. It is essential to continue with the OBO’s training that has already implemented.
Status on conditions:
By the third annual surveillance, conditions 4, 5, 6 and 7 are “On target”.
3.3 Conclusions and recommendations
No non-conformities were found and no PI was re-scored during the Third Annual Surveillance. The assessment team reviewed all information and documentation provided by client group and stakeholders to assess milestones. It was concluded that progress of condition is adequate and condition for PI 1.2.4 evaluated as “behind target” in the second year showed a degree of improvement. As consequence, the assessment team backs the conditions as “on target”.
Argentinean Bonaerense anchovy fishery continues to meet the MSC standard and complies with requirements for continued with the certification. Therefore, it is recommended that certificate holders maintain the certification to the MSC standard. Progress toward closing condition will be evaluated in 2015, where the objectives proposed in the action plan for the next surveillance audit must be closed to re-score and finally, to define if the fishery apply to the re-certification process.
The following tables summarize Bonaerense anchovy catches from the different season 1992/2014. Table 10. Total TAC established for the Bonaerense anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) fishery from 2007 to 2014.
2007 124,000 RES CFP 7/2007 24.985 2008 82,000 RES CFP 17/2008 21.309 2009 12,000 RES CFP 9/2009 28.247 2010 120,000 RES CFP 9/2010 22.711 2011 120,000 RES CFP 3/2011 19.960 2012 120,000 RES CFP 17/2012 15.131 2013 120,000 RES CFP 6/2013 18.033 2014 120,000 RES CFP 4/14 12,534.9
Table 11. Biological Acceptable Catches determined by INIDEP for the Bonaerense anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) Fishery from 2007 to 2014.
Year Biological Aceptable Catch (t) Source
2007 282,000 INIDEP Technical Report 53/2007
2008 82,000/165,000 INIDEP Technical Report 16/2008
2009 145,000 INIDEP Technical Report 12/2009
2010 145,000 INIDEP Technical Report 05/2010
2011 208,000 INIDEP Technical Report 12/2011
2012 171,000 INIDEP Technical Report 14/2012
2013 299,000 INIDEP Technical Report 15/2013
2014 197,000 INIDEP Technical Report 06/2014
Table 12. Factor γ(M)y defined by Mertz and Myers (1996) and Reproductive Biomass (RB) for the Bonaerense anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) Fishery from 2007 to 2013
Parameter y(M)y define by Mertz and
RB by Model Source
2007 0,8 875,000 INIDEP Technical Report 16/2008
2008 0,754 903,000 INIDEP Technical Report 12/2009
2009 0,826 942,000 INIDEP Technical Report 05/2010
2010 0,794 842,000 INIDEP Technical Report 12/2011
2011 0,802 693,800 INIDEP Technical Report 14/2012
2012 0,799 917,000 INIDEP Technical Report 15/2013
Table 13. Monthly anchovy catch (tons) per the various fleets in 2013. (Source: Garciarena & Buratti, 2014)
Month North stock Total
Altura Costero Rada
February 2.3 2.3 April 0.7 0.7 May 56.7 37.7 94.4 June 205.1 36.3 241.4 July 343.6 364.3 707.9 August 1,498.2 2,448.4 3,946.6 September 4,533.9 3,722.3 8,256.2 October 2,139.0 2,115.4 1.5 4,255.9 November 2,5 12.9 3.8 19.2 December 6.1 88.1 94.2 Total 8,779.0 8,743.3 96.5 17,618.8
Table 14. Monthly number of vessels, per type of fleet, landing anchovy during 2013 (Source: Garciarena & Buratti, 2014).
