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(3) ES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. OBOS* yiftWJW. wv&fl. of. Principle and Foundation. Joseph A. Tetlow,. :I/4. S.J.. SEPTEMBER. 1989.

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(5) Joseph A. Tetlow,. S.J.. THE FUNDAMENTUM: CREATION IN. THE PRINCIPLE AND FOUNDATION. Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. 21/4. September 1989.

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(7) For Your Information. Every year. .. .. .. time. at this. enjoy the happy opportunity to introduce to. I. you, the readers of Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, the. on. the Seminar. Jesuit Spirituality.. The Seminar,. as. new members of. you know,. the ultimate. is. source of the material which appears as the issues of Studies.. members. member. Father Curran, a. an American is. Emmett Curran and James. year are R.. this. historian, teaches at. of the. Tradition, 1634-1900.. volumes. the. in. DiGiacomo.. of the Maryland Province of the Society,. Georgetown University. most recently the editor of the book American. Maryland. J.. Our new. It is. Washington, and. published by the Paulist Press and. New York New York City. He has. The. Jesuit Spirituality:. Sources of American. series,. in. is. Spirituality.. Ls. one. Father. DiGiacomo, a member of the. Province, teaches theology at Regis. High School. written extensively in both articles. in. and books on. faith. and. spirituality,. especially of adolescents;. publications are Understanding Teenagers:. Want. to. Do. Ministiy.. A. among. his. Guide for Parents and So You. Both Emmett and Jim are welcome additions. Seminar and both bring special backgrounds and. to the. interests to the task of the. Seminar, which "studies topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice. of Jesuits, especially American Jesuits and communicates the results to. the. members of. the [Jesuit] provinces," to quote the charge given to us by. the Society.. Every year, too, the. have the bittersweet opportunity to say farewell. I. members who have ended. their three-year. pleasure publicly to recognize them for. Seminar and. to Studies;. it is. all. term on the Seminar.. It. is. to. a. that they have contributed to the. sad to see them leave our company. This year. McGovern of the Detroit Province and Paul Soukup Province. To them both my thanks as Chairman of the. they are two, Arthur. of the California. Seminar and Editor of. Studies.. I. am. sure that you, our readers, share that. expression of thanks.. Toward the end of eighty participants,. met. July Jesuit ecumenists from around the world, at Chantilly outside Paris.. The. overall. some. theme of the. international meeting. was the relationship of ecumenism and the hallowed. Jesuit phrase "sentire. cum. ecclesia.". Four major papers came from. partici-.

(8) pants from Germany, the United States, Bolivia, and France.. author of the paper from the United States, on the practice of in his relations. I. St.. was the Ignatius. with the Holy See from his early experiences to his time as. General of the Society of Jesus. In addition to commenting on the papers,. we. all. had the opportunity,. too, for. group discussions, the sharing of experi-. ences from different countries, a meeting with French Protestant pastors involved in ecumenical relations, and a. visit. to the. Center for Russian. Studies which the Society of Jesus in France conducts. points of the meeting. walking tour of the. and worked. came on. sites in. in the 1530s.. and. of the high. the Sunday morning on which. we took. a. the Latin Quarter of Paris at which Ignatius lived. Even though. that university area of the city has. changed enormously, as much as or more than the nations,. One. rest of Paris,. our imagi-. an excellent Jesuit guide, the historian Father Philippe Lecrivain,. his vivid. experience.. It. and detailed remarks made was an apt prelude. for a. memorable and moving. to the year of celebration in 1990-91 of. the founding of the Society (1540) and the birth of. St.. Ignatius (1491).. John W. Padberg, Editor. S.J..

(9) CONTENTS INTRODUCTION The. 1. 2. thesis. The paper's I.. 3. outline. FOUR SPECIAL TERMS 4. "Creation". "Fundamentum". 6. 8. "God's project" "Ihigo de Loyola". II.. INIGO'S. 4. 9. EARLY EXPERIENCE AND. Inigo's early religious experience Inigo's lay apostolate. III.. Annotations. and 20. 17. 21. The. 26. indifference. purpose and the. original. final. 27. end. THE FUNDAMENTUM: PRACTICE DURING The. lessons. from Vitoria. INTERIM HISTORY. INIGO'S LIFETIME. 33. 35. The Fundamentum becomes the "Principle and Foundation" The Exercises as a school of "perfection" 41. The restored VI.. Society: the. Fundamentum. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. as relic. 44. Beginning in the mind: "God's plan". 45. Creation as fact and the triangle of being. CONCLUSION. 49. 23. 26. source of the faith that does justice. The question of. V.. 15. THE FUNDAMENTUM: CONTENT AND EXPERIENCE. A. IV.. 13. Inigo's practice. Polanco's Directory. 10. 11. Three points about 18, 19,. LAY APOSTOLATE. HIS. 47. 42. 35. 30.

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(11) THE FUNDAMENTUM Creation in the Principle and Foundation. Joseph A. Tetlow,. S.J.*. INTRODUCTION Before Vatican. II,. Jesuit. began. directors. by talking. retreats. about the Principle and Foundation. With bracing intellectual. clarity. we announced:. Man. created to praise, reverence, and serve. is. on the. to save himself. All the other things. created for man, as. means. to help. him. God. our Lord, and so. face of the earth are. attain the. end. for. which he. is. created.. We were these matters tory of 1599.. following a great tradition, and those of us. knew. "The. that our tradition. first. went back. step into the First. Week. who. studied. to the official Direcis. a consideration of. the last end, a consideration called 'The Foundation' because. grounds the entire moral and spiritual enterprise.". we had no. 1. it. Until the 1950s. reason to doubt the effectiveness of considering man's. final end, the. use of other creatures, indifference, and tantum quan-. tum.. TX. *. Author's address: Xavier Hall, 907 Lydia. 1.. "Directorium definitive approbatum," Dircctoria (1540-1599). guirre, S.J.. (Rome: Institutum Ilistoricum. Historica Societatis Iesu, [103],. p.. it. 78702. ed.,. [gnacio Iparra-. Societatis Iesu. 1955), vol. 76 o(. 642. Hereafter,. 1599 and to the volume containing series as MIISI.. Austin,. St.,. I. refer to this. as Dircctoria.. I. document. refer to the entire. Monumenta ;is. Directory. Monumenta.

(12) TETLOW. 2. Rather promptly after Vatican. had begun directing the ered that. however, particularly once. II,. immediacy and. we. discov-. and Foundation had. lost its. Spiritual Exercises one-on-one,. this philosophical Principle. we. force.. Directors began hearing that the Principle and Foundation was. not really intended as a meditation, and. later, that. it. never had been. intended as part of the experience of the thirty days. As the 1970s. wore on, we began discovering. that exercitants could. begin the Spiritual Exercises by reflecting on their. more. life. effectively. history. and by. "learning to accept God's acceptance of us.". By. the time directed retreats had. really differed. about. how. become commonplace, we. to use the Principle. both directed and preached. and Foundation. Some have made. retreats.. for prayer periods or for talks; others. on using the. "original"; others. have used a. own. Principle and Foundation.. A. us have simply not been using. The. it. at. all.. thesis. In this paper. I. suggest that there. ple and Foundation that. is. ence that Ihigo had early. principal thesis. back. The. Princi-. dynamic of the Spiritual. to our roots, into the experi-. in the vision. in the divine life,. is this:. an experience of the. in his conversion, particularly at the. where he was wrapped. God, participating. is. crucial in the. Exercises. That experience takes us. ner,. as. Some have paraphrase. Some. to write their. number of. it. talks.. began asking exercitants significant. the subject. recommended reading. background material between prayer periods or insisted. it. in. of. all. things. and going back. Cardo-. coming from to. God.. My. elegantly spare sentences of the "Princi-. ple and Foundation" both express and conceal a religious experience crucial to the Spiritual Exercises. personal relationship with. One who. loves. —. God my. and cherishes and. the experience of. my. intensely. Creator and Lord, not only as the forgives me, but also. and even. One who is at every moment making me, my life world, and my self. To say that another way, the authentic Principle and Foundation elicits in each exercitant the experience of God creating more. as the.

