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Physico-chemical Analysis of Drinking Water of Khadgawan Block Korea Chhattisgarh, with Special Reference to Fluoride

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Physico-chemical Analysis of Drinking Water of

Khadgawan Block Korea Chhattisgarh,

with Special Reference to Fluoride

Surendra Kumar Chouhan1 and Rashmi Verma2

1Research Scholar Departmet of Chemistry,

Dr. C.V. Raman University Kota Bilaspur C.G., INDIA. 2Asstt. Prof. Dept. of Chemistry,

Dr. C.V. Raman University Kota Bilaspur C.G., INDIA. email:suren957@gmail.com, rashmi.rashi.verma@gmail.com.

(Received on: May 18, Accepted: May 23, 2017)

ABSTRACT

Traces of fluoride are present in many water sources; higher concentrations are often associated with underground sources. Fluoride in drinking water has both beneficial and harmful effects on human health. The drinking water quality is determined in Khadgawan Block Korea Chhattisgarh (water samples taken from rural 10 locations of Khadgawan Block handpumps, well and rivulet). Where from Khadgawan block drinking water sample were under studied for Physico-chemical status of drinking water. The water’s quality parameters such as T (temperature), pH (potential of hydrogen), EC (electrical conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), are determined by standard method and also Fluoride was determined by SPADNS method by using a spectrophotometer at 570nm. Compared with WHO and BIS standards of drinking water quality, the results indicated and discussed.

Keywords: physico-chemical analysis, spectrophotometer, Fluoride, water samples, Khadgawan block etc.

1. INTRODUCTION

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type of water becomes a curse for the health . Therefore it is necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval, because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from varied of water borne diseases6. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomenon fully because the chemistry of water revels much about the metabolism of the ecosystem and explain the general hydro - biological relationship.

Traces of fluoride are present in many water sources; higher concentrations are often associated with underground sources. Fluoride in drinking water has both beneficial and harmful effects on human health7. Fluorine is a common element that does not occur in the elemental state in nature because of its high reactivity. It accounts for about 0.3 g/kg of the Earth’s crust and exists in the form of fluorides in a number of minerals, of which fluorspar, cryolite and fluorapatite are the most common. The oxidation state of the fluoride ion is -1. Permissible level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L1.

Fluoride concentration in groundwater excess of this leads many abnormalities to human body. Long-term use of drinking water containing fluoride concentration higher than the permissible level causes dental Fluorosis and in more severe cases causes skeletal Fluorosis8. Considering the above facts, present investigation have been undertaken in which monitoring fluoride concentration and physico-chemical parameter of ground water collected on the month of February - April 2017 from various existing hand pumps, well and rivulet of from different locations of Khadgawan Block Korea, Chhattisgarh9.

2.MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Sampling site- The study area Korea is located in the north-west part of the state of Chhattisgarh, mainly tribal is multiplicity district. It is surrounded by dense, forests, mountains, rivers, streams, waterfalls, natural forest estates, minerals, salts, natural gas and high quality coal. So Korea is also known for its natural beauty in this way Development block Khadgawan is located in the Korea district of Chhattisgarh state, India. The latitude 26.05 and longitude 74.02 are the geocoordinate of Khadgawan. It is located 29 KM towards west from District head quarters Baikunthpur.

2.2 Collection of sample- All the samples were collected in the month of February - April 2017. 10 locations selected for the investigation are from block Khadgawan District Korea Chattisgarh at sampling points are summarized on Table 2.1 Before the collection of samples each bottle was first rinsed with sample for pre-concentration.

Table: 2.1- Location wise sample collection

S.N. Name of the Locations Sample Identification No. Water Source Number of Samples

1 Miyapara KH-1 Hand pump 1

2 School - B KH-2 Hand pump 1

3 Fullsar KH-3 Hand pump 1

4 Yadavpara KH-4 Hand pump 1

5 Yadavpara KH-5 Well 1

6 Rash dhorhi KH-6 Rivulet 1

7 Junapara KH-7 Hand pump 1

8 School - C KH-8 Hand pump 1

9 School - A KH-9 Hand pump 1

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Fig.2.1: Location of Khadgawan Block Korea Chhattisgarh

2.3. Sampling method- all Samples for analysis with standard procedure in accordance with standard method of American Public Health Association APHA (1988) and National Env. Engineering Research Instt. (NEERI) (1986) Nagpur. Analysis of Physico-Chemical Parameter of drinking water samples their methods, the pH value of water samples were measured with the help of digital pH meter and Systronic 9 parameter water analyzer kit. Temperature (Temp), Electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solid (TDS) of water sample is analysed by Water analyzer kit. Fluoride content in water sample was determined by SPADNS method using spectrophotometer at 570nm.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the study has summarized in Table -3.1 which was followed-

Temperature

The temperature of drinking water samples slightly varied ranged from 15 to 18.1. The temperature of water is one important parameter which directly influence some chemical reactions in aquatic ecosystem the significant correlation between ambient temperature was studied by (Ganpati 1943, 1962 and Verma 1967).

