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G E N E R A L E L E C T R I C

C O M P U T E R S

GE-200

Series

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G E - 2 0 0

S E R I E S

O P E R A T I N G

M A N U A L

D e c e m b e r

1962

R e v . N o v e m b e r

1966

G E N E R A L

E L E C T R I C

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PREFACE

This manual has been prepared a s a

guide

to operating the central processor for the GE-225

Information Processing system. It includes a brief description of the major components of the

system, general operating practices, system startup and shutdown, and a detailed description

of the controls on the operator's cocsole and ty2ewriter.

P a r t I has been revised

to include descriptions and illustrations of equipment not included in the

e a r l i e r editions of this manual.

The appendix includes a section on number systems, a

table of

powers of 2, and octal-decimal

conversion tables.

Much of the basic information about machine instruction repertoire and

p r o g r a m s i s necessarily brief, since this information

is

contained in detail in the GE-225

Programming Reference Manual (CPB-252).

This manual supersedes the former GE-225 System Operating

Manual (CPB-247A).

The operating

information on peripheral subsystems contained

in that manual is now covered in separate

manuals for each subsystem.

A

list of these manuals appears

i n Appendix E.

Much of the information in this manual

is

also applicable

to

the GE-205 and GE-215 central

p r o c e s s o r s which

have

virtually identical

operating

controls and procedures.

In

this revised edition, changes in technical content from the previous edition a r e identified

with

a b a r in the margin

opposite the change.

Suggestions and criticisms relative to form, content, o r use of this manual a r e invited. Comments

may be sent on the Document Review Sheet in the back of this manual o r may be addressed directly

to Document Standards and Publications, B-84, Computer Equipment Department, General Electric

Company, 13430 North Black Canyon Highway, Phoenix, Arizona 85029.

@

1962, 1964, 1966 by General Electric Company

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Page

INTRODUC TION

A Typical Computer Center

. . .

The GE-225 Information P r o c e s s i n g System

. . .

. . .

S y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n

The C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r

. .

. . .

.

.

..

. . .

. .

. . .

. .

. . .

. . .

Input-OutputDevices

. . .

C a r d R e a d e r s

. . .

C a r d p u n c h e s

ASA Seven-Track Magnetic Tape Controller

. . .

M a g n e t i c T a p e S u b s y s t e m

. . .

GE-225 OnIOff Line P r i n t e r

. . .

. . .

H i g h - S p e e d p r i n t e r

P a p e r Tape Reader and Punch

. . .

. . .

AuxiliaryComponents

Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit (AAU)

. . .

M a s s Random Access Data Storage Unit

. . .

DATANET-15* Data T r a n s m i s s i o n Controller

. . .

Manual P e r i p h e r a l Switch Control Unit

. . .

Document Handlers

. . .

P r i o r i t y C o n t r o l

. . .

O p e r a t o r ' s U s e o f Equipment

. . .

GE -225 Instructions

...

OPERATOR'S DUTIES

Introduction

. . .

Equipment and Operation Responsibility

. . .

Actions Under Emergency Conditions

. . .

F i r e

. . .

Flood

. . .

Power F a i l u r e

. . .

Air Conditioning F a i l u r e

. . .

Injury to P e r s o n n e l

. . .

;

. . .

Safety Considerations

. . .

. . .

General Site Operating P r o c e d u r e s

e . . .

. .

ScheduleofComputerOperations

. . .

Instructions to the Operator

. . .

E r r o r and O p e r a t o r C o r r e c t i v e Action

. . .

Computer Utilization Logs

. . .

. . .

L i b r a r y Storage and R e f e r e n c e

Files

. . .

. .

Assistance to the P r o g r a m m e r

. . .

D e b ~ g g i n g e e ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ e e ~ ~ e e ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ e e e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ e e ~ e e

Relationship Between Operator and Service Engineer

. . . e . e

O p e r a t o r Behavior and Appearance

. . .

*DATANET. Reg

.

T r a d e m a r k of the General E l e c t r i c Company

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F i g u r e Page

I- 1 The GE -22 5 Information P r o c e s s i n g System

. . .

I- 2 The GE-225 System Using Punched C a r d Input and Output

. . .

I- 3 The 6 3 - 2 2 5 System Using P a p e r Tape Input and Output

. . .

. . .

I-

4

The C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r

. . .

I - 5 The 400 Card-Per-Minute R e a d e r

. . .

I-

6

The High Speed C a r d Reader

I - 7 The 100 Card-Per-Minute C a r d Punch

. . .

. . .

I- 8 The 300 Card-Per-Minute C a r d Punch

I-

9

ASA Seven-Track Magnetic Tape Controller

. . .

. . .

1-10 Magnetic Tape Subsystem

. . .

1-11 GE-225 On/Off Line P r i n t e r

1-12 High -Speed P r i n t e r

. . .

11- 5 11- 6 11- 7 11-

8

11-

9

11-10

. . .

P a p e r Tape Reader and Punch

. . .

The Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit

. . .

The Mass Random Access Data Storage Unit

. . .

DATANET-15* Data T r a n s m i s s i o n Controller

. . .

Manual P e r i p h e r a l Switch Control Unit

. . .

The GE 12-Pocket Document Handler (1200 Documents/Minute)

The 12 -Pocket Document Handler (750 Documents

/

Minute)

. . .

1-10 Diagram of the GE-225 System

. . .

1-1 1 Sample Schedule of Operations

. . .

11- 4 Operator Instruction Sheet

. . .

11- 6 Two Types of Operator Instruction C a r d s

. . .

11- 7 Sample Reporting F o r m for Equipment Repair

. . .

11-

9

Sample Daily Computer Log

. . .

11-10 Sample Operator and Maintenance Log

. . .

11-1 1 Sample T i m e C a r d

. . .

11-12 Sample Tape Control F o r m

. . .

11-13 Sample Log of Tape Use

. . .

11-14 Sample Master P r o g r a m Change Request

. . .

11-15

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Figure

Page

11-11

11-

12

IV-

1

IV-

2

Iv-

3

IV-

4

v-

1

Sample Hang-up Sheet

. . .

11-17

Sample Debug Instruction Sheet

. . .

11-18

. . .

The C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r

IV-

1

. . .

The Maintenance Panel of the C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r

N -

2

. . .

The Control Console

N -

4

. . .

Control Switches on the Control Console

IV-

6

Console Typewriter

. . .

V -

1

TABLES

Functions of Controls and Indicators on Central P r o c e s s o r

. . .

IV-

9

. . .

Control Console E r r o r Conditions

w-20

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glow green). T h i s p l a c e s the document handler's electronics in

a standby condition.

4. D e p r e s s the MOTOR ON pushbut- ton on the control and indicator panel (will glow green).

5. D e p r e s s the ON-LINE, OFF-LINE MODE pushbutton on the control

and indicator panel f o r the d e s i r e d setting. (The ON-LINE o r OFF- LINE portions of the switch light alternately each time i t is depres- sed).

