• No results found

Automatic Transmission Internal Diagnosis

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "Automatic Transmission Internal Diagnosis"

Copied!
152
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

Automotive

Electrical

Wiring Harness

Diagnosis & Repair

Automatic

Transmission

(2)

SAFETY FIRST

Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles as well as the personal safety of the individual performing the repair. There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of the individual performing the service. This module cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or caution to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instruction provided in this module must first establish that they compromise neither their personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by their choice of methods, tools or parts. The following list contains general warnings that should always be followed while working on a vehicle. • Always wear safety glasses for eye protection.

• Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires underbody work.

• Be sure the ignition switch is always off unless otherwise specified by a procedure. • Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle.

• Operate the engine only in a well ventilated area. • Keep clear of moving parts when the engine is running.

• To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler.

• Do not smoke while working on a vehicle.

Within this module you will find Notes, Cautions and Warnings which provide critical information and help you do your job safely and efficiently. Below are the definitions of these terms.

When you see a Note, Caution or Warning, be certain you understand the message before you attempt to perform any part of a service procedure.

NOTE

The purpose of a Note is to help you do your job more efficiently. A Note may provide additional information to help clarify a particular point or procedure.

CAUTION

A Caution alerts you to the possibility of damage to tools, equipment, or the vehicle. A Caution recommends that a procedure must be done in a certain way to avoid potential problems resulting from improper techniques or methods.

WARNING

A Warning alerts you to the highest level of risk. Warnings inform you that a procedure must be done in a particular way to minimize the chances of an accident that could result in personal injury or even loss of life.

(3)

The content of this course is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any reliance placed on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. In no event will Kia Motors America, Inc. ("KMA") or Kia University be liable for any loss or damage including, without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage,

property loss, damage, personal injury or death caused to any persons arising out of or in connection with the use of this course.

(4)

TT-ATID207-IL-CG01 6th Printing - January 2011

(5)

COURSE OVERVIEW

COURSE GOAL

COURSE OBJECTIVES

EXPECTATIONS

The Automatic Transmission Internal Diagnosis Course provides Kia service technicians with the opportunity to increase their ability and efficiency by using the A/T diagnostic flowchart as outlined in the A/T TSB to verify, and diagnose concerns internal to an automatic transmission in determining if the unit should be replaced or not.

The goal of this course is to train Kia service

technicians with the skills required to increase their diagnose proficiency through intermediate to advanced level hands-on, instructor supervised guided practices including:

x Internal A/T problem

x ATF level and condition inspections x Use of the Kia A/T Diagnostic Flowchart

This course is designed to develop the skills required to diagnose internal Kia automatic transmissions related concerns.

Critical service topics include:

x Use of the Kia A/T Diagnosis Flowchart x Proper use of the updated A/T Tester Pro

x Determining whether an A/T unit should be repaired or replaced

x An individual performance assessment at the end of the course measures mastery of the course content. Upon completion of this course, the Kia Service

Technician will be able to demonstrate with 80% or greater accuracy:

x A/T diagnostic procedures using the Kia A/T Diagnosis Flowchart and A/T Core Data Form x Use of the current A/T Tester

x Whether to repair or replace a Kia A/T.

(6)

PREREQUISITES The following web courses must be completed prior to the start of the ATID course:

x Kia Automatic Transmission Maintenance x Introduction to Kia A/T Diagnosis

ABOUT TRAINING MODULES THEORY GUIDED PRACTICE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

GETTING THE MOST OUT OF THIS COURSE

Today's complex automotive technology demands that you, the professional Kia service technician, stay up to-date with the latest service information, special tools and complex repair procedures. We have adopted a modular training delivery system that breaks-down the critical information into logical groups. First, you will be presented with system theory and operation, and then given a chance to practice what you have learned. Finally, we will test what you have learned through a Performance Assessment.

A Theory Module explains the subject This allows you to obtain a working knowledge of a component or system, which helps guide you to successful diagnosis and repair.