(13) THE FUNDAMENTUM. —. 3. not creating in globo, but continually creating. my. down to my authentic desiring. so much trouble about a single point. self, in. concrete. particulars even. Why. take. The reasons. Exercises?. the Spiritual. in. cluster into three points.. of the Spiritual Exercises suggests that a. First, the history. more intimate experience than we now. elicit. of. God. the self belongs integrally to their dynamic. This. is. much. actually creating. a matter of our. return to our roots.. Second and more urgently, exercitants very much need intimate experience today.. coming. to. be. We. moment,. at every. this. conceive the self as incomplete and like a pulsing. magnetic. field,. and not. God who created our souls once at our conception seems a God long gone; we need contact with an ongoing Maker. Further, we find ourselves struggling. as. minted once for. all,. like a coin.. Consequently, a. simultaneously with alienation from the self and with narcissistic. absorption in the. self.. In this cultural climate,. we need some. secure. grounding for genuine self-respect and ultimately for the self-love. mandated by the. last. "Love your neighbor Third,. we need. phrase of the Second Great Commandment, as yourself.". to recover the authentic experience of the Princi-. ple and Foundation because our apprehension of "God's will" and. of "divine providence" has faded in an era of concentration on the. on. subjective,. can. self-realization,. we embrace. in the place. and on the immanence of God. What of the objective "God's will" and the. transcendent "God's providence"?. I. will suggest that the authentic. Exercises have always postulated a realization that God-with-us has. hopes from within our self-realization for ourselves and for our world,. all. of which. The paper's If this. God. transcends.. outline. experience of. God momently. has the Principle and Foundation ceal it?. life. The. full. answer. some key words and. creating. come both. is. so crucial,. to express. and. how. to con-. to that question requires a careful use of. a longish look at the history of the practice of.

(14) TETLOW. 4 the Spiritual Exercises that. The paper. we. are just beginning to learn.. begins, therefore, by simply defining. some. terms.. It. then notes a couple of things in Ihigo's conversion experience and in his early lay apostolate.. At. we. that point. are in a position to. describe the experience of the Principle and Foundation.. That description. will raise the question of. Ihigo's annotations to the Principle. Directory of 1599. and the one we preached before Vatican in three parts:. eth century. Finally, the paper sums up what. II.. The. during Ihigo's. we. are doing and need. in order to recapture the fully authentic experience of the. Principle. I.. official. and then during the twenti-. lifetime, during the intervening centuries,. do. got from. and Foundation of the. paper therefore surveys that history. to. how we. and Foundation.. FOUR SPECIAL TERMS Four words or phrases have special meaning when they describe. the experience of the Principle and Foundation: creation,. Fundamen-. tum, God's project, and Ihigo de Loyola's name.. "Creation". When. talk here about "creation,". I. do not mean the broad. I. term that used to include God's unique act of creation and also divine providence or governance.. "loving us as. Neither. am. we. I. I. do. not, therefore,. mean God's. are" or our "accepting God's acceptance of us.". talking here about the. about the "big bang" in which. chapters of Genesis, or. first. scientists currently believe all things. "began.". When. I. talk. about creation here,. of John's prologue and the. first. I. have in mind the In pnncipio. chapter of Ephesians. Hence,. a different beginning, a beginning in no. way. in these pages,. I. refer to. mean. limited by time or place. but always ongoing in specific time and concrete place.. about creation. I. When. I. talk. God's constantly making.

(15) THE FUNDAMENTUM each creature out of nothing ceding and causing. whom. the Father, from. there. is. through I. all. each moment of. its. existence, ante-. secondary causes. "For us there all. one Lord, Jesus. whom we. at. 5. come and. things. Christ, through. exist" (1 Cor. 8:6).. for. whom. is. whom we all. things. one God, exist;. and. come and. Not "came" but "come.". take in this paper a very different tack from that taken by. Roger Haight, whose understanding of the Principle and Foundation moves him to place God at the primordial start and at the eschatological end, with everything in the. and personal hands." been unlikely ation.. He. if. 2. I. middle "placed. in. our corporate. tend to think that Haight's paper would have. more adequate theology of crewhen we falter in the foundational. the Church had a. illustrates the fact that,. experience of God's continuing creation, us the religious ground. we have. on which we can believe. cut out from under that an intimately. detailed and urgent invitation to labor for peace and justice can. indeed come directly from God. I. tion. also take a different tack concerning the Principle. and Founda-. from that taken by many current books on the Exercises. 3. In. explaining the Principle and Foundation, books today tend to stress. God's. faithful love,. our spiritual freedom, or indifference. Place. With Your Son, since instructive.. It. cites. that the Principle. makes. 2.. "spiritual. Roger Haight,. Spirituality. it is. a. book by. Jesuits for Jesuits,. is. Me. particularly. Candido de Dalmases's opinion (mentioned below) and Foundation. "God's plan of creation.". gives. freedom" the theme. for the. "Foundational Issues. in Jesuit. S.J.,. week of prayer on. Spirituality,". It. the. Studies in the. of Jesuits 19, no. 4 (September 1987): 25.. On. Annotation 19 retreats, see Maurice Giuliani, S.J., "The Exercises in Daily Life," Progressio, Supplement No. 18-19 (Rome: The World Federation of Christian Life Communities, November 1981); Charles A. Bernard, S.J., Pour mieux donner les. 3.. Exercices Ignatiens. Goyoaga, S J.,. (Rome: Centrum Ignatianum. Spiritualitatis,. 1979);. Juan Antonio. An. Experience of the Spiritual Exercises, 2nd ed. rev. (Manila: Cardinal Bea Institute, 1985); John A. Veltri, S.J., Orientations, 2 vols, (privately published by Guelph, Ontario, Canada: Loyola House: 1979 and 1981); and the five volumes of the. Take and Receive. Series by Jacqueline Bergan and. Christian Brothers Publications, 1985-).. S.. Marie Schwan (Winona, Minn.:.

(16) TETLOW. 6. Principle and Foundation, selecting scripture passages that refer to. Then the book recommends. creation as an event in the past.. prayer for the one day. assigns to a consideration of the text of the. it. Principle and Foundation: "Lord,. my. service of. ended. this. want. I. you and your people,". in the question of indifference.. as. be unbiased and. to. though the. text. free in. began and. 4. "Fundamentum" This begins to touch on what. word found. the Latin. I. mean by "Fundamentum.". I. am. talking about here from. a philosophical statement.. plan," or a basic plan of. 5. life.. what other. Some have. authors talk about as the "Principle and Foundation." it. use. in all of the sixteenth-century directories in. order to differentiate what. called. I. Some have pronounced. it. "God's. In his recent life of St. Ignatius, Can-. dido de Dalmases wrote a lucid exposition of the "traditional" Principle and Foundation. as. He. depicted Ihigo going through the Exercises. though they had already been formulated. than a literary conceit. all else,. created. He. he placed before .'" 6 .. .. Foundation. it. a device entailing. imagined him starting his eyes. this. more. way: "Before. God's plan of creation: 'Man. is. This traditional appreciation of the Principle and. treats. it. as a statement of. toward an experience. creatures;. —. It. The. Truth, not as a directive. not only separates humankind from. also distinguishes. humankind from other. places creation exclusively in the past and. all. other. creatures.. It. makes God's "plan" an. eternally preexistent, fixed idea.. Place Me with Your Son: The Spiritual Exercises Georgetown University Press, 1986), 5-9.. 4.. 5.. Among. usages. still. in print are:. in. Everyday Life (Washington, D.C.:. a precis of fundamental Christian doctrine; a vision. of the whole of the faith but without detail; a statement. made up of a. series of truths. and principles that are basic to a serious Christian life; a statement of the basic human condition before God; the basis of ascetical theology; a dated theology of creation; or, finally,. 6.. a description of the radical spiritual stance of indifference.. Candido de Dalmases,. S.J.,. Ignatius of Loyola:. Founder of the Jesuits,. Aixala, S.J. (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1985), 67.. trans.. Jerome.