6. The document handler is not ready f o r u s e until the FEED READY light is illuminated; this o c c u r s a f t e r a delay of about a minute following the depression of the MOTOR ON pushbutton. (step 4).

f. Document handler (750 documents p e r minute) :

1. F o r on-line operation, turn on power to the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r . This t u r n s on power to the docu- ment handler adapter and the ' Z '

rack. (Steps 2 through 6 apply to both on-line and off-line oper- ation).

2. T u r n the c i r c u i t b r e a k e r switch on the document handler to the on position (up).

3. Check to s e e that the MAIN CIR- CUIT BREAKER indicator on the document handler's control and indicator panel is lit.

4. D e p r e s s the POWER ON pushbut- ton on the control and indicator panel (glows when lit).

5. Position the function switch on the control and indicator panel to PRO- CESS f o r on-line operation and to SEQUENCE f o r off-line operation.

6. The document handler is not ready f o r u s e until the FEED READY indicator is illuminated; this oc- c u r s a f t e r a delay of about a minute following the depression of the POWER ON pushbutton.

The o p e r a t o r will now be ready to s e t up the individual p e r i p h e r a l s f o r on-line operation. Directions f o r loading input and output media and setting up individual

p e r i p h e r a l s a r e contained in sections of this manual under headings of the specific peripherals.

S H U T D O W N PROCEDURES

The p r o c e d u r e s f o r turning power off and thereby shutting down the GE-225 System a r e the opposite of those f o r turning power on. S t a r t with the switches m o s t distant, electronically, f r o m the main power and work toward main power. That i s , turn off power to

a peripheral, then to the controller, then to the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r , and l a s t of all, t u r n off the main power switches.

P e r i p h e r a l s may be turnedoff in any sequence desired. The m o s t convenient o r d e r will depend on physical a r r a n g e m e n t of the equipment. If p a p e r tape and mag- netic tape a r e to be removed and s t o r e d , the o p e r a t o r

may wish to s t a r t with these units. The following sections describe p r o c e d u r e s f o r both n o r m a l shutdown and emergency shutdown.

Normal Shutdown

The following p r o c e d u r e s a r e to be followed any t i m e o p e r a t o r s go off duty and whenever s e r v i c e engineers p e r f o r m routine maintenance. T h e s e p r o c e d u r e s a r e designed to s a v e data in the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r c o r e m e m o r y and to prevent runaway p e r i p h e r a l s .

1. Magnetic tape s y s t e m :

a. Set the REMOTE/LOCAL switch to LOCAL.

b. Rewind and de-thread magnetic t a p e s (remove and s t o r e i f desired), relieve tension on tension a r m s , and close all dust c o v e r s and d o o r s on tape hand- l e r s .

c. D e p r e s s the POWER ON switchon each tape handler (light goes out).

d. D e p r e s s the POWER O F F switchon the tape controller.

2. P a p e r tape r e a d e r and punch:

a. Remove and s t o r e punched tape.

b. D e p r e s s the OPERABLE switch on control panel i f e i t h e r READER ON o r PUNCH ON indicators a r e on.

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3. High speed p r i n t e r :

b. T u r n the circuit b r e a k e r switch to the off position (down).

a. D e p r e s s the O F F LINE switch on the controller.

b. D e p r e s s the POWER O F F switch on the controller.

4. C a r d punch:

a. Unload c a r d s f r o m input hopper.

b. D e p r e s s the MANUAL CYCLE switch until the punch is c l e a r of cards.

c. D e p r e s s the POWER O F F switch.

5. 400 C a r d p e r minute r e a d e r : Set the Power switch to the O F F position and the STOP/ENABLE switch to the STOP posi- tion.

6. Typewriter: P u t the power switch under right s i d e to O F F position (white will disappear in viewing window and O F F will appear).

7. 1000 c a r d p e r minute r e a d e r :

a. D e p r e s s the power O F F switch on the c a r d r e a d e r ' s control and indicator panel.

11. Document handler (750 documents p e r min- ute) :

a. D e p r e s s the POWER O F F pushbutton on the control and indicator panel.

b. T u r n the circuit b r e a k e r switch to the off position (down).

12. C e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r : After all p e r i p h e r a l s a r e turned off,

a. P u t the AUTO/M,~NUAL switch in the MANUAL position.

b. P u t the INSTR/WORD switch in the WORD position.

c. D e p r e s s the P W R O F F switch on the control panel.

13. Turn off a l l individual c l r c u i t b r e a k e r s at the main power panel. (The m a s t e r circuit b r e a k e r is normallv left on).

Before going off duty, the operator. would normally have a l l output media s t o r e d o r distributed to persons concerned and would remove 2nd file all input niater- ial.

8. M a s s random a c c e s s data s t o r a g e :

Emergency Shutdown

a. D e p r e s s the POWER O F F pushbutton on the electronia unit's control and indicator panel.

b. D e p r e s s the PWR O F F pushbutton on the controller's control and indicator panel.

9. Auxiliary arithmetic unit:

a. D e p r e s s the DC O F F pushbutton on the AAU maintenance panel.

10. Document handler (1200 documents p e r minute) :

a. D e p r e s s the MOTOR O F F pushbutton on the control and indicator panel.

In emergencies, equipment is shut down f b r protection of both the equipment and the personnel in the systenl room. In grave emergencies, such a s f i r e , flood, o r

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IV.

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The console indicating and control panel (usually termed the control console) is mounted on the side of the f i r s t rack. Below the panel is the console desk The central p r o c e s s o r (Figure IV-1) p e r f o r m s the and above i t is the half -length door covering a main- computational (arithmetic), the storage, and the con- tenance control panel. Inside of the f i r s t rack a r e the t r o l functions f o r the GE-225 System. The p r o c e s s o r main power supply f o r the p r o c e s s o r , the power

is

housed in three equipment r a c k s which a r e bolted distribution panel, and the electronic control logic together. f o r the c a r d reader, c a r d punch, paper tape r e a d e r ,

[image:41.864.115.782.541.1028.2]

and paper tape punch.

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The second rack contains the majority of the elec- tronic counters, registers, timing circuits, and control logic associated with the processor.

The third rack contains the remaining registers, the magnetic core memory and i t s associated timing and control logic, and the logic for the controller selector.

Cable Connections

All peripherals a r e connected to the central proces- s o r by cables. The typewriter is connected directly by cable to the f i r s t rack of the central processor. The card reader is also connected to the f i r s t rack, but through a junction box mounted in the r e a r of the

console desk.

