International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Available online at www.ijfas.com
©2014 IJFAS Journal-2014-3-3/268-273/ 31 March, 2014 ISSN 2322-4134 ©2014 IJFAS
Investigate the effects of water deficit stress on seed yield and wheat yield components under the influence of different amounts of super absorbent
, Ahmad Mehraban2
and Hamidreza Fanaei3
1. M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad university, zahedan, Iran
2. Assistant of Islamic Azad University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad university, zahedan, Iran
3. Assistant of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan, Iran Corresponding author: Elahe Darvishi
ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effects of water deficit stress on seed yield and wheat yield components under the influence of different amounts of super absorbent polymer (A200), an experiment was conducted as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak. Treatments of irrigation regimes with four levels (80, 120, 160 and 200 mm evaporation from class A evaporation basin level) were considered as the main plot and the values of superabsorbent with four levels (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg ha) as subplots. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on attributes such as the number of spikes per square meter, number of grains per spike, grain weight, biological yield and grain yield was significant at 1% level and harvest index was significant at the 5% level. Between levels of water stress, the highest grain yield with mean of 4786 kg/ha was related to irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A evaporation basin level and the lowest grain yield with mean of 3962 kg/ha belonging to irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from class A evaporation basin level. Between different levels of superabsorbent, the highest yield was related to treatments of 225 kg/ha superabsorbent with average of 4444 kg/ha and the lowest grain yield obtained in to treatment non-use of superabsorbent with mean 4273 kg/ha.
Keywords: water deficit stress, super absorbent yield and wheat INTRODUCTION
Drought stress along with other inanimate stresses such as salinity, cold, heat and stress of live reduced genetic potential of the crop yield significantly (Martinez, 2007). Wheat is a plant which was cultivated in large quantities and wide area of world, especially in dry areas (khodabande, 2005; MajnoonHosseini, 2006;
kazemiArbat, 2007, Emam, 2007). Wheat grain yield is result interaction among components yield. number of grains per spike is one of components yield which its increasing or decreasing will be affected the grain yield significantly more than any other components (Emam, 2007; Chahraman and Sepaskhah, 1997; Dencic, 2000).
(Gutieri, 2001) reported that grain yield in arid regions is correlated significantly with the number of grains per panicle. Drought stress during tillering will have greatest negative impact on the number of spike. Tillers could have a key role to overcome the stress (Duggan and Fowler, 2006 and DehghanZade, 2006).
Grain growth due to assimilatory reduction is limited in during pollination stage, disorder in photosynthesis affects the thousand grain weight (Duggan and Flower, 2006). Several reports have shown a decrease in grain
269 yield under water deficit due to reduces leaf photosynthesis and thus reduce the thousand grain weight (Engel, 2003; Emam, 2007). Use of some materials such as superabsorbent polymers in soil, increases water retention in the soil and thus reduce the consumption of water and fertilizers leaching. These materials can reduce the effects of water stress on the plant and lead to increased yield in arid and semiarid regions (Widiatuti , 2008; Green, 2004).
The amount of water absorption in this polymers, depending on the formulation, water, impurities and the amount of salt contained is variable up to 400 times the weight of the superabsorbent (Huettermann, 1999; Monnig, 2005).
Superabsorbent polymers increases water retention in the soil and has been reduced irrigation number to 50%
(Nazarli, 2010). In another study, results showed that use of superabsorbent, 10 percent more water remained than control in the soil (Wu, 2008). Therefore, the reason importance of water shortage in sistan, This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A200 super absorbent on yield and yield components wheat under drought stress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This experiment was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Zahak, Iran in 2013.
Climate of Zahak is dry. Longitude, latitude and altitude of Zabol are 30º 54', 61º 40' and 496 m, respectively.