(17) THE FUNDAMENTUM By Fundamentum from. mean. I. a good deal. all. that,. because. Gilles Cusson, the. most. significant. different. some. time.. 7. As he. does,. primarily a process, but to. I. I. more and something very. believe that Inigo did. So does. commentator on the Exercises. gives to. more circumscribed meaning. "Fondement." His explanation:. will be, first of all, the occasion of initiating the. exercitant into an inspiriting perspective, a vision of the. which includes the chief elements of the Christian in detail." I. do not think of the Fundamentum. Walter. fies. whole. — one. though not. faith,. 8. experience, and as. in. consider the Principle and Foundation. give a slightly. "Fundamentum" than he. "The Foundation. I. 7. J.. I. Ong. as. an occasion, but as an. prefer "hearing" to "perspective and vision." Vision,. has taught us, removes things from us and objecti-. them, placing before us the ideal, always distant and unreachable.. Hearing internalizes the real without reducing harmonizes us within and with what transcends. This latter. us.. and. objectivity,. its. is. the. experience of the Fundamentum. Further, in these pages the. Fundamentum,. and Lord. that. course,. concentrate on. which. God. life. rise. this. one experience. are being created momently by our. in all concrete particulars. God's summons into tic desires,. we. I. when we. let. and that we are. ourselves hear our most authen-. creates us in the concrete particular of revelation in. in Christ Jesus. For. us, therefore,. and. in the. any experience of. focus specifically on continuing creation because. Gilles Cusson,. S.J.,. be. to. Church.. and the Spiritual Roduit, R.C., and George Ganss, S.J., ed. George Ganss, S.J. of Jesuit Sources, 1987). The French original of this book 7.. Of. us.. God's continuing creation implicates an experience of coming. I. God. listening to. out of God's passionate, creative love in. Christ Jesus, our fides ex auditu.. But. in. Biblical Theology. I'expfrience spirituelle personnelle: Bible et Exercices Spirititels,. Exercises, (St. is. Louis:. I. believe. trans.. The. M. A.. Institute. entitled Pddagogie. 2nd. ed. (Montreal:. de. Les. Editions Bellarmin, 1976). Ganss, arguably the best-informed scholar on this subject in the country, considers this in English.. 8.. I. book the fullest and richest commentary on work as Cusson, Biblical Theology.. will refer to this. Cusson, Biblical Theology, 50.. the Exercises.

(18) TETLOW. 8 Ihigo did in his. own way and because. where we are. this is. To. failing.. suggest one instance, John Veltri, one of the most experienced directors of ing.. our times, does indeed. Yet he argues. consider. call exercitants to. that the truths. God. creat-. and principles of paragraph num-. ber 23 "represent an attitude of mind and heart that comes from the experience of being accepted and loved and disposes one to express deeds.". this love in. 9 I. do not mean. to reargue here the importance. of looking at our practice of the Fundamentum, but Veltri's stature elicits this reflection:. The experience of being accepted and loved. consoles wonderfully; but. cannot match the shattering experience. it. God. of being created momently in concretenesses by. our Lord. The. gentle Principle and Foundation of our "preparation days" confirms exercitants in faith, hope,. and tender love and sends them back. their lives hugely encouraged.. But why does. to. dispose so few to. it. express their love in great deeds of justice and of self-donation to Christ in the Church?. "God's project" Instead of talking about "God's plan,". I. have chosen to talk. about "God's project." This puts into words a significant change that. most directors and exercitants have already made. "Plan" once suggested to us a reality in God's mind, identified with. God and hence. infinite. It. had been. somehow. laid out in the. reaches of eternity before creation, like an architect's blueprint completed before building began. fixed,. and. were written bits. us in time. fixed in incomprehensible detail.. Believe that. were. To. God. seemed completely. it. Our. task as creatures?. has a plan, struggle to see that events in our. in that plan,. and then. freely. conform ourselves.. lives. We. of data going through a massive computer program, trying. to take the right turnings.. "God's project" suggests a very different that exists in. 9.. God. but that. Veltri, Orientations II, 36.. is. not God.. reality,. A project. is. a finite reality. a concrete event,.

(19) THE FUNDAMENTUM an ongoing project all. activity that requires improvisation. what the Bible records, not God's. is. and small are required. things great. and indeed. make. and adjustment. God's. To God's. plan.. make. to. 9. a contribution out of. a contribution whether by choice or. the. self,. not,. whether embracing God's hopes or attempting. God's project. whom we ed out,. live. in this last. age goes forward only. to frustrate them.. in Jesus Christ, in. and move and have our being. As Haight. we who. to that project. A. will. are His. which. members here and now make. will. project,. vividly point-. contributions. endure beyond time.. point of connection: God's plan began with creation from. nothing. God's project begins rather with creation from chaos, as the. Bible teaches. "Nothing". is. may. a kind of non-idea; "chaos". well. suggest a philosophical and (more recently) even a scientific idea, but. chaos. a concreteness that. is. to begin to intuit. God. we. all. experience. This makes. creating, for. it. means. that. God. it. is. possible. creating. each one of us out of the patent chaos of our life-world and even of our. own. history.. sinning of. God draws me. my own. out of the madnesses and inveterate. family and companionships and nation.. God. cre-. am becoming out of a wounding separation from my mother and my family, out of the sexual disorders have introjected from my culture, out of my deliberately chosen and self-destructive habits of sin. When we think of it this way, the way the People of God thought at the start, we transmute "creation" from ates the authentic person. I. I. a distant, incomprehensible activity to the immediate and intimate. environment of our coming to be.. "Inigo de Loyola". The. Pilgrim from Loyola was given to see and savor that.. felt fire in his belly at. ect. and. the thought that he could further God's proj-. lived a life of towering joy for. whom we were. it.. "St. Ignatius. of Loyola,". taught to imitate, seemed to have received interior. graces of an order and kind altogether different from our own.. came. across as a forbidding personality,. certain. He. icily. He. chaste, intellectually. beyond challenge, preoccupied with obedience and endowed.

(20) TETLOW. 10 with iron-willed self-control. "Iriigo". seems to. religious experiences. me. almost another person.. had astonishing. which leap out of some documents even though. he tried to shade them out with sometimes. He. in high passion;. his ink.. His eyes glinted in glee and. He. he had a Basque temper.. with every kind of person and spent his time talking drifters,. women,. scholars, the rich. He did admit, though, He certainly could change. that his knees. news.. his. on a point for. in the Constitutions, Ihigo. Polanco and then added, "but. changed, change friend. it.". who thought. 10. Above. all. if. mind.. knocked. When. wrote out. his. all,. to fear. at certain. Salmeron differed. own. you think some of. and before. home. notably, with. He seemed. and powerful.. no one.. —. felt at. final. this. he was a. opinion. should be. great, great. nothing of trudging ten miles through the haze with a sick companion. Since. of a fever just to. sit. Loyola seems cast. in plaster for pious purposes,. I. St.. Ignatius of. talk here about. Ifiigo.. INIGO'S EARLY EXPERIENCE. II.. I. Ihigo.. For we can get the Fundamentum. and perhaps. feel. We. tedium. all. right only. know. the story of Iriigo 's conver-. at the thought of going. But we have underemphasized a couple of. And. we talk about if we grasp Ihigo 's. think the subject of this paper requires that. earliest religious experience.. sion. AND HIS LAY APOSTOLATE. this will. be. its. more. back over. it.. singular parts.. brief.. S.I., 2 vols., Monumenta Ignatiana (Rome: Institutum Historicum 64 and 65 of MHSI, 2:71. References to this source indicate volume. 10.. Constitutiones. S.I.,. 1936), vols.. and page. This work is cited in Antonio M. de Aldama, S.J., An Introductory Commenon the Constitutions, trans. A. J. Owen, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit. tary. Sources, 1989), 57..

(21) THE FUNDAMENTUM. 11. Inigo's early religious experience. We. know, for instance, that. Ifiigo. had. hand. in. at the very begin-. ning of his religious experience Ludolph the Carthusian's Vita Jesu Christi.. But we have not paid much attention. introduction. to the fact that. a very long meditation on the prologue of John's. is. Gospel, "In principio erat Verbum." In that meditation Christ called salutis. its. fundamentum, the sole fundament of. salvation.. 11. is. In the. God is "with you not only through essence, power, and potency (as God is with all things); and not only through grace (as God is to those who are sanctified); but also through the taking on of our flesh." 12 Ludolph does not add a parenthetical "as God is. words of Ludolph,. .. .. .". to. God's presence. in. our. flesh.. His entire study, and Inigo's. Sphitual Exercises, are a long consideration of. and Lord keeps coming into our Inigo's three "points". Ludolph's;. flesh.. on a mystery. we have perhaps. We. how God our Creator have long noted that. in Jesus' life frequently reflect. not noted enough that Inigo's religious. experience frequently reflects Ludolph's deep absorption chapter.. first. in. John's. 13. His reading of Ludolph raised in him the great desire to imitate Jesus, as. we have. Flos Sanctorum,. stressed.. Iriigo. We. that, as. he read the. found himself ravished by a desire. the saints' imitations of Jesus.. 11.. have also stressed. He. to imitate. determined to make himself as holy. Ludolph of Saxony, Vita Jesu Christi, 2 See Cusson, Biblical Theology, 6-38.. vols. (Paris. and Brussels:. L.. M.. Rigollot,. 1878).. "[Deus est] tecum non tantum per essentiam, potentiam, et praesentiam, qualiter est in omnibus rebus; nee solum per gratiam, eo modo quo est Sanctis hominibus; sed etiam per carnis assumptionem" (Vita Jesu Christi, 1:35). 12.. 13.. Note. tion of. that this. is. the appropriate context for a sentence in the General Examina-. Conscience (which grew out of Inigo's. earliest religious experience, not out of. due to constant contemplation and the enlightenment of the understanding, consider, meditate, and ponder more that God our Lord is in every creature by His essence, power, and presence." See The Spiritual his scholastic studies in Paris):. Exercises of. St.. "The. Ignatius, trans. Louis. perfect,. J.. Puhl, S.J. (Chicago: Loyola University Press,. 1951), no. 39.2 (hereafter, SpEx, followed by paragraph and,. number).. if. necessary, subparagraph.