The peripheral equipments which have controllers a r e connected to the controller selector by cables s o that each peripheral controller is connected in paral- lel with the controller selector and in s e r i e s with every other controller. Cables a r e connected to two plugs in the third rack of the central processor. The output cable from the central processor is connected to one plug, and leads to the input plug of the first controller. Controllers a r e connected to each other by cables which lead from the output of one to the

H A S R 5

)S68 DC

381 CHO

7 0 4 DS7

input of the next. The output of the last controller leads back to the controller selector, and connects to the second of the two plugs in the third rack of the central processor.

The card punch is connected to the central processor through a plug located on the same connector panel on the third rack a s the two plugs for the controller selector. The punch cable is clamped in place by means of a 'shoe' connector attached to the end of the cable.

Controls and Indicators

The GE-225 System operator constantly watches and uses the controls and indicators of the central proces-

sor. Most of the control switches and indicator

-

lights a r e on the control console which provides

switches for manual control, indicates the status of equipment, and displays the contents of certain reg- isters. In ,addition to the control console, there is a maintenance panel which has three a r e a s of interest

and use to the operator.

A. MAINTENANCE

PANEL.

The maintenance panel

of the central processor, illustrated in Figure IV-2, is located inside the door which is above the control console. It is usedmostly by service

CLE

[image:42.868.85.787.622.958.2]

1534 DC

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engineers, but t h e r e a r e two i t e m s of concern to the o p e r a t o r , the N r e g i s t e r indicators and the CLEAR N Switch.

N R e g i s t e r Indicators. These lights a r e located in the upper right c o r n e r of the maintenance panel and a r e labelled N1, N2, N3, N4, N5,

and N6. TL.ey show the contents of the N reg- i s t e r which is a BCD c h a r a c t e r representation of the input o r output f o r e i t h e r the p a p e r tape r e a d e r , p a p e r tape punch, o r the typewriter.

CLEAR N Switch. This switch is to the left and slightly below the N r e g i s t e r indicators. When d e p r e s s e d , i t c l e a r s the contents of the N r e g i s t e r to zero. The o p e r a t o r u s e s t h i s switch

,

f o r example, when the typewriter is hung in a loop and depressing the space b a r does not c l e a r the N r e g i s t e r . T h i s could hap- pen i f someone t u r n s off the typewriter while

a p r o g r a m i s running. Depressing the CLEAR N switch and manually entering a TON instruc- tion will cause the typewriter to r e s u m e typing.

B. CONTROL CONSOLE. The control console (Figure IV-3) is the m o s t important and m o s t used panel on the GE-225. It is s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d to a s having both an indicator panel and a control panel, f o r the upper two thirds of the console contains indicator lights and the lower t h i r d contains control switches. The indicators a r e a l a r m lights, ready lights, and r e g i s t e r display lights f o r the A, I, and P r e g i s t e r s . The controls a r e option switches and control switches.

~ l a r m Indicators. The s i x a l a r m indicator lights in the upper left hand c o r n e r of the console a r e danger signals that indlcate e r r o r conditions have o c c u r r e d during system operation, and the p r o g r a m may be aborted. The cause can be an o p e r a t o r e r r o r , a programming e r r o r , o r a malfunction in the system equipment. A l l a l a r m indicators except the PRIORITY a l a r m can be turned off by the RESET ALARM switch. However, i t must be r e m e m b e r e d that u s e of the RESET ALARM switch can damage the p r o g r a m i f used when not authorized to do s o by the p r o g r a m m e r . The conditions which cause these a l a r m s to come on a r e a s follows:

PRIORITY Alarm. This a l a r m is turned on under any of the following conditions:

1. The AUTO/MANUAL switch

is

in the MANUAL position.

2. The STOP ON PARITY ALARM switch is engaged and a parity e r r o r is

detected.

3. The c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r does not have p r i o r i t y ( a c c e s s to memory).

4, A c a r d punch o r c a r d r e a d e r a l a r m condition has occurred.

PARITY Alarm. If the STOP ON PARITY ALARM switch is engaged when a p a r i t y e r r o r is detec- ted, the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r will halt. The PARITY a l a r m can b e turned off by p r e s s i n g the RESET ALARM switch o r by p r o g r a m m e d instructions. The PARITY a l a r m i s turned on under any of the following conditions:

1. The memory-checking c i r c u i t s of the central p r o c e s s o r detect a p a r i t y e r r o r while the AUTO/MANUAL switch is in the AUTO position.

2. The parity checking c i r c u i t s associated with the p a p e r tape r e a d e r detect a parity e r r o r .

3. A p a r i t y e r r o r is detected as infor- mation is received f r d m a controller through the controller selector.

OVERFLOW Alarm. The c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r does not halt on an overflow a l a r m . The a l a r m may be r e s e t automatically s e v e r a l t i m e s during a

n o r m a l MPY instruction. The indicator a l s o can be turned off by depressing the RESET ALARM switch o r by p r o g r a m m e d instructions. The OVERFLOW a l a r m is turned on under any of the following conditions :

1. The capacity of the A r e g i s t e r i s e x c e - eded during a r i t h m e t i c operations.

2. An illegal divide is attempted.

3. H one bit is shifted out of bit position one of the A r e g i s t e r during a shift- left operation.

CARD P U N C H Alarm. T h i s a l a r m is turned on any time a WCB, WCD, o r W C F instruction is attempted when the cardpunch is not in the ready condition. As already noted, the PRIORITY a l a r m a l s o c o m e s on, and the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r halts. The a l a r m can be r e s e t only by p r e s s i n g the RESET ALARM switch.

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tempt to select a controller through the con- t r o l l e r selector for an input/output operation. The ECHO a l a r m light can be turned off only by depressing the RESET ALARM switch. The

a l a r m indicates the following conditions:

1. The selected controller is busy (delay not programmed).

2. An erroneous address was program- med, the addressedplug is not installed.

P 5 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

I

00

000

000

000

000

000

000

0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

A

00

000

000

000

000

000

000

0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

R E S E T A

iz-[pJ[-q[

A L A R M

-

-

-

-

M A N U A L

E

DECIMAL

M O D E

-

-

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-

Figure IV-3. The Control Console

-

-

-

-

-

L

C A R D

PUNCH

R E A D Y

-

-

E C H O A L A R M

-

B K

O N L Y

-

-

-I ---

-C A R D R E A D E R

READY

1

-

C A R D READER

E:k:

C L R Q

PUNCH

1

--

-

-

N REGISTER

READY

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3. Controller is off line.