Month North stock Total
Altura Costero Rada
February 1 1 April 1 1 May 1 1 2 June 2 2 4 July 5 12 17 August 38 83 121 September 71 98 169 October 45 72 2 119 November 1 3 4 8 December 2 25 27 Total 163 273 33 469
Fig. 6. Distribution of fishing hauls during the research surveys from where anchovy samples were taken during 2013. Source: Garciarena & Buratti, 2014
Table 15. Catch on the Bonaerense anchovy stock and percentage of total annual catch by vessels
Fleet Vessel 2013 2014* Catch of Anchovy (MT) Total Catch (MT) % Catch of Anchovy (MT) Total Catch (MT) % ALTURA, FRESQUERO ARAUCANIA 770.9 2,890.6 26.7 0 0 0 ARGENTINO 136.9 2,209.7 6.2 0 0 0 ATREVIDO 1,019.6 4,005.9 25.5 733.7 1,307.8 56.1 BELVEDERE 533.6 1,301.1 41 63.1 1,107.3 5.7 CIUDAD FELIZ 308.3 2,322.8 13.3 342.5 1,200 28.5 DON NICOLA 53.7 2,050.1 2.6 684 1,218.7 56.1 DON RAIMUNDO 329.3 1,677.5 19.6 537.7 931 57.8 DON SANTIAGO 1,230.1 2,573.8 47.8 1,099 1,345.6 81.7 EL SANTO 1,314.8 2,186 60.1 0 0 0 FLORIDABLANCA 213.4 2,550.8 8.4 488.7 1,436.4 34 FRANCA 0 0 0 506.7 1,351.7 37.5 GURISES 0 0 0 0 0 0 JUPITER II 358.4 4,003.7 9 357.3 1,654.4 21.6 MADRE MARGARITA 394.5 1,672 23.6 0 0 0 MARBELLA 103.5 2,715.4 3.8 177.5 695.1 25.5 MESSINA I 139.5 1,197.9 11.6 231.3 549.7 42.1 RAFFAELA 691.4 1,681 41.1 540.9 1,018.4 53.1
ROCIO DEL MAR 210.9 2,332.1 9 569.6 858.2 66.4
SAN ANTONIO 40.1 1,679.5 2.4 0 0 0 SAN GENARO 493.9 1,817.4 27.2 277.6 301 92.2 SFIDA 730.7 1,794.3 40.7 0 0 0 TESON 37.9 1,997.7 1.9 0 0 0 TOMAS I 0.1 157,9 0.1 0 0 0 TOZUDO 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 9,111.5 44,817.2 20.3 6,609.6 14,975.3 44.1 COSTERO, FRESQUERO CALLEJA 624.7 1,082.6 57.7 0 0 0 CANAL DE BEAGLE 723.7 1,115.3 64.9 0 0 0 CONSTANCIA 320.3 608.9 52.6 241.6 471.5 51.2 DOCK URANO 3.1 468.2 0.7 167.7 554.2 30.3 DON SALVADOR 0.3 221.6 0.1 0 0 0
DON VICENTE VUOSO 927.9 1,492.7 62.2 0 0 0 DOÑA ADA 4 225 1.8 0 0 0 ESTEFANY 424.1 776.5 54.6 116.8 673.3 17.3 EURO II 112.9 1,132.5 10 0 0 0 FIDES FE I 0 0 0 340.5 1,295.5 26.3 FIESTA 343.1 788.5 43.5 130.7 449.6 29.1 LIBERTAD 0 0 0 263.3 886 29.7
MADONNINA DEL MARE 621.9 1,400.7 44.4 0 0 0
MARIA GRACIA 444.3 1,705.9 26 506 1,858.4 27.2 MARTA S 0 0 0 494.1 1,610.1 30.7 MIRTA R 13.6 570.1 2.4 0 0 0 NONO PASCUAL 245.6 2,623.6 9.4 91.6 1,530.1 6 NUEVO VIENTO 174.8 1,753.3 10 444 847.9 52.4 OMEGA 3 133.6 396.1 33.7 0 0 0 ORION I 953.4 1,687.6 56.5 555.7 1,298.4 42.8 PADRE PIO 39.4 1,933.5 2 0 0 0 POPA 708.3 1,981 35.8 616.9 1,751.7 35.2 PUCARA 0 0 0 0 0 0 SALVADOR R 54.2 2,488.8 2.2 367.7 1,424 25.8 SAN JORGE I 0 0 0 0 0 0
SAN PEDRO APOSTOL 1,292.5 2,334.5 55.4 802.2 1,906.3 42.1
SAN SALVADOR II 267.5 749.3 35.7 0 0 0 TEMERARIO I 324.3 821.8 39.5 0 0 0 VAMOS A PROBAR I 115.8 353.9 32.7 150.2 365 41.2 TOTAL 8,873.3 28,711.9 30.9 5,289 16,922 31.3 RADA O RIA, FRESQUERO ALBA II 0 0 0 0.3 61.4 0.5 ANGELO PADRE 2 174 1.1 0 0 0 ANTARTIDA 34.5 62.8 54.9 5 103.7 4.8 CARLOS I 0 0 0 134.4 700.3 19.2 CEFERINO NAMUNCURA 2.6 52 5 9.5 69.4 13.7 CRISTO REY 5 90.6 5.5 21 183.6 11.4 DON MARIO 0 0 0 94.5 315.3 30 DON NINO 0 0 0 2.4 324 0.7
DON PABLO PENNISI 0 0 0 2.5 90.8 2.8
DUE FRATELLI 0 0 0 0 0 0
EL PRINCIPE AZUL 0 0 0 0.3 55.4 0.5
ISLA DE CAPRI 0 0 0 0.4 189.5 0.2
LA PASCUALA 0 0 0 5 310.1 1.6
LAS DOS HERMANAS 0 0 0 3.2 9.4 34
MADONNA DI GIARDINI 0 0 0 101.6 569.3 17.8
MARIA MARTA 0 0 0 8 199 4
MI LUCHA 22.5 200.5 11.2 14.3 236.1 6.1
NUEVA ANGELA MADRE 0 0 0 0.8 184.5 0.4
NUEVA AUGUSTA 0 0 0 5.8 104.7 5.5
NUEVA ISLA DE CAPRI 0 0 0 33.4 150 22.3
NUEVA NUNCIA CONTI 22 85.4 25.8 20.3 133.1 15.3
QUE DIOS SE LO PAGUE 4 121.4 3.3 0 0 0
REGINA MADRE 0 0 0 0.8 210.4 0.4
SAN ANTONIO 0 0 0 31.4 152.7 20.6
SAN CARLOS 0 0 0 5.1 85.5 6
SAN JUAN JOSÉ 0 0 0 1.2 91.3 1.3
SIEMPRE GRACIOSA 0 0 0 7.2 63.2 11.4
SIEMPRE LIBERTAD 0.7 122.8 0.6 0 0 0
SIEMPRE SARA MADRE 0 0 0 12.4 190 6.5
SIGUE VALIENTE 0 0 0 2.4 220.8 1.1 TEMERARIO 0 0 0 105.1 210.2 50 TENIENTE CORONEL ROMEO ARALDE 0.9 170 0.5 8 200.2 4 VIEJO AMABILE 2.3 31 7.4 0 0 0 TOTAL 96.5 1,110.5 8.7 636.3 5,413.9 11.8
TOTAL CATCH PER YEAR 17,623.2 48,274 36.5 12,534.9 37,311.2 33.6
Table 16. Client Group’s catch during 2013-2014.