LOCATION MAP OF STUDY AREA

KHADGAWAN BLOCK KOREA C.G.

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pH ( Potential of hydrogen)

pH is most important in determining the corrosive nature of water. Lower the pH value higher is the corrosive nature of water. pH was positively correlated with electrical conductance and total alkalinity [Gupta a. 2009]. The pH of the drinking water samples, the ranged from 6.48 to 8.18. The pH value indicating well permissible limits. The pH of [location (KH-9)] School-A is highest it is slightly alkaline.

TDS (Total dissolved solids)

TDS is the term used to describe the inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter present in solution in water. During the study Total dissolved solid is found between ranged 224 to 499mg/l. The TDS of [location (KH-5)] yadavpara-W is highest it is slightly good. As per the world health organization water that the contains the TDS level below 300 mg/l is explained to be the excellent level.

F- (Fluoride ion)

The concentration of fluoride in the analyzed water samples range from 1.13 to 2.105 ml/l. showing the table 3.1 & graph 3.1. In present study Fluoride concentration in all these samples found to be almost high Fluoride ions from permissible level according to World Health Organization. The fluoride level in sample location KH-8 [School-C] is highest. The high level concentration of fluoride in drinking water taking such a drinking water consistently proves to be fatal to health, such as dental fluorosis, which becomes a social and financially curse for a person. The results reveals that the samples are within the not permissible limit by BIS and WHO.

EC (Electrical conductivity)

Electrical conductivity indicates the capacity of electrical current that passed through the water. which in turn is related to concentration of ionized substances present in it. The electrical conductivity values of samples are in range between 382 to 992 mhos/cm.

Table: 3.1-Analysis of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water Samples of Khadgawan Block, Korea Chhattisgarh.

Symbols

*Minimum ** Maximum values

S.N.

Parameter

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Graph 3.1-Fluoride conc. of the location wise sample of Khadgawan Block Korea C.G.

Photo Gallery - Geji Village of Khadgawan Block Affected By Dental Fluorosis

4. CONCLUSIONS

The present study deals with the analysis of ground water samples collected from 10 locations of Khadgawan Block Korea Chhattisgarh. The result reveals that the values of Temp., pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity showing on the upper side and the Fluoride content of sample KH-8(School-c) are within not permissible limit by BIS and WHO. Permissible level of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L [BIS]. Fluoride concentration in groundwater excess of this leads many abnormalities to human body. Long-term use of drinking water containing fluoride concentration higher than the permissible level causes dental Fluorosis and in more severe cases causes skeletal Fluorosis.

And finally it is concluded with the basis of the laboratory work that above 10 location’s ground water are not suitable for drinking desire. because that water contained fluoride in high amount which is very harmful for our whole body health.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author acknowledge to Dr. C.V. Raman University, Kota Bilaspur, (C.G.), INDIA. Department of Chemistry for supporting necessary materials during the analysis. he also wishes to thank all of them who have provided technical assistances in conducting experiments and especially to thanks Dr. Manish Upadhyay, Mrs. Savita Kaushik for completion of my research work.

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REFERENCES

1. WHO. “Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality”. Volume 2. Health Criteria and Other

Supporting Information. 3nd edition, World Health Organization, Geneva (2004).

2. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA). Standards Methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21st ED (2005).

3. BIS. "An Indian standard specification for drinking water” IS:10500, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi (2012).

4. Gitte, Sunil, Fluorosis base line survey of village Domarpani, District (tribal), Chhattisgarh (2013).

5. Vilasrao, S. & Sabat G., et al., “Epidemiological survey of fluorosis in a village of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh state, India. International Journal of Medicine and Public H

(2015).

6. Nooel, Megha & Rajwade, Ram Prakash, “Study of Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater of Rajnandgaon District, Chhattisgarh, India”. www.ijrests.org ,vol.:1 No.:4 (July 2015).

7. Mahananda, M.R. & F Ohanty, B.P. et al., physico-chemical Analysis of surface and ground water of Bargarh District Orrissa, India. IJRRAS 2(3) 284-295 (2010).

8. Jena, V. & Dixit, S., Physico-Chemical Parameters assesment of ground water in different sides of Bhilai city Chhattisgarh. Rasayan J. Chem. Vol. 5/NO.4/2012 ISSN : 0974-1496 (2012).

9. Pandey, A., Prevalence of fluorosis in an endemic village in central India. Trop Doct; 40:217-9 (2010).

References

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