4. Power is off to controller.

5. Controller is malfunctioning.

CARD READER Alarm. This a l a r m is turned on when attempting to execute an RCB, RCD, o r R C F instruction while the c a r d r e a d e r is not in the ready condition. When the CARD READER a l a r m c o m e s on, the PRIORITY a l a r m a l s o c o m e s on and the c a r d r e a d e r and the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r halt. The a l a r m s in this com- bination a r e r e s e t only by depressing the RESET ALARM switch. The r e a d e r can be 'not ready' f o r any of the following r e a s o n s :

1. C a r d Reader is not turned on.

2. Input hopper is empty.

3. A c a r d is not positioned on the sensing platform.

4. Reader is busy (already reading a card).

5. A misfeed o r c a r d jam occurs.

Ready Indicators. The g r e e n ready indicator lights in the upper right c o r n e r of the control console give 'go-ahead' signals to the operator. With c e r t a i n exceptions, these lights come on when the c a r d punch and c a r d r e a d e r a r e ready f o r u s e o r when the N r e g i s t e r is ready to receive information. I f t h e equip- m e n t is not # ready f o r operation, an attempt to u s e i t

will turn the ready light off and s e t an a l a r m indi- cator.

The s t a n d a r d ready indicators a r e the following:

CARD PUNCH READY. T h i s light is turned on to indicate that, in five r e s p e c t s , the cardpunch is ready to punch c a r d s . If the c a r d punch is not otherwise in an operable condition when a

punch instruction is attempted, the ready light will go off and the CARD PUNCH andPRIORITY a l a r m s will come on. The five conditions of r e a d i n e s s which together turn on the CARD PUNCH READY light a r e :

1. The input hopper contains cards.

2. The s t a c k e r is not full.

3 . A c a r d is properly located a t station

'

one'.

4. A c a r d is not currently being punched.

5 . The chip box is properly seated.

CARD READER READY. This light is turned on to indicate that, in t h r e e r e s p e c t s , the c a r d r e a d e r is ready to r e a d c a r d s . If the c a r d r e a d e r is not otherwise in an operable condition when a r e a d instruction is attempted, the ready light will go off and the CARD READER and PRIORITY a l a r m s will come on. The t h r e e conditions of r e a d i n e s s which t u r n the CARD READER READY light on a r e :

1. The input hopper contains enough c a r d s ( o r weight) to d e p r e s s the hopper- empty switch.

2. A c a r d is not c u r r e n t l y being read.

3. No misfeed o r c a r d jam is detected.

N REGISTER READY, This light c o m e s on to indicate that the N r e g i s t e r is ready to receive input o r output information. Specifically,

it

m e a n s that the r e g i s t e r is not currently being used by the typewriter, p a p e r tape r e a d e r , o r p a p e r tape punch. If an illegal code is placed in the N Register and a TYP command given, the N REGISTER READY light goes out and s t a y s out until a space key is struck.

T h e r e are t h r e e m o r e indicators to the right of the ready indicators. These a r e :

AIM, The automatic i n t e r r u p t mode p'errnits

-

the simL!ltaneous ogeration of two o r m o r e p r o - g r a m s . When a p r o g r a m puts the conl2uter in the interrupt mode, the green AIM light conles on

at

the time of the f i r s t i n t e r r u p t and re:n-ins

02 until turned off under p r o g r a m zontrol o r i s

turned off by the operator-. The operator can t u r n the AIM indicator off by p r o c e d l r e s de- s c r i b e d l a t e r in this section.

8K OTJLY. 011 a c o n l p ~ l t e r which h a s only an

8K m e m ~ y , this indicator i s on a l l the timc. A c o l n ~ l t e r wnich h a s a 16K menlory c a n b e s e t by the s e r v i c e engineer to operate either with the caxnplete (16K) memory o r with only half of i t (8K). The 8K ONLY indicator is l i t when the camputer is s e t to ogerate only with 8K; i t is off w!ien the corn2uter is s e t to operate with 16K.

DECLM-\I, M'03E. This indicator is l i t when the central pra:essor i s in the decimal mode. When the i n j i c a t o r i s not lit, t h e p r o c e s s o r is in the binary mode.

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the index groap that has been selected by the p r o g r a m (Groups 0 through 3 1). Each group h a s four r e g i s t e r s ,

0 through 3. When a l l lights a r e off, group z e r o is

available without special selection. Only index groclp z e r o is s t a n d a r d on the GE-225 System; additional groups a r e optional. Any time a light is on in the index group, the o 2 e r a t o r knows that an index g r m p other than z e r o h a s been selected.

P Counter Lights. The fifteen display lights f o r the P counter a r e located to the right of the INDEX GROUP indicators. They a r e n ~ m b e r e d , l e f t to right, f r o m 5 through 19, and a r e a r r a n g e d in groups of t h r e e to facilitate reading the binary n u m l ~ e r s in their octal representation. By reading these groups, the oilerator can know the location of the instruction which a p p e a r s in the I r e g i s t e r . The P counter is

useful wnen debugging a p r o g r a m and when checking f o r c o r r e c t operation after a manual branch comrnand to a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m location.

SAVE: P Switch. This switch p e r m i t s the operator to r e t u r n to a p a r t i c u l a r position in t h e p r o g r a m a f t e r he h a s interrupted i t to make a correction, such a s to introduce an instruction manually. The SAVE P switch in the downpositionprevents the P counter f r o m incrementing. When the operator r e t u r n s the SAVE P switch to the up (normal) position a f t e r manual operations, the p r o g r a m is ready to continue f r o m the p l a z e of interruption. When the SAVE P switch is in the dowa position during the automatic mode of oper- ation, the instruction in the I r e g i s t e r i s executed o v e r and o v e r again.

I R e g i s t e r Lights. The 20 I r e g i s t e r display lights a r e lozated below the INDEX G R a 3 P and P counter lights, and a r e number f r o m 0 to 19. They display the contents of the instruction r e g i s t e r . Like the o t h e r r e g i s t e r display lights, they a r e r e a d in their o c t a l representation. The I r e g i s t e r displays the c u r r e n t instruction, the instruction that h a s not y e t been executed o r h a s been only partly executed.

A R e g i s t e r Lights. The 20 A r e g i s t e r display lights

a r e

located below the I r e g i s t e r lights. They a r e

[-qp$[q

ALARM MANUAL

E

numbered f r o m 0 to 19, and display the contents of the A r e g i s t e r . These a r e a l s ~ r e a d in octal. By using the XAQ switch (described

later),

the A r e g - i s t e r lights can be u s e d to display the contents of the Q r e g i s t e r . All data and in;trclctions feed m2.nually into the central p r o c e s s o r go through the A r e g i s t e r , and a r e entered by u s e of the option switches.

Optiojn Switches. The 20 option switches just below the A r e g i s t e r display lights a r e u s e d to feed infor- mation into the A r e g i s t e r . Each of these toggle switches e n t e r s information into the corresponding A r e g i s t e r position. The n u m b e r s 0 through 19

below the A r e g i s t e r lights may b e thought of as a l s o applying to the switches. When moved up, the switches a r e s p r i n g loaded and r e t u r n automatically to the center '(normal) position. When moved down, they r e m a i n in the down position until manually r e t u r n e d to the norm21 positio2.