Vessel Company 2013 2014* Catch anchovy (TM) % Catch anchovy (TM) %
ALDEBARAN ALLELOCCIC S.A. 0 0 0 0
ARGENTINO CENTAURO S.A. 136.9 6.2 0 0
ATREVIDO CENTAURO S.A. 1,019.6 25.5 733.7 56.1
DESAFÍO CENTAURO S.A. 0 0 0 0
CENTAURO 2000 CENTAURO S.A. 0 0 0 0
NUEVO VIENTO NUEVO VIENTO S.R.L 174.8 10 444 52.4
RAFFAELA DELICIAS S.A. 691.4 41.4 540.9 53.1
TOTAL CATCH/% TOTAL ANCHOVIES CATCH 2,022.7 11,5 1,718.6 13,7
5.1.Written information submission by stakeholders
5.1.2 Marco Favero, Independent researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET), Juan Pablo Seco Pon, Researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET), and Sofía Copello, Researcher of IIMyC (UNMdP – CONICET)
ACTA, 20/11/2013. Resumen de la reunión del grupo de trabajo “Certificación OIA-MSC Anchoita Bonaerense”.
ACTA, 04/06/2014. Resumen taller certificación OIA-MSC Anchoita Bonaerese Zafra 2014.
ACTA, 19/11/2014. Resumen de la reunión del grupo de trabajo “Certificación OIA-MSC Anchoita Bonaerense”.
FLAMINIO, J., D ATRI, W. & M. PÉREZ, 2013. Análisis de los datos de las mareas registradas por observadores a bordo durante 2013 como parte del proceso de auditoría de seguimiento anual en la certificación de pesca sustentable de anchoíta argentina bonaerense (Engraulis anchoíta). Inf. Ases. y Transf. S/N: 12pp.
FLAMINIO, J., D ATRI, W. & M. PÉREZ, 2014. Análisis de los datos de las mareas registradas por observadores a bordo durante 2014 como parte del proceso de auditoría de seguimiento anual en la certificación de pesca sustentable de anchoíta argentina bonaerense (Engraulis anchoíta). Inf. Ases. y Transf. S/N: 9pp.
GARCIARENA, D. & C. BURATTI, 2014. Análisis de las capturas de anchoíta efectuadas por la flota comercial durante 2013 y estimaciones de parámetros poblaciones de interés biológico-pesquero. Inf Téc. INIDEP N° 01/2014:15pp.
HANSEN, J., GARCIARENA D. & C. BURATTI, 2013. Modelo estadístico de capturas por edad ajustado a datos sobre anchoita bonaerense entre 1990 y 2012. Inf. Téc. INIDEP Nº 15/2013: 29pp.
HANSEN, J., GARCIARENA, D. & C. BURATTI, 2014. Dinámica poblacional de la anchoíta bonaerense entre 1990 y 2013. Recomendaciones de captura máximas en el año 2014. Inf. Téc. INIDEP S/N:33pp. SECO PON, J.P., COPELLO, S., TAMINI, L., MARIANO-JELICICH, R., PAZ, J., BLANCO, G. & M. FAVERO, IN
PRESS. Seabird Conservation in Fisheries: current state of knowledge and conservation needs for Argentine high-seas fleets. Nova Science Publishers:60pp.
SESSF, 2010. Recommendations for total allowable catches for SESSF quota species for the 2011/2012 fishing year. Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. http://www.afma.gov.au/wp- content/uploads/2010/06/Position-paper-TAC-recommendations-for-SESSF-quota-species-for-2011-12-fishing-year.pdf