The Guided Practice Module allows you the

opportunity to familiarize yourself through hands-on experience. The tasks are to be instructor supervised and verified. These exercises may include: the use of service manuals or Kia service information system, accessing Kdealer.net, lab disassembly and reassembly, live vehicle activities and much more.

The Performance Assessment Module provides you the opportunity to demonstrate and prove that you can diagnose A/T related concerns.

Each technician must successfully complete this module. It is designed to test your cognitive (knowledge) in diagnosing a customer concern.

These modules are designed to be part of a structured training plan consisting of lecture, interactive classroom discussion and hands-on shop activities under the direction of a trained Kia instructor. After completing the course modules, your understanding of the material will be verified through the Performance Assessment module; you must pass the written and hands-on evaluations.

(7)

COURSE MATERIAL

AGENDA

PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

Module Number Module Title Theory Guided Practice Diagnosis Performance Assessment Guide

ATID 01 Course Guide X ATID 02 A/T Reman

Process X ATID 03 Preliminary Inspection X ATID 04 A/T Diagnostic Flowchart X ATID 05 ATID Guided

Practice X

ATID 06 Performance

Assessment X ATID.01 Course 8:00 – 8:30 am ATID.02 Reman Process 8:30 – 9:00 am ATID.03 Preliminary Inspection 9:30 – 10:15 am

Break 10:15 – 10:30 am

ATID.04 Flowchart Diag 10:30 – 12:00 pm

Lunch 12:00 – 1:00 pm

ATID.04 Continued 1:00 – 2:00 pm ATID.05 A/T Diagnostic 2:00 – 3:00 pm

Break 3:00 – 3:15 pm

ATID.06 PA 3:15 – 4:15 pm

Wrap up 4:15 – 4:45 pm

The Performance Scorecard is used to track your performance on guided practices, diagnosis &

(8)

COURSE MANAGEMENT TAKE NOTES ASK QUESTIONS TEAMWORK LEARN AT EVERY OPPORTUNITY ICONS

The course and its materials are here for you to learn and keep. Use them and your time in a way that will benefit you when you return to your dealership. Make drawings, jot down notes, and highlight these materials to help you remember important details. Each module is designed with ample margins for your

important notes.

If you do not understand something in this course, ask

your instructor for clarification. Asking questions is

strongly encouraged to help you get the most out of this course.

During the hands-on activities, you will often be working as a team. By actively engaging in each activity, you will maximize your learning experience. While in the lab, feel free to ask the instructor questions at any time.

This course is an opportunity for you to learn in a controlled environment under the guidance of a trained Kia instructor. Through active participation you can build confidence in your abilities to diagnose, customer concerns right the first time, every time!

The Reference Icon indicates you must refer to additional publications in order to complete the questions or activity.

The Video Icon indicates there is a video segment corresponding to the module information.

The Activities Icon indicates an activity that supports a critical learning objective. These activities are offered to help you master the material.

The Feedback Icon indicates a progress check meant to provide you with feedback on your understanding of the course material.

(9)

Automatic

Transmission

Automatic Transmission

Program

(10)

SAFETY FIRST

Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles as well as the personal safety of the individual performing the repair. There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of the individual performing the service. This module cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or caution to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instruction provided in this module must first establish that they compromise neither their personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by their choice of methods, tools or parts. The following list contains general warnings that should always be followed while working on a vehicle. • Always wear safety glasses for eye protection.

• Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires underbody work.

• Be sure the ignition switch is always off unless otherwise specified by a procedure. • Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle.

• Operate the engine only in a well ventilated area. • Keep clear of moving parts when the engine is running.

• To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler.

• Do not smoke while working on a vehicle.

Within this module you will find Notes, Cautions and Warnings which provide critical information and help you do your job safely and efficiently. Below are the definitions of these terms.

When you see a Note, Caution or Warning, be certain you understand the message before you attempt to perform any part of a service procedure.

NOTE

The purpose of a Note is to help you do your job more efficiently. A Note may provide additional information to help clarify a particular point or procedure.