W!len the central p r o c e s s o r is in the manual mode of operation, moving a n option switch up c a u s e s a one to be put into the corresponding position of the A r e g i s t e r . This is indicated by an A r e g i s t e r display light. Moving an option switch up h a s n9 effect when the central p r o c e s s o r i s in the automatic mode of operation.

Moving an option switch dow!~ w!len the central p r o c e s -

s:lr is in the automatic mode c a u s e s a one to be put into the corresponding position of the A r e g i s t e r a t the time of a p r o g r a m m e d RCS instruction. Specified switches a r e left in the d a w ~ i p ~ s i t i o n while running c e r t a i n rodtines and while generating GAP a s s e m - blies. These and other special u s e s of the option switches a r e specified in the p r o g r a m ~ n e r ' s in s t r a c - tions to the operator.

RESE'i' ASwitch. This switch is to the left of the option switches. It i s effective only w!len the central p r o c e s s o r is in the m a w a l made of operation. Like the option switches, i t i s s p r i n g loaded in the up pgsition but not in the down position. When moved either up o r down, i t c l e a r s to z e r o the contents of the A r e g i s t e r , and t u r n s off a l l of the A r e g i s t e r display lights. When the operator m a k e s a mistake while using the option switches, he can c o r r e c t this

[image:46.863.77.773.852.988.2]

OFF

Figure IV-4. Control Switches on the Control Console

STOP ON

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m i s t a k e by clearing the A r e g i s t e r with the R.3SE'I: A switch and then s t a r t i n g over.

When the computer is in the a l t o m x t i c m3de, the o 2 e r a t o r m u s t be v e r y c a r e f u l nt2t to aczidentally lower the R-ZSET A switch. If he sh9uld lower i t accidentally, branzh cammands wvl~ld n ~ t oporate corre.2tly. The o p e r a t o r would proSably not kn3w of the e r r o r he caused until the p r o g r a m m e r r e p o r t e d back to him that the r u n was confused.

Toggle. When r e f e r r i n g to the toggle switches,

it

h a s become customary to u s e the t e r m toggle a s a verb. When u s e d in t h i s way,

it

means to move the switch e i t h e r up o r down and immediately r e t u r n i t to

its

original position.

Control Switches

A s t r i p of switches along the bottom of the control console, and the SAVE P and RESET A switches just described, give the o p e r a t o r manual control over the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r and c e r t a i n functions of peripherals. Eight of the switches a r e the pushbutton type that r e q u i r e only to be p r e s s e d momentarily to be activated. T h r e e double-label switches a r e the r o c k e r type with two positions. F o r instance, the AuTO/MANUAL SWITCH is placed in the AUTO position by p r e s s i n g the end that is labeled AUTO and leaving that end in the d e p r e s s e d position.

These switches, illustrated in Figure IV-4, a r e des- c r i b e d a s follows:

PWR. ON, Depressing the PWR ON pushbutton t u r n s on DC power to the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r , the control console, and the 400 c a r d p e r min- ute r e a d e r . The pushbutton is a l s o an indicator, f o r i t lights when power is on.

PWR, OFF. When DC power i s on, depressing t h i s pushbutton t u r n s

it

off.

RESET ALARM, This switch is effective only i n the manual mode of operation. Depressing the pushbutton c l e a r s any existing a l a r m con- dition. It t u r n s off the a l a r m lights and r e s e t s flip-flops s o the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r can continue operation. It does not c l e a r up the cause of the a l a r m .

LOAD CARD. This switch i s effective only in the manual mode of operation. Depressing the pushbutton initiates c a r d r e a d e r action and c a u s e s the r e a d e r to go through one load and r e a d cycle. It i s u s e d m o s t often to load the f i r s t c a r d into memory during p r o g r a m s t a r t u p operations, If no c a r d was on the sensing plat- f o r m . it moves one onto i t . F r o m t h e r e , the

c a r d is r e a d into mel-nory locations s t a r t i n g a t 0000.

RESET P. This switch is effective only in the manual mode of operation. Depressing the pushbutton c l e a r s the P counter to a l l z e r o s . It is u s e d most often to cause the first instruction to a d d r e s s memory cell zero, and is normally activated just before setting the AUTO/MANUAL switch to AUTO a t the beginning of p r o g r a m operation.

AUTO/MANUAL. This two-position, r o c k e r - type switch s e l e c t s e i t h e r the automatic o r the manual mode of operation f o r the c e n t r a l p r o - c e s s o r . When the AUTO portion of the switch is depressed, the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r is in the automatic mode, and instructions a r e p r o c e s s e d in a continuous sequence under p r o g r a m con- trol. When the MANUAL portion of the switch is depressed, the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r is in the manual mode, and the progranl is executed only one s t e p a t a time a s the START switch is depressed. Setting the AUTO/MANUAL switch to MANUAL during automatic operation c a u s e s the computer to halt operations a t the end of the instructiorl o r word being executed. The o p e r a t o r will r e c a l l that putting the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r in the manual mode c a u s e s the

PRIORITY a l a r m light to come on. The fol- lowing operations can be performed only when the AUTO/MANUAL switch is s e t to MANUAL:

1. C l e a r o r s e t information into a r e g - i s t e r with option switches.

2 . C l e a r a l a r m conditions with RESET

ALARM switch.

3. R e s e t P counter with RESET P switch.

4. Load a c a r d manually using LOAD C a r d switch.

5. T r a n s f e r contents of A r e g i s t e r to I r e g i s t e r using A to I switch.

6. Txchange contents of A and Q r e g i s t e r s using XAQ switch.

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START, In the automatic mode of operation, depressing the START pushbutton initiates act- ion. After the operation begins, the program r u n s automatically and despressing the START switch again has no effect. In the manual mode of operation, depressing the START switch causes the execution of one instruction o r one word time, depending upon the setting of the INST/WORD switch.

A 4 I (A to I). This switch i s effective only in the manual mode of operation. Depressing the A to I pushbutton t r a n s f e r s the contents of the A register, including the sign bit, to the I r e g i s t e r . The contents of the A r e g i s t e r r e - main unchanged, and can be cleared by tog- gling the RESET A switch. The A to I switch is used to manually load an instruction into the I r e g i s t e r o r to c o r r e c t an instruction already there.

XAQ. This switch is effective only in the man- r m o d e of operation. Depressing XAQ causes

an exchange of information between the A and

Q r e g i s t e r s . That is, the contents of A go into Q and the contents of Q go into A. This permits the operator to observe the contents of the Q

register. By using the RESET A switch and the option switches, the operator can clear and c o r r e c t the contents of the Q r e g i s t e r while saving the contents of the A register.