Experimental design was a split plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Treatments of irrigation regimes with four levels ( mm evaporation from class A evaporation basin level) were considered as the main plot and the values of superabsorbent with four levels ( ) as subplots. Planting were performed with experiments linear device. All of potash and phosphate fertilizers, to the amount of 200 and 150 kg per hectare was mixed with the soil before planting. 1/3 of urea and 2/3 remining were used in tillering and spiking stages. During the growth period was performed, recorded, applying water treatment, and weeding weeds. Super absorbent polymer according to the scheme and determined amount of superabsorbent polymer for each plot along with seed placed in the ground by the device at proper depth. The spacing between the seeds was 5 cm on rows and the row spacing was 20 cm. Each sub-plot consisted of six 5-m-long rows. Treatments irrigation was irrigated after reaching to desired level of daily evaporation (80, 120, 160 and 200 mm). Measuring traits such as number of grains per spike and number of spikes per square meter, thousand seed weight as randomly sampling was done at the subplots. Seed harvesting was done when the plants were maturated. After eliminating two side rows and 0.5 m from both sides of the plots as the marginal effect, 10 plants were randomly harvested from each plot and measured traits such as number of grains per spike and thousand seed weight. Seed and biomass yield were determined after harvesting of 1 m 2 in each sub-plot. The data were statistically analyzed by software MSTAT-C and the means were compared by Duncan Multiple Range Test at P = .05 probability level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation regime were statistically significant on the number of spike per square meter, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Effect of super absorbent polymers, except for thousand seed weight and harvest index showed significant differences on other traits. Interaction of irrigation regimes and super absorbent polymer was significant on number spike per square meter and, number of grains per spike (Table 1). Maximum number of spike per square meter was obtained by irrigation treatment based on 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation which had significantly different with other irrigation treatments. The lowest number of spike per square meter related to irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation (Table 2). Significant effect of irrigation on the number of spike per square meter in accordant was with results (Komeili , 2006 and ShahbazPanahi , 2012. The highest number of spike per square meter was obtained by treatment use of 225 kg superabsorbent per hectare, which had significant difference with other treatments. The lowest number of spike per square meter was achieved by treatment no use of super absorbent (Table 2). results (Aghashiri, 2011) were consistent above results.
The highest number grain in spike was obtained after 120 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation but the lowest number grain in spike was observed in irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A (Table 2).
Reducing the number of grains per spike, was most likely due to an increase in the percentage of flowerets aborted. Drought stress during division stage of mother cells of pollen grain causes to anther abnormal development and eventually leads to a significant reduction in the number of grains per spike compared with non- stress conditions. Results (Soleymeni, 2010, ShabazPanahi, 2012, Dencic, 2000 and Dehghanzade, 2006), indicates decrease number of grains per spike due to the drought stress that correspond with results of the present
270 study. The greatest amount of grain per spike was obtained by treatment use of 225 kg superabsorbent per hectare which showed significant difference with other treatments (Table 2). Seems super absorbent, through the water supply and followed some nutrient elements at a critical stage of grain formation, led to reducing abortions, and thus increasing the seed fertilized. This result was in accordant with results (AghaShiri, 2011 and Farahani, 2011).
In the interaction of water stress and super absorbent, highest number of spike in square and number of grains per spike was observed in treatments I1S4 and I2S4 (1 and 2 Figures).
Table 1. Analysis of variance of measured traits influenced water stress and superabsorbent consumption Sources changes Degrees of
Mean-square Number of spikes per square meter
Grains per spike
Thousand grain weight
Biomass Grain yield Harvest index
Repeat 2 595.56** 16.178ns 82.312** 2746.396ns 2746.396ns 0.949ns
Irrigation (I) 3 2435.743** 113.165** 36.361** 852007.076** 852007.076** 24.528*
The first error 6 14.035 8.580 2.674 305.201 3058/201 3.898
Superabsorbent (S) 3 388.132** 44.345** 5.861ns 14116.076** 14116.076** 5.368ns
S ×I 9 44.243** 17.030* 3.842ns 3334.687ns 3334.687ns 3.089ns
The second error 24 13.028 7.015 1.972 1753.889 1753.889 4.364
The coefficient of variation (% CV)
0.966 7.201 914.3 0.670 0.670 6.213
* and ** and ns respectively significant at the 1% level, 5% and not significantly
Table 2. Comparison of mean of measured traits influenced water stress and superabsorbent consumption Sources
Mean-square Water deficit
Number of spikes per square meter
Grains per spike
Thousand grain weight (gr)
Grain yield (Kg/
Harvest index (Percent)
11 395.50a 38.19b 36.67a 6545.17a 4786.00a 35.09a
12 374.17b 40.008a 37.92a 6255.75b 4371.33b 34.59a
13 638.50c 36.07ab 37.08b 5897.42c 4267.92b 32.56b
14 358.58d 32.86c 34.08b 5897.42c 3962.33c 32.24b
S1 367.08c 35.94b 35.83a 6229.75b 4273.00b 32.88a
S2 372.67b 35.62b 35.67a 6229.08b 4337.25b 34.44a
S3 373.08b 35.92b 35.17a 6230.67b 4333.00b 33.33a
S4 380.92a 39.66a 36.83a 6298.42a 4444.33a 33.83a
I1, I2, I3, I4, repectively, are 80, 120, 160 and 180 mm evaporation from pan evaporation level and S3, S2, S1S4, respectively, are witness of 75, 150 and 225 kg super absorbent. Averages of each column having a common letter are not significantly differ.