(22) TETLOW. 12 as. Onuphrius or Francis, or even. What. out about his months at Manresa. that. — through. profound. much. holier. This. spiritual. is. is. often pointed. not often pointed out. and exaltation. suffering. own way to imitate 14 find his own way.. taught Inigo that he was to find his Ihigo left Loyola. on the quest. to. is. — God. Jesus Christ.. His way led to the bank of the Cardoner. There, Ihigo would. God. later say,. way and from. time.. more than he had learned. taught him 15. God and. The. in every other. pilgrim experienced "creatures coming. their necessary going. into, their ultimate end,. who. passionately burning love of. back up. to,. down. and reintegration. God himself." 16 He experienced the God pouring itself out, summoning all is. things into action, realizing the divine project in the. through Christ. As Jerome Nadal expressed. it. cosmos. in. and. a year after Ihigo died,. "he was given not only a clear understanding but an inward comprehension of flesh.". how God. created the world and of. Word became. how. the. how. in principio. 17. God. taught him in heart and in intellect. now, and how. God. means. our Creator and Lord continues Creator as well. 14. See the suggestive development of Inigo's conversion laid out by Father General Pedro Arrupe in "The Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism," a letter dated 1980 to all Jesuits, privately circulated in "Five Recent Documents from Father General Pedro Arrupe, S.J., on Spirituality for Today's Jesuits" (New Orleans Province, 1980). See paragraphs no. 5 through 25. 15. The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola, with Related Documents, trans, by J. F. O'Callaghan and ed., with intro. and notes, by J. C. Olin (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), pp. 39f (no. 30 in other editions). (Hereafter Autobiography.) 16. Pedro Leturia, S.J., "Genesis de los Ejercicios de s. Ignacio y su influjo en la fundacion de la Companfa de Jesus (1521-1540),'Mcta Historica Societatis Iesu (1941), p. 32. This is a seminal article on the connections between Inigo's experiences and the. Exercises. Ignatius himself, of course, remarks in his autobiography vision at the 17.. Cardoner instructed him {Autobiography,. Epistolae P. Hieronymi Nadal,. S.J.,. 5 vols.. how much. the. 39f).. (Rome: Institutum Historicum. S.I.), III. most famous assertion is that "regnum caelorum illi magno privilegio aperuisset Deus," that as a singular favor God laid out for him the victorious workings of the heavenly powers ("Apologia contra censuram Facultatis Theologiae Parisiensis," Pontes Narrativi de S. Ignacio [Rome: Institutum Historicum (vol.. S.I.,. 15 of. MHSI):. 1951], 2:66).. 238. Nadal's.

(23) THE FUND AMENTUM he would "find. as Lord. Thereafter. God. in all. fragrance or a consoling presence (only the the Contemplation to Learn to Love as. God working. find. making him and three points).. It. things," not as a. of four points in. Loves); rather, he would. thought and action and. busily, sharing. all. God. first. 13. and. Self,. persons participate in the divinity (the remaining. must be plain why any contemplative who. is. sum-. know God our Creator and Lord as Ihigo came to know Him would move into action. It must also be plain how profoundly correct commentators have been who connected the Principle and. moned. to. Foundation with the Contemplation for Learning. God. Way. Loves. Ihigo, scholars agree, held. al,. Love the. to. the Scriptures were. he would steep himself. resa,. to these experiences as foundation-. Polanco and others that he would die for them even. telling. somehow. on. lost.. In the years of study after. in scholastic philosophy. if. Man-. and theology.. But he did not have to wait to learn from the faculty of Ste.-Barbe. how God our Lord keeps. or from the Dominican faculty of theology. creating and continues living in our humanity. Both through Ludolph. and the Flos Sanctorum and also. him. that.. directly,. God had. already taught. 18. Inigo's lay apostolate. Promptly after. his conversion Ihigo. began helping. others.. He. loved to talk to people about God, and after his experiences at the. Cardoner he could hardly restrain himself from talking about the Trinity.. He would. to others. 18.. See. 1968).. learn gradually that he did better. when he. talked. about what they needed to hear rather than about what he. Hugo Rahner,. S.J.,. Ignatius the Theologian. Rahner begins with an. (New York: Herder and Herder.. analysis of "a phrase which contains in. structure of the world in which Ignatius. microcosm the. moved and thought." The phrase. is. "de. which marks Inigo's apprehension through mystical illumination and also describes what Inigo apprehended: God continually creating the world and the world participating in the divine gifts and going back to God. See pp. 3-10 of this work. arriba,".

(24) TETLOW. 14. wanted. to tell them.. 19. Inigo has never been famous as a preacher,. but he had and used a great. He. gift for. conversation and for intimacy. 20. kept these conversations on an intensely personal. pointedly. level,. using the familiar tu with others, whoever they were and whatever their. class. or position.. 21. He. would whisper. secretively in public. places, or gather with groups of ten or twelve, or accept a dinner invitation tion.. and repay the host by. adroitly leading a fruitful conversa-. 22. Early on in Barcelona and Alcala, he spent. time in these conversations.. his ly,. He. was able. much. to help. or most of. women. especial-. because they were available to hold long conversations. Our best. evidence suggests that he persuaded them to meet and talk with him daily for. one month.. and mortal faculties. and how. sin,. and the. come upon. all. could handle. to. them the commandments,. He would warn them. senses.. He. to. examine themselves according. who undertook. it.. doctrines. This. He explained. a good. them with. left. life,. that desolation. venial to the. would. and explained how they. definite practices based. on. clear. he called "teaching Christian doctrine" or drawing. people to "the service of God." Joseph de Guibert points out that this. looks very. cises.. much. like giving. them the. First. Week. of the Exer-. 23. With some very few of these many people, however, he. pro-. 19.. Autobiography, 34, 38, and. 20.. Inigo loved to talk with people, but did not think of himself as a preacher and. spent very sational. little. of his priestly. 59ff.. life in pulpits.. Word of God: A Commentary on. ing Spiritual Conversation, with. See Thomas H. Clancy,. S.J.,. The Conver-. the Doctrine of St. Ignatius of Loyola concern-. Four Early. Jesuit Texts (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit. Sources, 1978).. Autobiography, 65. Inigo says about the imposing archbishop of Toledo, Alonso de Fonseca, that "he [Inigo] spoke familiarly to him, as he used to do with everyone." 21.. 22.. See Dalmases, Ignatius of Loyola, 97-99.. The Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice, trans. W. J. Young, S.J., ed. George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1964), 75. (Hereafter, deGuUes.) However, Inigo makes no mention of exercises of the First Week, like the sin of Adam and Eve or the sin of one damned person. 23.. Joseph de Guibert,. S.J.,.