STOP ON PARITY ALARM/NORM, This is a two-position, rocker-type switch. It determines the response of the central p r o c e s s o r to the detection of

a

parity e r r o r . When the STOP ON PARITY ALARM portion of the switch is depressed, the central processor halts each time a parity e r r o r is detected and the PARITY and PRIORITY a l a r m lights come on. When the NORM (normal) portion of the switch is depres- sed, the central processor continues operation regardless of parity e r r o r s , and the only indi- cation of a parity e r r o r is the fact that the PARITY a l a r m light is turned on. The setting of the STOP ON PARITY ALARM/NORM switch is determined by the programmer. If he has included remedial action throughout the program to take c a r e of parity e r r o r s and to r e s e t the PARITY a l a r m light, he will specify the setting of the STOP ON PARITY ALARM/NORM switch to the NORM position. If he has not included remedial steps in the program, he will want the program to halt a t time of a parity e r r o r , s o

will specify the setting of STOP ON PARITY ALARM,

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TABLE I.

FUNCTIONS OF CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

O N CENTRAL PROCESSOR

r

Group

A l a r m Indicator Lights

Ready Indicator Lights

Control o r Indicator

PRIORITY a l a r m light ( r e d )

PARITY a l a r m light ( r e d )

OVERFLOW a l a r m light ( r e d )

CARD PUNCH a l a r n l light ( r e d )

ECHO ALARM light ( r e d )

CARD READER a l a r m light ( r e d )

CARD PUNCH READY light (green)

Func t lon

Indicates:

1. AUTO/MANUAL switch is in NlANUAL position.

2 , P a r i t y a l a r n l condition.

3 . C e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r does not have priority.

4. C a r d punch o r c a r d r e a d e r a l a r m condition.

Indicates:

1. Menlory -chec king c i r c u i t s of p r o c e s s o r detected p a r - ity e r r o r while p r o c e s s o r in autonlatic mode.

2 . P a r i t y e r r o r connected with tape r e a d e r .

3. Parl.ty e r r o r detected as data received f r o m a con- t r o l l e r through controller s e l e c t o r .

Indicates:

1. Capacity of the A r e g i s t e r was exceeded.

2. Illegal divide attempted. 3. Data shifted, l e f t o u t of the

A r e g i s t e r .

Indicates c a r d punching was attempted when c a r d punch was not in a ready condition.

Indicates a n uilsuccessful atteixpt t o select a controller f o r ally of these reasons:

1. Controller busy 2 . I n c o r r e c t a d d r e s s 3. Controller off line 4. Power off to controller 5. Malfunctioning controller.

Indicates c a r d reading was

at-

ternpted while the c a r d r e a d e r was not ready (not s e t up, busy, misfeed, o r c a r d jam. )

[image:49.863.87.809.211.1043.2]
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Group

Ready Indicator Lights (Cont. )

Register Display Lights and Switches

Control o r Indicator

CARD READER READY light (green)

N REGISTER READY light (green)

AIM light (green)

8K ONLY Indicator (green)

DECIMAL NODE Indicator (green)

INDEX GROUP indicator lights

P counter display lights

SAVE P switch

I r e g i s t e r display lights

A r e g i s t e r display lights

Option Switches

RESET A switch

Function

Indicates when c a r d r e a d e r is in 'ready'status.

Indicates N r e g i s t e r is ready t o receive input/output information and no illegal o r improperly programmed instruction h a s

been given to typewriter o r paper- tape reader/punch.

Indicates that optional automatic interrupt mode is operative.

Indicates, when lit, that 8, 192 nleniory locations a r e available.

Indicates, when lit, that the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r is in the dec inlal mode.

Indicates index group that h a s been selected.

Display location of instruction in I r e g i s t e r ( s e e text f o r ex- c ept ion).

P r e v e n t s P counter f r o m incrementing.

Display c u r r e n t instruction.

Display contents of the A r e g i s t e r .

Feed infornlation into the A r e g i s t e r while in e i t h e r manual o r automatic modes and r u n special routines such as GAP a s s e m b l i e s in the automatic mode.

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Group

Control Switches

LOAD CARD switch C a u s e s c a r d r e a d e r to execute

RESET P switch R e s e t s P counter to all z e r o s

AUTO/NlANUAL switch Selects ailtoillatic o r nlanual inode of operation of c e n t r a l

INSTR/WORD switch Selects leng-tll of cycle of

START switch Initiates execution of one cycle of operation (instruction o r word); in autoillat ic

.

irlitllttes execution A

'

I switch T r a n s f e r s contents of A r e g i s t e r to I r e g i s t e r (effective only when

Exchanges coiltents of A and Q

STOP ON PARITY ALARM/NORNl D e t e r m i n e s whether c e n t r a l Control o r Indicator

PWR ON switch

PWR O F F switch

RESET ALARM switch

Fuilc t ion

Applies DC power to the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r , and 400 card/minute r e a d e r .

T u r n s off DC power to the c e n - t r a l p r o c e s s o r , control console, and 400 card/minute r e a d e r .

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v

Function

Shows contents of N r e g i s t e r input o r output for the paper tape r e a d e r , paper tape punch, o r typewriter.

C l e a r s contents of N r e g i s t e r to zero.

Group

Mainteilanc e Panel

Control o r Indicator

N register indicators

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SETUP PROCEDURES

Setting up the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r f o r operation involves only bringing power up and setting control switches. The s i x s t e p s listed below a r e designed to s a v e data in the c o r e m e m o r y of the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r . If the console was previously shut down by the normal p r o - cedure and switches have not been disturbed, s t e p s

2 and 3 r e q u i r e only verification. Some o p e r a t o r s f o r m the habit of checking switches both visually and physically by actually p r e s s i n g a switch even though i t a p p e a r s to be in position already. Thus, good habit p a t t e r n s a r e formed. (EXCEPTION: Don't hit PWR ON when a l r e a d y on, except when performing special p r o c e d u r e s as described later.)

1. Verify that blowers in c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r cabinets a r e operating. (If not, call the s e r v i c e engineer.)

2. Set the AUTO/MANUAL switch to the MANUAL position.

3. Set the INSTR/WORD switch to the INSTR position.

4. D e p r e s s the PWR ON switch.

5. S e t the INSTR/WORD switch to the INSTR position.

6. D e p r e s s the RESET ALARM switch (this can be done e i t h e r a t this time o r just

, p r i c r to s t a r t i n g a program.)

The complete p r o c e d u r e f o r starting up and shutting down the central p r o c e s s o r and the entire GE-225 System is described in Section 111.

M A N U A L OPERATING PROCEDURES

The option switches on the control console p e r m i t the o p e r a t o r to e n t e r instructions and data manually; the r e g i s t e r display lights p e r m i t the reading of the contents of m e m o r y and of c e r t a i n r e g i s t e r s . Thus, i t is possible to feed in and execute a s h o r t p r o g r a m and r e a d the results. Manual loading is used most, however, f o r getting a p r o g r a m s t a r t e d , correcting m e m o r y , brz nching, setting and clearing special modes, and reproducing damaged c a r d s . Once an o p e r a t o r completes the n e c e s s a r y manual operations and gets a p r o g r a m s t a r t e d , control of operations is

usually t r a n s f e r r e d to the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r .