Figure 1. The interaction water stress and superabsorbent consumption on number of spikes per square.
Averages of each column having a common letter are not significantly differ.
Number of spikes per square meter
Figure 2. The interaction water stress and superabsorbent consumption on number grain in spikes.
Maximum thousand kernel weight was obtained in irrigation after 120 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation which not had significantly different with 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation.
the lowest thousand seed weight was related to irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation (Table 2).
which was consistent with research of (Naderi-darbaghshahi, 2007), (ShahbazPanahi, 2012), (Soleymani, 2010) and (Plaut, 2004). (Pandet, 2001) reported that reduced photosynthetic capacity due to rate of loss of leaves during grain filling decreased thousand grain weight.
This result was in accordant with results (Naderi-darbaghshahi, 2007), (Shahbaz Panahi, 2012), (Soleymani, 2010) and (Plaut, 2004).
Effect of superabsorbent application on thousand grain weight was no significant. Maximum biological yield was obtained in irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation. With increasing severity of drought stress, biological yield showed significant loss, so that in irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation was obtained lowest biological yield (Table 1). Significant reduction of biological yield and total dry weight was reduction in vegetative organs and yield components such as the number spike per sufrace unit, and the number of grains per spike and thousand seed weight. (Dehghanzade 2006), (Soleymani, 2010), (ShahbazPanahi, 2012) as well as noted to significant loss of biological yield due to drought stress intensity. These results are consistent with the above test results. Highest biological yield were obtained by using 225 kg ha superabsorbent (Table 2). this results is correspond with Kohestani et al (Kohestani, 2009) research which were expressed that use of superabsorbent hydrogels improves the biological performance under stress conditions by increasing water holding capacity in the soil, reducing nutrient leaching, optimum root growth and better aeration of the soil. Maximum grain yield was obtained by irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation. By increasing stress intensity grain yield showed a considerable decrease, until the lowest grain yield was obtained by irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation. (Villegas, 2001) justified that drought stress on grain yield and components yield negative affect.
This results is consistent with the result of (Emam, 2007), (Soleymani, 2010) and (ShahbazPanahi, 2012).
Highest grain yield was obtained by application 225 kg ha superabsorbent which has significant defference with other treatments (Table 2). (Aghashiri, 2011) and (FaramhiniFrahani, 2011), and (Kohestani, 2009) at his research found significant the effect of superabsorbent treatments on grain yield. Maximum harvest index was obtained by irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation which has no significant difference with irrigation after 120 mm evaporation and lowest harvest index was obtained by irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation (Table 2).
Decreasing in Harvest index by increasing severity of drought stress is due to more sensitive reproduction phase than vegetative phase. Experiment results of (Soleymani, 2010), (Dehghanzade, 2006) and (Engel, 2003) also implies that drought stress affected harvest index. Effect Superabsorbent treatment on harvest index was not significant (Table 1). The results of simple correlation analysis of traits, indicated that existence of significant positive correlation between grain yield and plant height (r = 0.763), spike length (r = 0.851), number of spikes per square meter (r = 0.820), harvest index (r = 0.548), biomass (r = 0.922), grain numbers per spike (r = 0.306) and thousand seed weight (r = 0.318).
number grain in spikes
Table 3. Linear correlation coefficients (simple) between measured traits affected by irrigation regimes on different values Number of spikes per square
Grains per spike
Thousand grain weight
Biomass Grain yield
Harvest index Number of spikes per square
Grains per spike 0.267ns 1.000
Thousand grain weight 0.223ns 0.357* 1.000
Biomass 0.502** 0.248ns 0.243* 1.000
Grain yield 0.798** 0.363* 0.256ns 0.416** 1.000
Harvest index 0.820** 0.306* 0.318* 0.548** 0.922** 1.000
Results showed that drought stress reduced the grain yield and yield components, so that the highest grain yield is related to non-stress treatment (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation) with mean of 4786 kg/ ha. The lowest grain yield obtained in treatment irrigation after 200 mm evaporation from pan class A evaporation with mean of 3962 kg/ha. Use of hygroscopic material (superabsorbents) can reduce the damaging effects and increased crop yield and led to water savings. So that among the different levels of superabsorben, maximum grain yield is related to application 225 kg/ha superabsorbent with mean 4444 kg/ha. superabsorbent.
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