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Pilidiella tibouchinae sp. nov. associated with foliage blight of Tibouchina granulosa (quaresmeira) in Brazil

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© 2012 International Mycological Association

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INTRODUCTION

Tibouchina granulosa Melastomataceae

glorytree, is a fast growing tree native that occurs in the Atlantic ! " #$ " and parks because of its spectacular violet or pink blossoms % & ' ( )' *#+.//. Usually there is a high demand for young T. granulosa plants # $ 0# are known to be a limiting factor in nursery production of T.

granulosa. However, very little is known about the diseases

& Chrysoporthe cubensis

1Cryphonectria cubensis on T. granulosa

Seixas et al.//2

133 3 '33 45676.8 there are only three records of fungi on this host in the USDA

! 9; ./6/&

surprising for such a common plant in the neotropics, and $ < Here we clarify the identity of the fungus associated with # ## = ' &

and damaging diseases affecting T. granulosa gardens, and also in nurseries.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Isolates

Samples of young abnormal branches of Tibouchina

granulosa bearing diseased leaves were collected at two

; > ? @ < ; # fungus were deposited in the herbarium at the Universidade ! BC B"E ( = BF# =

( et al. .//G(

in the fungal culture collection at the Universidade Federal BC EJ=K0FL ! # E EJ M & 0 ; # # B"E EJ

@ N0F ?%F M E &? ? N0F " K ? + " J EF MJF O & B7@ P 9 @ # % 677Q +;R B 9 P 677/ N0F GO6QJ;0F

Pilidiella

tibouchinae

sp. nov. associated with foliage blight of

Tibouchina

granulosa

(quaresmeira) in Brazil

%E? 6;L 6(LE. > T@ .

6M# ! BC N ! GVRW/=///BC ?@ X = 1;L

Z#

.EJ=K0FL! #E([<QR6VWGR/QFNM&0

Abstract: Tibouchina granulosa Melastomataceae 8

' F ! # + # F

= F Pilidiella with the diseased

#& N0F we conclude that it represents a new species, for which the name Pilidiella tibouchinae

Article info:J17> ./6.XF1.7! ./6.X(1RF./6.

Coniella

Diaporthales

"&J +JM

Sordariomycetes

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AR

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JJM 6 RQJ ;0F ."&J 7// RO.QJ;0F+JM

& "&J2 Let al 677/ +JM6! E

et al .//7 '

' '# & (E; ' '

Eet al .//V .//7F

6= &%!'

et al ./6/ J'

' # 0E"O@ "&J !+JM#'

+ et al ./66 &FJ%

J66Q/R J' # @ &FJ% 3 3< <#?

? XEet al.//2

Slides containing fungal structures were mounted in G/ J ?P?R./[# of fungal structures and measurements, as well as preparation [\R6 [ %GG/ E V .] < ?%F

(EFEet al.//7 .R^EE

# ; 67W/

RESULTS

F< 6W// "&J +JM '

Coniella fragariae

30 changes

Harknessia eucalypti AY720745

AY339313

AY339343

EU301037

AY339338

HQ264189 AY339320

AY339319

AY339317

AY339316

BECM2

BECM1

GU062317

AY339346 HQ166057

AY339342

AY339348

AY339344

DQ914688

EU301051

AY339324

AY339323

AY339333

AY339334

AY339332

100

100

98

85

90 100

94

51

65 72

75

Coniella australiensis

Pilidiella eucalyptorum

Pilidiella macrospora Pilidiella crousii

Pilidiella tibouchinae

Pilidiella granati

Pilidiella sp.

Pilidiella quercicola

Schizoparme straminea

Pilidiella diplodiella

Pilidiella diplodiopsis

Fig. 1.&.2' R/ < "&J'

&5..7E"5/QG2;"5/7/2;E5/WR2& G/ # 6/// F<= bold #

' Harknessia eucalypti @

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& "&J = ! 6 +JM ! . & † "&J .R < ' R/6 QV = # 27 # = # GVV

&= ' !6&"&J !6 '