Loading an Instruction Manually

Any instructiori that is intelligible to the GE -225 can be loaded manually by putting the octal equiva-- lent of the instruction into the A r e g i s t e r , a s follows:

1. Set the AUTO/"MANUAL switch to the MAKUAL position.

2. Set the INSTR/WORD switch to the INSTR position.

3. Toggle the RESET A switch to c l e a r the

k

r e g i s t e r .

4. Load the octal equivalent of the instruction into the A r e g i s t e r . (See instructions f o r toggling option switches in the previous section.)

5. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

6. Toggle the RESET A switch and load any n e c e s s a r y data into the A r e g i s t e r . (Not n e c e s s a r y f o r s o m e instructions.)

7. D e p r e s s the START switch.

The central p r o c e s s o r w i l l then execute the instruc- tion placed in the I - r e g i s t e r by the operator.

The following a r e the m o s t used instructions, and m u s t be nlemorized a s quickly a s possible.

Mnemonic Description Octal Code

TON RON WCD WCB WCF RCD RCB RC

F

BRU

S E T DECMODE SET BINMODE SXG Y

ST A LDA O F F

Typewriter 011

Paper. 'l'ape Reader On

Paper. Tape Purich On

W r i l e C a r d Do(li111a1 Write C a r 6 Binary Write Card Full Read C a r d s Bec,inlal Read C a r d s Binary Read C a r d s Full Branch Uncondi- tionally

S e t Decimal Mode Set Binary &lode Select Index Group S t o r e A

Load A

Input, Output Off

Loading Data Manually

When data is to be loaded into m e m o r y , the fol- lowing procedure is followed:

1. Set the AUT0;MARUAL. switch to the MAN UAL position.

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3. Toggle the RESET A switch.

4. Load an STA instruction in the A r e g i s t e r (Store A is an octal 0300000), with the m e m o r y a d d r e s s where the data i s to b e s t o r e d replacing the 13 righthand bits of the STA instruction.

5. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

6. Toggle the RESET A switch.

7. Load the octal equivalent of the data to be

s t o r e d into the A r e g i s t e r .

8. D e p r e s s the START switch.

Load additional words by repeating s t e p s 3 through 8.

Manual Branching

P r i o r to executing a p r o g r a m , the o p e r a t o r may p e r - f o r m such manual operations as checking m e m o r y , feeding constants into the memory, o r correcting memory. To then t r a n s f e r to automatic operation, the o p e r a t o r m u s t manually e n t e r a branch i n s t r u c - tion which contains the location of the f i r s t instruction to be executed. T h i s is done as follows: (Power is on and the INSTR/WORD switch is in the INSTR posi- tion.)

1. S e t the AUTO/MANUAL switch to theMAN- UAL position.

2. Toggle the RESET A switch.

3. Load a BRU instruction into the A r e g i s t e r (octal 26 in positions 0 through 4 and the m e m o r y location of first instruction to be

executed in positions 7 through 19).

4. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

5. S e t the AUTO/MANUAL switch to the AUTO position.

6. D e p r e s s the START switch,

If the o p e r a t o r wishes to branch and r e m a i n in manual mode, he m a y u s e the above procedure omitting Step

5 (that is, leave AUTO/MANUAL switch in MANUAL mode). If the o p e r a t o r branches to the f i r s t instruction of a s t o r e d p r o g r a m , one instruction is executed each t i m e the START switch is p r e s s e d .

Entering and Leaving Upper Memory

In o r d e r to get into upper m e m o r y (memory loca- tions 8192 and above), i t is n e c e s s a r y to u s e a basic

branch instruction modified by index r e g i s t e r 1, 2,

o r 3. The index r e g i s t e r m u s t contain a constant

of 8192 (decimal). The octal equivalent of 8192 is

0020000, which m e a n s that bit position s i x is turned on and all o t h e r s a r e turned off. Thus, any t i m e bit position s i x is on in the P counter indicator lights, the o p e r a t o r will know the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r is in upper memory.

The following s t e p s t r a n s f e r operations to upper memory:

1. S e t the AUTO/MANUAL switch to the MAN- UAL position. (It is a s s u m e d that the INSTR switch is engaged).

2. S e t a Store A instruction into the A regis- t e r . (STA is an octal 030000X, where X is 1, 2, o r 3 f o r the index r e g i s t e r ) .

3. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

4. Toggle the RESET k switch.

5. S e t an octal 0020000 into the A r e g i s t e r .

6. D e p r e s s the START switch. (Stores con- stant into index r e g i s t e r selected).

7. Toggle the RESET A switch.

8. Set into the A r e g i s t e r a BRU to the de- s i r e d m e m o r y location modified by the selected index r e g i s t e r used in s t e p 2, above.

9. D e p r e s s the START switch.

To t r a n s f e r f r o m upper memory to lower mem- ory, follow the above s t e p s , except step 5. The effect then is that s t e p 6 (START) s t o r e s z e r o s into the index r e g i s t e r being used.

Reproducing Individual Cards

In an emergency, i t m a y be n e c e s s a r y to reproduce

a

single card. The following d e s c r i b e s

a

quick method of doing this with manual instructions. I t is a s s u m e d that the c a r d punch is ready f o r operation and that

its

input hopper is loaded with blank c a r d s .

1. Feed the c a r d to b e reproduced into the feed r o l l e r s of the c a r d r e a d e r to position

it

on the sensing platform.

2. Set the AUTO/MANUAL switch to the MAN- UAL position.

(55)

a. If a binary c a r d , u s e RCB, octal 250YY01.

b. If a decimal c a r d , u s e RCD, octal 250YYOO.

YY is the s t a r t i n g a d d r e s s where the c a r d is to b e read. The handiest a d d r e s s is z e r o ; i f this cannot be used, r e m e m b e r that the a d d r e s s m u s t be a multiple of 1 2 8 and l e s s than 2048; that is, multiples of octal 200 and l e s s than octal 4000.

4. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

5. Hold down the hopper-empty switch on the c a r d r e a d e r and p r e s s the START switch on the console. ( r e a d s c a r d s )

6. By using option switches, s e t a write-card instruction into the A r e g i s t e r :

a. If a binary c a r d , u s e WCB, octal 250YY03.

b. If a decimal c a r d , use WCD, octal 250YY02.

7. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

8. D e p r e s s the START switch. (punches c a r d s )

9. D e p r e s s the MANUAL CYCLE switch on the c a r d punch twice to c l e a r punched c a r d into output hopper.

If m o r e than one copy of the c a r d is needed, repeat s t e p s 7 and 8 a s many t i m e s as t h e r e a r e c a r d s needed (the w r i t e - c a r d instruction r e m a i n s in A and can b e t r a n s f e r r e d to the I r e g i s t e r and executed as many t i m e s as necessary.)