(25) THE FUND AMENTUM ceeded. differently. In Alcala. 15. he certainly seems to have done much. more with the three who came. to. be known, along with. Inigo, as "los. Ensacados" because of their baggy grayish gowns. Gradually develop-. would record. ing the procedures he. and notes,. much more complete experience. Inigo guided a very few through a. of the Exercises.. in the annotations. 24. Three points about Inigo's practice. Although Inigo did not keep or leave records of late, I. he. left. have just. evidence of three practices.. made. Inigo. said.. spiritual conversations. 25. The. first. this lay. aposto-. emerges from what. a clear distinction between holding. and giving the Exercises.. In the Autobiography,. speaking about his return from Flanders to Paris for a second year of studies, he writes that he "began to give himself more intensively. than ever to spiritual conversations, and he gave the exercises simultaneously to three persons.". 26. His second practice was to give the. whom. he knew. well.. We. know, to. recall. full. Exercises only to those. an extreme instance, that he. guided Pierre Favre through a very long preparatory time of four years.. 24.. 27. He. Note the. did not take Xavier through the Exercises until after the. makes. distinction Inigo. in the. Autobiography, 61: "At Alcala he busied. himself giving Spiritual Exercises and explaining Christian doctrine." Guibert's treat-. ment. is. older but has not been outdated; see deGuiJes, chap.. 2, "St.. Ignatius' Spiritual. Training of His Followers.". Of. all. the biographers of Inigo, Christopher Mollis seems best to capture his. powers to charm and influence people. See Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1931). 25.. This treatment owes. much. his Saint Ignatius. to Ignacio Iparraguirre,. S.J.,. (New York and London:. Prdctica de los Ejercici<)s. de san Ignacio de Loyola en vida de su autor (1522-1556) (Rome: Institutum Histori-. cum 26.. Societatis Iesu, 1946). (Hereafter, Iparraguirre, Prdctica (1522-1556).). Autobiography, 75.. a remarkable 27.. in. academic. did Inigo consider directing three people simultaneously. and memorable feat?. See deGuiJes,. sorbed. Why. 78. Favre,. studies as. was. of course, had suffered from scruples and was as abSimon Rodrigues, sickly and perhaps oppressed h\. Inigo.. affairs, did not go to live nineteenth-annotation retreat in his. in a little. own. room. quarters.. as the others had. but. made. a.

(26) TETLOW. 16. vows on Montmartre, and brought Simao Rodrigues through a nine-. We. teenth-annotation retreat only towards the end of their studies.. do not know. that Inigo ever duplicated such long preparations, but. Favre, Polanco, and others reported that anyone Spiritual Exercises with Ihigo got to. him. make them. who made. the. full. only after knowing. for a long time.. In the third place, Ihigo took full account of the. he dealt with.. He. grew more and more. whole person. willing to categorize not only. each person's qualities but even the persons, as the briefest reading of the annotations will indicate. His procedure offends us a. because. we. put out of our minds the central fact. thing else, Inigo probed what a person desired.. He. that,. He. spiritual enterprises than they. were capable of and eager. Inigo. prise as. He. was. he was to encourage him or. Actual-. from some high enter-. her.. He. surely seems not to have tried to. draw. to "pray the Scriptures" or to enter into contemplative. was working with people who had. prayer; he. for.. gauged the practices each person might be. able and willing to follow.. many people. before any-. did not press onto people further. as ready to discourage a person. also carefully. partly. stood in complete. respect before that desiring.. ly,. bit,. access to the. little. Scriptures. Directly to the point here, Inigo appears not to have. begun. his spiritual conversations. by talking. in terms of the. mentum, the mystical illuminations of the Cardoner. Very in. Manresa. in 1522,. early on,. he had doted on talk about the things of. and had shared with others Trinity.. Funda-. his mystical illuminations. God. on the Blessed. But he learned promptly that people benefited more when he. concentrated on behavior and. its. reward and punishment. So he. changed so thoroughly that three years. later in Alcala. he could. tell. the Inquisition that his conversations were about virtues and vices.. Later. still,. in. Salamanca. tion again. His interrogators talk. summer of 1527, he faced the Inquisiwanted to know what he included in his. in the. "about the things of God"; and Ihigo. said,. "We. speak sometimes. about one virtue, sometimes about another, praising. it;. sometimes.

(27) THE FUNDAMENTUM about one. vice,. them. his. "all. remembered Trinity. sometimes about another, condemning. 28. He. the long interrogation touched on the. that. was virtue and. Ihigo's. it.". gave. papers concerning the exercises"; and, although he. and the Eucharist,. Annotations. 17. sin.. Blessed. his story suggests that the real question. 29. 18, 19,. and 20. way of proceeding,. then,. was. to talk with a person first. about the more available doctrines and disciplines taught by the Church: sin and forgiveness, the commandments and human. faculties,. the sacraments of penance and the Eucharist, God's governance and Christ's. He. grace.. seems always. Cusson contends, with those full. Exercises.. 30. If. to. whom. the person with. have started. he would. whom. way, even,. this. later take. through the. he was growing intimate. proved able and eager, then Ihigo would. try. going beyond. this. more. inti-. At. this. doctrine-and-holy-practice stage to draw him or her to a. mate grasp of God working. in the self. and. in the world.. juncture he would try to share with people what at Loyola,. given him. Manresa, and the Cardoner.. In Annotations 18, 19, ing,. God had. and 20 Inigo codified. way of proceed-. this. developed at Manresa, Barcelona, Alcala, and Salamanca be-. tween the. fall. of 1522 and his departure for Paris. in. September of. 1527. In these annotations, Ihigo classifies various kinds of exercitants. and suggests the processes and materials appropriate. to their various. kinds of experiences in the Exercises. In Annotation 18, the longest of the annotations, Ihigo envisions. the director in two situations. In the. first. 28.. Autobiography, 67.. 29.. Autobiography, 67-69. Inigo himself concluded after. the director. this. encounter. is. already. that he. needed. further training in theology.. Cusson, Biblical Theology, 51. In Cusson's mind, these prolonged spiritual converand the broad range over the primary truths of Revelation forms its content.. 30.. sations form the process of the Foundation,.

(28) TETLOW. 18. aware of the. qualities of the person. Perhaps he knows he. spiritual conversations.. who. is. that the person. who. has. illiterate or. he deals with when he begins. little. dealing with a person. is. Or. natural ability.. again, he. may know. reasonably well endowed, but he recognizes "one. is. wishes no further help than some instruction and the attainment. of a certain degree of peace of soul." In this situation, the director. examens and the. gives such a person the. the. Commandments,. Ifiigo. sins,. of Prayer on. and the powers of the. suggests catechizing this person.. Principle. He. soul.. 31. does not mention the. and Foundation.. The second cises. the capital. Method. First. situation envisions a director. but discovering that "the exercitant has. physical strength,. .. .. .. that. he. is. one from. moving little. whom. into the Exer-. aptitude or. little fruit is. little. to. be. expected." In this case the director takes as suitable material "some. of the easier exercises as a preparation for confession." the exercitant through the First. Week. —. Ifiigo. —but he. recommends. "taking up the matter dealing with the Choice of a. Now. will take. precisely as a thorough. preparation to receive the sacrament of reconciliation not get into deeper things. Specifically,. He. Way. will. against. of Life.". the "Introduction to the Consideration of Different States. of Life" (SpEx [135]). is. the. mention made. first. in the. way of life, and the Second Week. In. book of the appears only. Exercises concerning the choice of a. it. well along in the materials for. fact, this intro-. duction suggests a dards, which. is. way of. getting the exercitant into the. Two. Stan-. scheduled for the fourth day of the Second Week.. Since Ihigo has suggested giving this kind of exercitant only the First. Week, why would he. specifically. recommend. that the director not. "take up the matter dealing with the Choice of a. The reason seems some material placed process of election.. to. be. early. From. that Ihigo. on. Way. and early directors connected. in the Spiritual Exercises with the. the time Ihigo wrote this annotation up to. the publication of the official Directory in 1599, the. 31.. SpEx. nos. 238-248.. of Life"?. Fundamentum.

(29) THE FUNDAMENTUM. 19. was considered part of the matter connected with the Choice of a. Way. "He. of Life.. [the director] ought, however, to take. knowledge of. that the. this truth. which the Foundation. as deeply rooted in [the exercitant's]. mind. all. under Annotation "is. it.". Ihigo precludes using the. under Annotation. fall. it,. so this truth. 18,. he. 32. Fundamentum. with exercitants. explicitly includes. it. for those. who. Here, Ihigo addresses the case of a person. 19.. educated or talented" and gives a. The. is. the Exercises, and especially the rules of Election, which. almost entirely depend upon If. sets forth. as possible; for as the. foundation of a building sustains the whole weight of underlies. good care. lot. of promise, but. is. who fall. who. engaged. 33. director encourages this person to take an hour and a half daily. for the Exercises.. man. is. He. proceeds. this. way: "First, the end for which. created should be explained to him," and then the rest of the. Exercises exactly in their order should be given him.. This. is. made in the book of the Exercises of and Foundation, so we need to note two things. First,. the only mention. the Principle. Ifiigo contrasts. both the persons and the process. with those he described in Annotation. connects the. Fundamentum with making. 18.. He. in. Annotations 19. then conspicuously. the whole of the Exercises,. the process outlined in Annotation 19. His omitting them from tation 18, therefore,. 32.. Directory 1599, chap. 12, no.. 1575)," doc. 20, chap. 33.. seems. One. 7, p.. 645. See. he does not believe the. Juan de Polanco, "Directorium (1573-. no. 45, in Directoria. (Hereafter Polanco, Directory.). 5,. of the clearer. to indicate that. Anno-. lists. of the qualities Inigo looked for. in potential. candidates. was recorded by Father Alfonso de Vitoria, probably in 1555. do good work in the Lord's household; they are well educated or plainly can. for the full Exercises. They. will. person who could choose a dedicated life; they are not so committed to or so absorbed in something that they would find it impossible to be indifferent toward it. Further, the more apt they are for a dedicated life in the Church or in the Company, the more apt are they for the full Exercises. To anyone else, Inigo thought the Companions ought to do as he did and offer the help only of the First Week ("Directorium Patri Vitoria dictatum ca. 1555," Directoria, doc. 4. p. MO. (Hereafter Directory Vitoria.) This paragraph from Vitoria appears just as it is in the official be; they are the kind of. Directory of 1599, no. 19..