Pilidiella crousii and Pilidiella granati &

† +JM R2 < ' Q2/

10 changes

Magnaporthe grisea AB026819

Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae AF362556

Coniochaetidium savoryi AY346276

Coniochaeta velutina EU999180

Calosphaeria pulchella AY761075

Togninia novae-zealandiae AY761081

Phaeoacremonium sphinctrophorum DQ173151

Asterosporium asterospermum AB553745

Asterosporium asterospermum AB553741

Mazzantia napelli AF408368

Diaporthe perjuncta AF408356

Diaporthe pustulata AF408358

Diaporthe padi AF408354

Diaporthe angelicae AY196781

Phaeocytostroma ambiguum FR748102

Stenocarpella macrospora DQ377934

Stenocarpella maydis DQ377936

Phaeocytostroma sacchari FR748105

Diaporthe detrusa AF408349

Phaeocytostroma plurivorum FR748104

Phaeocytostroma megalosporum FR748103

Valsa ceratosperma AF408386

Valsella adhaerens AF408388

Leucostoma niveum AF408367

Greeneria uvicola AF362570

Melanconiella spodiaea AF408370

Endothiella gyrosa AF362555

Cryphonectria macrospora AF408340

Cryphonectria nitschkei AF408341

Ophiovalsa betulae AF408375

Phragmoporthe conformis AF408377

Gnomonia setacea AF362563

Melanconis stilbostoma AF408374

Melanconis marginalis AF408373

Melanconis alni AF362566

Wuestneia molokaiensis AF408390

Harknessia eucalypti AF408363

Harknessia gibbosa EF110615

Pilidiella eucalyptorum EU754150

Coniella australiensis AF408336

Coniella fragariae AF362553

BECM2 Pilidiella tibouchinae

BECM1 Pilidiella tibouchinae

Schizoparme botrytidis AF408383

Pilidiella macrospora AY339292

Coniella musaiaensis AF408337

Schizoparme straminea AY339296

Pilidiella granati AF408379

Pilidiella quercicola AY339293

Pilidiella diplodiopsis AY339287

Pilidiella diplodiella AY339286

Pilidiella diplodiopsis AY339288

Pilidiella sp. AY339295

Pilidiella castaneicola AF408378

Key to families:

Ca: Calosphaeriaceae

Cr: Cryphonectriaceae

D: Diaporthaceae

G: Gnomoniaceae

M: Melanconidiaceae

T: Togniniaceae

V: Valsaceae

100

100

97

88 100

98 100

60

70

60 61

80 78

73 100

93 63

89

58 96 100

57 62

82 59

100

53 79 98

100

57 92 88

T

D

M2

M1

Cr

G

V

M3

Family

Ca

Fig. 2.&6Q/' 6// < +JM'

&5R72E"5/R6R;"5/Q6W;E5/2.6& 6/ # 6/// &#

'Magnaporthe grisea

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67/ = # R2 # = # R7V ! 6Q/' ! . ( +JM ! 6

#'Pilidiella

& &%!' # ' # @

A pycnidial coelomycete was regularly associated with diseased tissues on the samples collected at the two " species in the genus Pilidiella0 ; †677G# 0et

al. .//2 <

Accordingly, a new species name is introduced below to accommodate the fungus occurring on T. granulosa.

Pilidiella tibouchinae %E? ;L 9

Esp. nov.

? ?RVG77.

!G

Etymology10

Tibouchina

Diagnosis: Similar to Pilidiella eucalyptorum but lacking

conidial germ slits, and similar to P. petrakioidea but lacking

Type: Brazil: Minas Gerais: Viçosa, campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, on leaves of Tibouchina

granulosa, Q ? ./6/B. C. Miranda B"E G622G 8

XEJP=./Q.W8X<=E(E 6QR66E(E6QR6.5EJ6G6R7R

@ B"EG622G B"EG62221 "&J5>‹.Q6WW2>‹.Q6WWRX+JM5>‹.Q6WWV>‹.Q6WWWX &%!5>‹.Q6WWQ>‹.Q6WW7

Other specimen examined: Brazil:Minas Gerais: Viçosa, campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, on leaves of T. granulosa, 6W ? ./6/B. C. MirandaB"EG6222

Fig. 3. Pilidiella tibouchinaeA–D.+ Tibouchina granulosaE.E F, G. Vertical section through

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Description: Lesions# #

as adaxial straw-coloured necrotic spots, mostly appearing near the leaf veins, becoming yellowish to greyish with a dark brown to dark purple border, irregularly shaped, coalescing and leading to necrosis and distortion of large parts of X " † symptoms, a shortening of branch internodes, leaf distortion, bud death, necrosis and die-back of young stems are also # J #