Saving Information in A

When an o p e r a t o r manually e n t e r s changes to a pro- g r a m , i t is usually n e c e s s a r y to s a v e information in the A r e g i s t e r before entering new information. It m u s t be r e m e m b e r e d , however, that changes should n e v e r be made by this method without instructions to do s o by the p r o g r a m m e r . The procedure f o r saving the information in the A r e g i s t e r and the location of the P counter is as follows:

1. P l a c e in a down position the option switches corresponding to the ones (the lights) of the A r e g i s t e r . These switches a r e now a r e m i n d e r to the o p e r a t o r of what was originally in A.

2. R a i s e the RESET A switch to c l e a r the A r e g i s t e r .

3. Lower the SAVE P switch to s a v e the infor- mation in the P counter.

4.

Raise the optioil switches corresponding to the ones of the new information to be e n t e r e d into A. Return to the down position any of the switches which w e r e in that position ( a s a r e s u l t of s t e p 1).

5. Move the new information now in the A r e g i s t e r to w h e r e v e r i t will be u s e d in the p r o g r a m , f o r example, move

it

to the I r e g i s t e r by d e p r e s s i n g A to I (See "Load- ing Data Manually))).

6. Raise the RESET A switch to c l e a r the A r e g i s t e r .

Raise to the up position all of the option switches which a r e down ( a s a r e s u l t of step 1). Since the switches a r e s p r i n g loaded, they will autonlatically r e t u r n to the normal position. This r e t u r n s the o r i - ginal information to the A r e g i s t e r by entering ones into A to correspond with the down switches.

8. Raise the SAVE P switch (lowered in step 3 ) to r e s t o r e the original iirfornnation to the P counter.

Extracting Data from Memory

~ f t e r a s e r i e s of i r ~ s t r u c t i o n s o r data h a s been loaded, the o p e r a t o r may want to check the contents of mem- ory. The following s t e p s can be used any time the o p e r a t o r wishes to know what is in any p a r t i c u l a r cell in memory. Once the information is displayed, i t is a simple m a t t e r to c o r r e c t i t and return i t to m e m o r y ( s e e 'Loading Data Manually'). It is a s s u m e d the AUTO/MANUAL switch is s e t to MANUAL and the INSTR~WORD switch is s e t to INSTR, and no a l a r m s lights a r e on.

1. If i t is d e s i r e d to s a v e P, s e t the SAVE P switch.

2. Toggle the RESET A switch, thus leaving an LDA instruction in the A r e g i s t e r (Load A i s an octal 00).

3. Load the memory location of the informa- tion d e s i r e d into bit positions 7 through 19 of the A r e g i s t e r .

4.

D e p r e s s the A to I switch. 5. D e p r e s s the START switch.

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Sequencing through Programs

I t is possible to manually sequence through a pro- If these p r o c e d u r e s fail the operator can follow the g r a m , s t e p by s t e p , and examine each instruction p r o c e d u r e s of the following section.

by reading the instruction r e g i s t e r . T h i s i s accom-

plished with the following steps. (Assume the INSTR Setting and Clearing Decimal Mode. Normally, the switch is engaged) : p r o g r a m will s e t and c l e a r the decimal mode. If f o r

any reason the o p e r a t o r finds it n e c e s s a r y to do this manually, the following p r o c e d u r e s may be used. As 1- S e t the AUTO/MANUAL switch to MANUAL, previously mentioned, the DECIMAL MODE light on

the console will be on when the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r i s in the decimal mode.

2. Branch to the s t a r t i n g location of the p r o - g r a m to be examined:

a. S e t a BRU instruction into A r e g i s t e r , A. TO S E T THE DECIMAL MODE: including the a d d r e s s of the f i r s t in-

struction to be executed (BRU is octal 1. Set the AUTO/'MtiNUt~L switch to MAN-

2600000). UAL.

b. D e p r e s s A to I switch. 2. Toggle the R E S E T LA. switch.

3. P r e s s START switch once f o r each in- struction to be executed; r e a d the I r e g i s t e r and P counter a f t e r each step.

3. P u t the Set Dec Mode instructiorl (octal 2506011) into the r e g i s t e r .

4. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

Special Modes 5. D e p r e s s the START switch.

Normally the p r o g r a m will s e t and c l e a r out special modes, such as the decimal mode, index group s e l e c t ,

6. Check to be s u r e the DECIMAL MODE light came on.

and the automatic i n t e r r u p t mode (AIM). The oper-

a t o r will seldom need to s e t these conditions, but may B. TO C L E A R DECIMAL R / ~ O D E (SET BINARY occasionally have to c l e a r them manually. F o r in- MODE) :

s t a n c e , a p r o g r a m being debugged may b e aborted, and the s p e c i a l options a r e left on.

The p r o c e d u r e f o r clearing AIM, index group s e l e c t , and decimal mode a r e described in the following paragraphs. If these p r o c e d u r e s fail, m o r e elaborate p r o c e d u r e s a r e given in the sections immediatelyfol- lowing.

C l e a r i n g with PWR ON. A quick way to turn off the automatic i n t e r r u p t mode, c l e a r out index group s e l e c t , and change f r o m the decimal mode to binary is to u s e the PWR ON switch, following these s t e p s (assume power is on to c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r ) :

1. Set the AUTO/MANUAL switch to MANUAL.

2. Set the INSTR/WORD switch to WORD.

3. D e p r e s s PWR ON switch.

4. Make visual checks to s e e i f goal is accom- plished.

1. Set the AUTO/MANUAL switch to MAN- UAL.

2. Toggle the RESET A switch.

3. P u t the Set Binmode instruction (octal 2506012) into the A r e g i s t e r .

4. D e p r e s s the A to I switch.

5. D e p r e s s the START switch.

6. Be s u r e the DECIMAL MODE light went off.

Automatic Interrupt Mode. The Automatic Interrupt Mode, which

is

p r e s e n t a s an optional f e a t u r e on s o m e

GE-225 Systems, is usually t u r n e d on and off by p r o g r a m control. Occasionally, however,

it

may b e d e s i r e d to turn this mode of operation on o r off man- ually a s follows:

A. MANUAL AIM TURN-ON PROCEDURE 5. Set the INSTR/WORD switch to INSTR,

1. Set the AUTO/MANUAL switch to the MANUAL position.

At s t e p 4, note tha t the DECIMAL MODE light on the console will go out AIM light on control console will go out (if on), and index group lights will go out.

Figure

Figure IV-1. The Central Processor
Figure IV-2. The Maintenance Panel of the Central Processor
Figure IV-3. The Control Console
Figure IV-4. Control Switches on the Control Console
+5

References

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