(30) TETLOW. 20. Fundamentum gave them. a lot of help.. Second, Inigo does not say "to give" the Fundamentum to the exercitant, the verb. he regularly uses of. He. contemplations.. writes. that. the. all. other considerations and. Fundamentum. is. be "ex-. to. plained," a distinction even clearer in Ihigo's Spanish expressions,. "dar" and "platicar." Jose Calveras pointed out more than. fifty. years. ago that Ihigo insisted that generally points be "given," and that they. be brief and. succinct. "Let. summary. short or. Annotation. 19,. him adhere. to the points. and add only a. explanation," Inigo wrote in Annotation. Here. 2.. in. however, Ihigo uses another verb which means "to. chat about" or "to talk over"; and Calveras judged that at the very least the. word suggests. for consideration than. fuller points. begin.. 34. One. thing. is. much Weeks. that Inigo intended the director to give. known:. If. he. will give. they thought. it. once the. useful, directors kept. the exercitant in these exercises three or four days, and Pierre Favre,. whom. Inigo judged the best director, once kept a. man. in. them. for. ten days.. We tion 19. need. to. keep. in. mind. that the practice recorded in. grew out of the practice of. developed. Annota-. spiritual conversation that Inigo. in his lay apostolate. This gives. meaning. to the fact that. the directories of the sixteenth century regularly instruct directors to "declare," not to "give," the. Fundamentum, echoing. Ihigo's platicar?. 5. Jose Calveras, S.J., "Notas," Manresa 7 (1931): 97-106. In this note Calveras contended that the Principle and Foundation ought not be thought of as a meditation, as a sort of summary of the outcome of but rather if I understand him correctly what went on before the exercitant entered the retreat. See Cusson, Biblical Theology, 48f, and Iparraguirre, Prdctica (1522-1556), 181f. 34.. —. —. The directories are not unanimous, as will come out below. One keenly instructive proponent of a bare-bones Principle and Foundation is Antonio Cordeses. He suggested in his directory (written no earlier than 1575) a drier approach with points for a single day on "the ultimate end of human life," so that the exercitant might memorize the material. Then, however, he suggested that during the second and following days the director should "platicar" and "declarar" the usefulness of the particular and the general examen and the points for each of the five exercises of the First Week. This same Cordeses complained a few years later that the Exercises had lost their. 35.. pristine force ("Directorium Exercitiorum P. Cordeses," Directoria, doc. 32, pp. 529-61)..

(31) THE FUNDAMENTUM What. exact practice the directories identified will not be established. definitively. of. it. by the meaning of a single word, but our understanding. does not depend on a single word. The sixteenth-century directo-. about the Fundamentum. ries regularly say things. sion for the Principle it. 21. different. and Foundation). from the procedures. for. (their usual expres-. that suggest a procedure for. any of the. rest. This procedure required the director to see to. of the Exercises.. that the exercitant. it. had absorbed the Fundamentum and found deep conviction differs totally. in. it.. This. from "repetition of meditations" and from staying with. material while. it. proves. fruitful.. directories as emphatically as. it. The procedure is. is. expressed. in. most. in the official Directory of 1599:. "He [the director] has to see to it that the realization of what the Fundamentum reveals goes as deep into [the exercitant's] spirit as possible.". 36. The only. thing. we need. have already observed, invited. them. to. make. to note. that Ihigo. is. the. knew people. full Exercises.. correctly contends, the meditations. opening day or two. about Annotation. 20, as. we. very well before he. For such people, Cusson. on the Fundamentum during an. caught up and summarized what Inigo had. just. been sharing with them through the weeks or months.. Polanco's Directory. At. this point,. we ought. treated these annotations.. and perhaps even tion. and influence. In. groups, describing. 36.. better,. "Of. Jesuits. how. it. how Juan Alfonso de Polanco Polanco knew Inigo as well as anyone else. and. to note. his directory. had considerable. he divides potential exercitants into four. to deal with each in turn.. the Foundation," Directory 1599, chap. 12, no.. who. criticized. mixing the Examens with the. days had this to say: "Sciatur. circula-. summum momentum. 7,. p.. 37. He. 645.. begins with. Some. Fundamentum during positum. in intelligent. Neapolitan the. i;». el. first. two. pencil. i-. tione fundamenti" (Let's be clear about the absolute priority placed on the under-. standing of and the penetration into the. Fundamentum) ("Awertimenti sopra. Direttorio degli Essercitii," Directoria, doc. 37, no. 12, 37.. Polanco, Directory, pp. 280ff.. p.. 780).. il.

(32) TETLOW. 22. who want. those. described in the. who would. or first. benefit from. paragraph of Annotation. in considerable detail the processes. He. less,. 18.. and materials. the exercitants. Polanco to. lays out. be given them.. does not mention the Fundamentum or suggest any of. dard materials. gifts to. make. He. and want only. to put. who have. some order. stan-. who have. places in the second group those. the Exercises but. its. the. lesser spiritual ambitions. into their lives.. Keeping these. exercitants well within Annotation 18, Polanco suggests an eight- or. ten-day closed retreat, assigning this material: "After the Fundamen-. tum, they can be given the examens and First it.". 38. Week. all. of the exercises of the. through the general confession and the. Communion. Polanco's Latin sentence suggests a diminished and. function for the. Fundamentum. after. less crucial. in the experiences of these exercitants.. His treatment suggests, actually, that directors might use the Principle. and Foundation. in. more than one way. With. these less able. or less zealous exercitants, they might go past mere catechesis on the. Commandments and lation.. conscience, and suggest the basic truths of reve-. Certainly Cusson and other commentators believe that the. Principle and Foundation offers an occasion to explore doctrines. about God's provident care, Christ's redemptive Church, and so on, grounding. all. the. the. life. of the. more deeply the somewhat-. enthusiastic exercitant's willingness to lead a. we. act,. good. life.. Very. possibly,. are doing precisely that in our current usage of "preparation. days," touching as. we do on God's. care, Christlife,. and so on.. We. continuing to use the Principle and Foundation, adapted to our. are. own. There remains the question of the Fundamentum, the experience. day.. of continual creation in Christ. Polanco's third and fourth groups comprise those gifts. and desires necessary. who have. for the full Spiritual Exercises,. the. whether. they must go through the Exercises while carrying on their daily lives. (Annotation 19) or can go off for a month (Annotation ing a significantly. 38.. Ibid, p. 281.. 20). Indicat-. deepened dialogue between director and. exercitant,.

(33) THE FUNDAMENTUM Polanco. insists that. exercitants.. 39. He. the director have an intimate knowledge of such. assigns for the retreat's beginning the material of the. Fundamentum, a kind of. front door to the Exercises, emphasizing. importance to the Election. As. Fundamentum. considered the. making sound. 23. elections.. I. its. have already pointed out, directors an experience indispensable. as. to. 40. THE FUNDAMENTUM: CONTENT AND EXPERIENCE. III.. From tices. this. own experiences and the pracapostolate, we have drawn out all the. exploration of Inigo's. he followed. in his lay. elements in the Fundamentum. Before turning to others' practices. —beginning. with one of Ihigo's proteges. in detail the. content and experience of the. its. —. it. will. be useful. Fundamentum and. connection with certain other experiences. to state. suggest. in the Exercises. This. statement will pull together some things already covered, but from the angle of actual experience. First of. all,. Jesus Christ the live. Fundamentum means God our Creator and Lord, Word who is Alpha and Omega and in whom we all. the. and move and have our being. 41 not. mountains, bearing. 39.. See. ibid.,. all. up, but inert,. its. like schist underlying hills. and. necessary task long ago done. no. 27, which calls for clear information about the exercitants' "mental. capacity, level of learning, judgment, [the director] did not. know. and. affective life";. and. particularly no. 31: "If. the exercitant beforehand, he should be careful to get. and his ways [natarales mores et proprieUUes], might learn from third parties, or he might get to know the man himself by astute probing." Polanco mentions nothing about knowing the Annotation 18 exercitant in any way at all (see ibid., 286-288).. solid insight into his personal qualities. He. 40.. Polanco's opinion. will. be adopted by the. official Directory. of 1599:. "He. [the. good care that the knowledge of this truth which the Foundation sets forth is as deeply rooted in his mind as possible; for as the foundation of a building sustains the whole weight of it, so this truth underlies all the Exercises, and especially the rules of Election, which almost entirely depend upon it" (Directory director] ought, however, to take. 1599, chap. 12, no.. 7, p.. 645).. See Polanco, Directory, no.. 45..