# # Conidiomata pycnidial,

adaxial, subcuticular, solitary, globose to depressed globose, 2.R8WR  WR866.R Ž

brown textura angularis 68G W86. Ž

X Xconidiophores

formed on a dense, basal, cushion-like aggregation of hyaline cells, mostly reduced to conidiogenous cells, Q86R  G82 Ž

68.= Conidiogenous cells enteroblastic,

R86/  .8G Ž smooth, hyaline, with minute collarette, and covered in

Conidia mostly broadly ellipsoidal, often somewhat

$ ## 6/86G  V8Q Ž 1 5 6W < base, hilum sometimes slightly protuberant, aseptate, hyaline when immature, becoming smoky-brown at maturity, smooth,

Culture characteristics1 ?%F (EF 6.

1E =QV VX$ X mostly composed of immersed mycelium, aerial mycelium # ?%F X web-like white to grey olivaceous, sometimes with some small cinnamon areas centrally, occasionally becoming powdery towards the periphery, abundant olivaceous black fruit bodies ?%F3[(EF #X (EF3

DISCUSSION

& Tibouchina granulosa clearly belongs to

the Coniella/Pilidiella-complex that has Schizoparme

Schizoparmaceae, DiaporthalesX ;

et al .//W ! Schizoparmaceae include several

species associated with foliar diseases, sometimes occurring as secondary invaders of plant tissues infected

† ! et

al. 677W&

Schizoparmaceae in association with members of the genus

Tibouchina, and a single doubtful record of a Coniella on

another member of the Melastomataceae, Miconia serrulata

! 9 ; ./6/ J# Myrtales,

et al. .//G 62

families, are known hosts of Schizoparmaceae ! 9 ; ./6/ ! # from Myrtaceae Acca, Blepharocalyx, Eucalyptus, Eugenia,

Heteropyxis, Myrcia, Syzygium), Lythraceae Lythrum,

Punica, and Combretaceae Anogeissus, Anogeissus,

Terminalia# 0et al.//2! 9; ./6/

J67Q/ 0 ; †677G Pilidiella as a

synonym of Coniella P#

+JM N0F N0F '

E et al. .//. Pilidiella is distinct

from ConiellaPilidiella has two main morphological criteria separating it from Coniella: the presence of conidia that are hyaline when young becoming pale brown with age

ConiellaE et al..//.

# 6R '

6R Coniella # 0et al .//2

( & 6

P. tibouchinae has hyaline conidia that become smoky brown

1 6WF the phylogenetic analysis place P. tibouchinae in the Pilidiella

clade, distinct from Coniella ! 68. E

combination of morphological and molecular data, we prefer to place this fungus in the genus Pilidiella. 0# several species in the group still need to be re-examined, as

#!.Pilidiella eucalyptorum clusters

in the Coniella clade, and C. musariensis clusters in the Pilidiella

( P. tibouchinae are small when compared

to the species of Schizoparmaceae treated by Sutton

67Q/ 0 ; † 677G # 0et al .//2

? P. tibouchinae show some

similarity to that of P. eucalyptorum and P. petrakioidea. However, conidia of P. tibouchinae lack conidial germ slits

P. eucalyptorum

P. petrakioidea"

W86. Ž P. eucalyptorum .R Œ ,

and has hyaline to pale smoky-brown conidia, whereas

those of P. eucalyptorum

Furthermore, P. tibouchinae also differs from P. petrakioidea

rounded apices in P. petrakioidea 1

67 !# Coniella have been described in

association with members of the Myrtaceae: C. australiensis,

C. castaneicola, C. costae, C. fragariae, and C. minima.

E Pilidiella

and Coniella, the conidial morphology of these species is

also provided here for comparison with that of P. tibouchinae & 6.

Pilidiellatibouchinaeto be

described on a host belonging to Melastomataceae, on which it appears to be associated with a rather serious foliar and !# pathological status of the fungus on Tibouchina granulosa, and evaluating potential disease control measures are now

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

L EJF # " ? † B ?J =L N0F ' #

REFERENCES

F PF # 67QGF ConiellaProceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, C

8616.686.R

F J 67VW E L ( 8B"

Biologica 1316R82.

K @ >T N† > J =L ? F J F J P=N N !? J P=> M E (L ./6/ J diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex Davidiellaceae, CapnodialesStudies in Mycology 6716872 KE ?L;# >+JN%et al.//G

F $ 1F(@ ""Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 1411G7782GV

E (L @ L J >F ; B J @ .//2 ? 1 # .6 Studies in Mycology 501678..

E (L @ >T ; >=? J ( P KN .//VCalonectria species and their Cylindrocladium

1 # #Studies in Mycology

551.6G8..V

E(L@ >TJFLNL ?> .//7 E= Teratosphaeria on

EucalyptusPersoonia 221GQ82Q

E (L J E+ P KN L F; @ E P @J N @ >T .//7 (

CapnodialesStudies in Mycology 6416W82W

E (L B @>? @ >T J ;F .//7Fungal BiodiversityEJ+ ? J 1‘ E #JM

E +F; F> L>B # +0.//.F preliminary overview of the Diaporthales based on large subunit N0F'Mycologia 9416/6W86/G6 N >E?;J +&(JE677GConiella

costae # # Myrcia tomentosa

Mycological Research 9716.G286.GV

!F[ 677VInternational Standard for Phytosanitary Measures.

;1 J " ( ( E#

! N! ; F ./6/ ! # ?N1 J ? ? + F;J MJNFX133 =#3 3

! !FF FE E + 677W ( ==

Coniella fragariae Revista Árvore21: G/W8G66

!JFJ ENB K?6772FConiella

" Acta Botanica Indica 2216G286GR

T able 1. E Coniella and Pilidiella

species recorded from members of

Myrtales Species Size l:b rate Shape Appendage Germ slit Reference Coniella australiensis 786/86 6862V8W8Q86/Ž 62 + -# 0 et al .//2 C. castanaeicola 6G8.7.R8GRŽ WG

Fusoid to falcate

+

-0 ; †677G

C. costae

678.QW8WRŽ

G.

Fusoid to ellipsoid

-Dianese et al. 677G C. delicata W87.R8GŽ .7 Ellipsoid -J67Q/ C. fragariae Q8786/86.RR8V8W8QŽ 6R Ellipsoid + + # 0 et al. .//2

in older conidia

C. macrospora 6QG8.R8.78G.R6G86V8./8.6RŒ 6R [# + -# F 67QG C. minima VR8WRGR82RŽ 6R

Globoid to subgloboid

-J67V7 C. terminaliae .8Q.8GRŒ .1/6

Globose to subglobose

-Firdousi et al 6772 Pilidiella crousii V8W86.86GR.R8G8RŽ .. 0 -Rajeshkumar et al. ./6 6 P . diplodiella 6/86.86R86728R8VŽ .G 0 + -# 0 et al .//2 P .eucalyptorum 786/86.862V8W8QŽ 6V uncommon + # 0 et al .//2 P . granati 786VG82RŽ .Q Ellipsoid +

-0 ; †677G

P . jambolana 678..GR82Œ RW Elongate-fusoid -F 67VW P . petrakioidea 6.862RVR8QŽ 67 0 +

-0 ; †677G

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P@J@# %FP@677Q?

Mycoses41:

6QG86Q7

+ JE E (L @ >T & & ? L![ ./66Diaporthaceae associated with root and

IMA Fungus 216G8.2

+ P .//.

cultivo de plantas arbóreas do Brasil B 6 2 C” 0# [ J(1"(

0 ; † &; 677GCoelomycetous Anamorphs with

Appendage-bearing ConidiaL 1?(

0>?# @ >TB@>?!(PL ?> E (L .//2 J Coniella

and Pilidiella

Eucalyptus and VitisJF Mycological Research 108: .QG8G/G

; ;L67W/A Mycological Colour ChartK1E ? "

; F! N!E +F.//WF# and biology of the Diaporthales.Mycoscience 4816GR8622 J E 67V7 & Coniella, Anthasthoopa, and

CyclodomellaCanadian Journal of Botany 471V/G8V/Q JE67Q/The Coelomycetes: fungi imperfecti with pycnidia,

acervuli and stromata. K1 E ? "

MJNF3! N F# 133 =#3 3< ./? ./6/ B ; P ? 677/ ;

N0F#

CryptococcusJournal of Bacteriology 17212.GQ82.2V L &> & + > & > 677/F

' ;0F

Figure

Fig. 1.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������bold �����������������������������������������������������Harknessia eucalypti ���������������������������������
Fig. 2.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fig. 3. Pilidiella tibouchinae��A–D.���������������������������Tibouchina granulosa��E.�������������������������F, G

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