(34) TETLOW. 24. and. Fundamentum. in place. Rather, this. energizes. present, like the unfathomable network of forces that. atom. God. in its inner. dynamism and the. action in the. all. move. the tiniest. vast galaxies in their cycles.. For. our Creator and Lord in Christ creates momently, out of nothevery single person and every other created thing that comes to. ing,. be, even as. proceeds out of. it. God. separate and individuated.. its. secondary causes and becomes. creates. all. those secondary causes,. too.. Looked calling. each person and. webbed. self. biblical. manner,. things out of chaos.. all. her out of this chaos. —. God. our Lord keeps. Each person. finds the. trammeled by bonds both external and. in darkness,. But each person experiences. internal.. life. more. at in a. God. busily. summoning him or. out of the frantic wrack of social and political. and out of the inward ruin of misunderstood. desires. God is not a city toward which I journey moonscape; God somehow already lives and moves. intentions.. and misfired. across an insane. before the start. somehow the source of all that is inward in me and outward around me, somehow bearing me and all else along. of the wrack and ruin,. My. purposefully.. task. is. God making me. knowledge and praise all. not to go and find God; out of. all. my. task. is. to ac-. the madnesses and. meaninglessness.. We. are faced with difficult speculative questions here, and some. exercitants (and directors as well) founder in the speculations.. tend to place. God. of causes, even. God I. our Creator as simply one cause in a long queue. the. first. among many.. transcendently causing. perceive, or be.. if. God. all. to. We. do not. of the causes. easily experience. we can. as transcendent Process within. have found among exercitants that. coming. We. reason to or. whom we come. we can and do. experience. be within God, however, and somehow know God. to all. as the. "ground" of our being.. Some. experience. this. in. another way. They find themselves. enjoying the freedom to say yes to the concrete are. All of us are called. on. gifts. they have and. to say yes to our life history. particularly those elements over. and our. self,. which we never had control or even.

(35) THE FUNDAMENTUM. 25. influence (race, ethnic background, birthplace, and time) because is. the Lord of our history.. Each person,. as creature,. is. called. God. on. to. affirm the concrete gifts of the self (male or female, possessing high intelligence or low, great physical strength or. energy or. little,. great psychic. which the Lord of Life has been conferring.. slight). We. not free to select a very great deal about ourselves and our. God. world;. chooses for us and in. precisely to accept, approve, trust,. are life-. Rather, our freedom functions. us.. and enjoy our concrete. gifts. or to dis-. or repudiate them. In this consists our fundamental. dislike,. 42 stance of creaturehood toward God's creative love in us.. Fundamentum. In this. all. of the Father's project resides, tran-. scending everything in the heavens and everything on earth. Hence, Jesus Christ. is. and desires. ects. to. "Principio" Ihigo. be realized. New Commandment.. thing. In. each single human person. By. life for all. Christ achieves this by raising in. good. in. reside concrete, finite proj-. meant something much grander than a norm or a. moral dictum. Christ wants. ed up by the. whom. Principium, too, in. persons,. more abundant,. In the vast majority of humankind,. them. desires simply to. some He has other hopes, and. desire to live the. way Jesus. light-. lived, in labor. do the next. raises in. them the. and humiliation and pover-. 43. ty.. Be. clear about this:. God. projects for each. human person. a. concrete contribution to the Reign, a contribution that will simultaneously build up the Reign and concrete contribution. person. —. as. He. God. fulfill. John English,. Paulist Press,. creates a specific kind of flight in a bird's egg, or in. S.J.,. has explored. this. in definite ways.. experience. 1978). See also Joseph A. Tetlow,. Review for Religious. in the self. This. creates as an original purpose in each. one acorn an oak spreading limbs. 42.. each person. 47, no. 6. in. S.J.,. (November/December. Then. in. that. Choosing Life (New York:. "The Mirror. in. the Field.". 1988): 816-35.. 43. Directors are finding great good in Johannes B. Metz, Poverty of Spirit, trans. John Drury (New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1968). This is a commentary 00 Phil. 2:5-11. It needs to be supplemented with serious attention to the prologue of the Gospel of John..

(36) TETLOW. 26. God. person. that solicit. its. rest of John's. A. and valuings out of the. raises desires. free enactment. "In principio erat. chapter means. of. all. original. purpose. Verbum" and. the. this.. source of the faith that does justice. Here. lies. the beginning of the social relevance of the Exercises.. Haight points out a crucial truth when he says that "our tion cannot. and. be conceived. for the world.". in abstraction. But the. rest of his. final salva-. from our creative action. in. sentence must not leave us. convinced that God's creative action has ended and ours. is. at present. God has in large hands." Do people all. the solitary creative action in the world, "which. measure placed. in. our corporate and personal. over the earth yearn for freedom? want a just share? cry out for dignity? Their desiring rises out of God's desiring to have practiced. "the weightier matters of the. Law. —. justice,. mercy, good faith" (Matt.. 23:23).. That same divine individual.. However, when. attached to certain ing. God. desiring, I. me. have now,. then. I. make myself. and Foundation. —. quo too. I. I. rises in. tightly,. each. deeply. thereby repress any desir-. even to right what. unjust within the status quo. If is gift,. can securely anticipate,. clutch the status. gifts that I. might raise in. I. I. can plainly see. do not comprehend. that all. I. have. the beginning and can read the Principle. as Haight indicates. we do. indeed read. it. —. only. within "an individualistic framework and an eschatological bias." It is. failure in the. is. Fundamentum. 44. that causes the failure of the. Exercises as a source of social energies.. The question of. indifference. This raises the. full. meaning of "indifference". in the. Fundamen-. tum. Indifference, in the tradition flowing from the Cardoner, cannot. be. restricted to. work. 44.. in. one. some. city rather. trivial self-discipline,. than in another.. Haight, "Foundational Issues," 23-25.. It. like not. demanding. does not refer in the. to. first.

(37) THE FUNDAMENTUM instance to external objects at. One. that. greater than. my own. rooted in. demand, I. I. means admitting. It. that. I. do not. possible desirings rise in me, and acquiescing. all. do. me.. I. do not. have them or despise myself for feeling them.. I. do not. having those concrete desires that. deny that. means acknowledging. creates concrete hopes in me, vibrant desires. I. potential freedom.. determine which of in. Indifference. all.. 27. in fact. rise in. God and. as a condition for worshiping. living joyfully, that. have different desires than those that move me. For instance,. know. that. I. am meant. to marry,. do not demand,. I. if. I. as a condition for. my own conscience, that the desire rise in me for a "sweet singles" life. If I am a committed celibate, neither revile life should I fall in love with someone nor repudiate my original purpose. If I yearn for children, I do not frustrate my desiring on God and. serving. following. I. economic grounds merely. All of Indifference. may. mean. well. this. that. comes. to indifference.. have to accept that. I. my most. basic yearning involves great labors, for example, as an artist; or. commitment,. entails selfless. say, as a. parent of several children; or. requires incessant study, say, as a doctor or a priest.. recognize that. some. have become,. like the. in. desires. I. feel. grow out of what. been and have become,. like. and endure the second. until. I. take responsibility for. turn. it. on and. but. I. keen and. fade like. smoke by. The. Of If I. irresistible. am. hope. in. course,. I. am. "indifferent,". me. that hope,. — some I. and the filled I. it. have been and. contradict what ten.. I. I. have. enact the. wanes; for indifference also means. my own said.. desiring.. So. I. by smoking;. refusing to. original purpose. to. I. have no power. to. my passions, as make my desire for a. have diplomatic control over. Thomas Aquinas somewhere cigarette. flatly. wanderlust in a father of. that. off,. may have. determination to follow standard procedures. an experienced surgeon; but others. first. I. I. can I. can also make that desire. smoke long enough.. final. end. with varying and even conflicting desires.. acknowledge that among them emerges God's. concrete desire to be, become, do; and. will realize. my own freedom and God's. if. I. enact. choice as well..

(38) TETLOW. 28 This it. the "original purpose" that the process thinkers talk about;. is. functions in each individual as the subjective correlative of the. end" that Inigo and the neo-scholastics talked about.. "final. Finding. my most. radical authentic desire. is. means. tous task of "discernment of spirits." For discernment. God. mately uncovering the concrete original purpose. and acquiescing. in the desires that rise out of. realization. In the course of discernment. some of which. desires,. same kind of. I. must repress or. it. and lead. reject or let. to. many. go. its. other. For the. of.. desire can rise from different spirits: a desire to heal. the poor from the spirit of true. humanism or from the. of the Spirit. Although. cannot say. I. much about. it. point out that each one of us has taken into the self. more than one. life. Spirit of Jesus. an ideology or out. Christ; a desire for self-sacrificing service out of. spirit,. ulti-. creates in me,. will surely feel. I. momen-. precisely the. here,. I. should. more than one. dynamic: Christlife, true humanism, the. life. of the flesh, and splinters of Evil. These four dynamics function. my. within. life. world and within. proposing purposes. I. If I. my own. intend to live. more and more. must continually discern the source. desiring. raising desires. self,. in. my own. and. in Christlife,. my own. self of. and purposing.. This, too,. is. indifference: to recognize that. I. truly. want. to have. or to do something, and to be prepared to act or not, depending on. God hopes in me. How would this be possible if God were managing my life from outside it? How can I really trust my deepest desiring unless I commit myself to the belief that God desires there, too? that somehow my desiring and even my desires. what. rise. I. conclude. out of God's ongoing creating? I. deepest desiring of our. self,. rises in. confess that our. God's passionate desiring. at the beginning. I. feel unless. but that our experience of that original desire. by desiring that now tures,. how. I. will play at discerning. rises. and the power of. out of sinful. Evil.. ting our holy desires in the. We. flesh,. doomed. is. confused. social struc-. have to take care here about put-. dim past while. sires vibrate in the garish present.. feeling our less holy de-. For we do not discern between.

(39) THE FUNDAMENTUM desires. and. 29. from. possibilities rising at this instant. vital. culture and. the eager forces of Evil on the one hand and, on the other, desires. and. possibilities that. code. Rather,. now. we. were created. among. discern. conception. in us at. all. our desires. —. like a genetic. those rising in us. out of our enculturating selves and out of the active. have introjected into our. God. passion of. and those. selves,. rising. evils. we. from the creative. our Creator and Lord, inviting us to share. in. the. divine project. I. do not argue that. governance. terms, but. Here. He. Iriigo. had no belief. simply did not distinguish God's action. saw rather "how God creates" by a continual. precisely. is. the. way the. commentators have always. in. these. participation.. Principle and Foundation and the. Contemplation to Learn to Love as as. providence or. in divine. said.. God. Loves are. tightly related,. Inigo's mystical. comprehension. functions in a different universe of discourse from that of the splen-. did geometry of final end and symmetrically proportioned secondary causes, is. and from that. in. which the relation. not a real relation but in. some way a. God. in. to His creatures. relatio rationis, as scholastic. theologians once contended. These latter geometries were attributed to St. Ignatius of Loyola.. They are not without. basis in Ihigo's experi-. ences and writings, but they do not reflect the Inigo's appreciation of. God. scholastic theology as to Scripture.. "does not. by which. sustains, activates. accurately.. creating relates not so. For. restrict that creative activity. God. man. 45. much. to. like the biblical vision, Ihigo's. and oppose. it. to the activity. 46 and governs the world." So writes. Some men and women experience the transcendent God only as very much The One whose governance guides them and whose providence succors them. In my limited experience they rarely "run in the path of Christ our Lord," as [nigo wrote in the Constitutions about men who successfully experience the full Exercises. 45.. Other, the. They seem rather. to live conventional. lives,. often of true and enduring holiness (The. George E. Ganss, S.J. [St. Louis: Institute (Hereafter, ConsSJ and bracketed paragraph number.). Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, trans.. of Jesuit Sources, 1970], [582]). 46.. See Peter. [Piet]. Duquesne University. Schoonenberg, S.J., God's World in the Making (Pittsburgh, PA have Press, and Louvain: Editions E. Nauwelaerts. L964), 28.. not found a better treatise on the theology of creation.. 1.

(40) TETLOW. 30 Gilles Cusson: It. understand. essential to. is. its. ever actual character. — something. God which overwhelms. present, personal, and as urgent as "the love of. us" and urges us on. God's creative act continually keeps us in existence;. word. it. is,. which. call. are always being called. Here. the. lies. Annotation. 15:. we by God. or not, whether. it. first. moment. redeemed. What does. my. What. and the creature. Whether we. or far from him,. directly with his Creator faith. meets. this chal-. between Creator and crea-. Creator deals directly with me, does the Lord cease if. how does my. not,. are the parameters of. Creator act precisely as. my own. Creator?. THE FUNDAMENTUM: PRACTICE DURING. INIGO'S. I. my. creaturely attitudes,. my. commitments, and actions as. IV. divine. in the process Inigo refers to in. this direct transaction. being Creator? and Creator?. God. same. 47. and Lord." In the authentic Fundamentum our ture imply? If. existence.. are close to in Christ.. the. "[The director] should permit the Creator to deal. directly with the creature,. lenge:. Now. lasts eternally.. also continually invites us to a. are aware of. we. God, a. in. deal directly with. LIFETIME As he composed the book of the Spiritual Exercises, Inigo put down succinct directives on how to use most exercises. Recall, for instance, that. exercise. he assigned. specific times of the. on the Kingdom, and a midnight meditation. Standards.. 48. About the. he had surely instructed. companions. his. 47.. Cusson, Biblical Theology, 176.. 48.. SpEx. nos. 99. and. 148. Since. we might. contemplation. presenting this exercise,. is it. to place the exercise at the. commentators regularly connect the Fundamentum. notice here that the only hint Inigo gives about using. in the introductory will. Two. Annotation 19 already discussed. But. in. with the Contemplatio,. for the. Principle and Foundation, however, Inigo. wrote only the brief clause. this last. day for making the. be good to. call. note about. how. love works: "Before. attention to two points". (ibid.,. no. 230)..

(41) THE FUND AMENTUM very beginning of the Exercises:. 31. "Quod ad ordincm. omnia fundamentum proponatur" (As. for the. ante. attinct,. sequence of matters,. Fundamentum should be presented before anything else). 49 Since we have so sparse a written record of how Ihigo himself proceeded, we are very fortunate to have a record of the way Inigo explained the Fundamentum to Father Juan Alfonso de Vitoria. the. In. Rome. in 1555, just the. man named Lorenzo Maggio. During. the Exercises to a young retreat tives.. he regularly. year before Ihigo 's death, Vitoria gave. visited with Ihigo himself to get help. and. the. direc-. Vitoria wrote everything down, and his notes form one of the. earliest "directories.". They are invaluable. for finding out. how. Inigo. proceeded with the Fundamentum, though we have to note carefully that. he was helping with the retreat of a young man with outstanding. dispositions. who wanted. choose a way of. to. life.. This. is. a retreat of. election.. Vitoria's record first night,. shows that he. let. the retreatant settle in the. and then the next day proposed. —Annotations Foundation.. 1,. 20, 5,. How. 50. and. 4, in. that order. him four annotations. — and. the Principle and. he handled the Fundamentum, he very. had suggested. describes. Ihigo. to. that Vitoria propose the. vividly. Fundamentum. as a challenge.. Vitoria to notice. to serve. makes Ihigo sound something. how. very hard a. God. Tell him. chosen religious. life. man. finds. it. to notice that. have not persevered. yoke of the Lord and abandoning. their. "Quomodo. in. choose how to. to. in. it. Two. live so as. if. but, rejecting the light life,. have gone to. hell.. they stayed in the world,. dandis Exercitiis se quis habere debeat,. Directoria, doc. 3, p. 82.. youth. some who have mistakenly. vowed. Others need to enter religion because,. 49.. like this: Tell the. cum. exacte dantur,". codices have corrections and additions by Juan de. Polanco and Jerome Nadal. This document marks the earliest attempt at a formal directory. It was almost certainly written from Inigo's responses to questions intended to get him started on the directory he had agreed to write. 50.. "Directorium. P. Vitoria," Directoria, doc. 4, pp. lOOf.. Lorenzo Maggio joined the Company.. To. tell. the end of the story,.

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