CAUTION

A Caution alerts you to the possibility of damage to tools, equipment, or the vehicle. A Caution recommends that a procedure must be done in a certain way to avoid potential problems resulting from improper techniques or methods.

WARNING

A Warning alerts you to the highest level of risk. Warnings inform you that a procedure must be done in a particular way to minimize the chances of an accident that could result in personal injury or even loss of life.

(11)

The content of this course is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any reliance placed on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. In no event will Kia Motors America, Inc. ("KMA") or Kia University be liable for any loss or damage including, without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage,

property loss, damage, personal injury or death caused to any persons arising out of or in connection with the use of this course.

(12)

TT-ATID207-IL-TH02 6th Printing - January 2011

(13)

TARGET AUDIENCE MODULE GOAL MODULE OBJECTIVES MODULE INSTRUCTIONS REQUIRED MATERIALS TIME TO COMPLETE

The target audience for this module consists of Kia Senior and Master Service Technicians who will diagnose and repair Kia automatic transmissions. The goal of this module is to inform the Kia Service Technician on the processes required to properly document and return a Kia A/T for remanufacturing. Given this module, and a written performance

assessment test, the technician will be able to complete the following with 80% or greater accuracy:

x Accurately document the diagnosis of the customer concern

x Proper handling of the replacement assembly x Proper preparation of the core for remanufacturing x Understanding the remanufacturing process

Module pages contain the power point images; study each illustration and take notes based on the classroom presentation and discussion.

In order to complete this module, you will need the following items:

x A/T TSB

x A/T Parts Bulletin

x A/T remanufacturing concerns x Preferred writing instrument Approximately 30 minutes.

(14)

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE

When diagnosing a customer A/T related concern, a systematic approach for diagnosing to the point of replacing the A/T assembly.

In this module, we will follow the A/T assembly through the Kia process of:

x Inspections

x Diagnosis to the point of failure x Remanufacture

To efficiently return the A/T assembly, while securing dealership core credit and reducing the possibly of chargeback.

(15)

Tech diagnose replacement of the A/T: x DPSM approval

x Assembly ordered (Fed/CA) x Unit arrives

x Note shipping items: x Documentation x New serial number x TC bolted down x Side gear retainers x ATF hoses

x Cooler flush x Cap in VSS

Returning the core: x Case

x Not disassembled/damaged

x Exchange any exterior components x Documentation

(16)

Core is picked up within 2 days of claim At shipping center, core is visually inspected for shipping docs, missing parts or fluid leaking

Authorizes the $1K core charge return Reverse logistics reduces core charge return time.

From dist. Center, core goes to San Diego for export to Tijuana, Mexico

Explain what TransLead is.

TransLead inspects the core for prior disassembly and proper documentation. Shown: Cores received and logged into computer management system.

Documentation is issued under new serial number for assembly

If returned core is a reman, core is noted for inspection to determine failure

Core removed from case and placed on plywood board for forklift movement. The exterior is “dry” cleaned.

(17)

Returned remanufactured units are inspected and tested on a dyno based upon the RO and A/T Core Data Form. If failure is confirmed, the core continues on the line to be remanufactured

If not, the core is shipped to the inspection room for tear down to determine the point of failure.

All cores are taken to the start of a U-shaped remanufacturing line.

Core is mounted on stand for draining and disassembled.

Pan is removed with a rubber hammer No gasket uses sealer

If pan damaged during removal, pan is replaced.

ATF is inspected

Valve body: x Removed

x Sent to a clean room for inspection x Remanufactured with new electrical

(18)

Remanufactured valve bodies

Torque Converter: x Sent to be cut apart

x Inspected and worn parts replaced x Including the fins, OWC and bearing Inspection sheet documentation shown

Turbine and Pump sections are welded back together

(19)

Balance is checked.

If out of specification, unit is discarded.

The core is:

x Completely disassembled

x Sorted into racks for cleaning & inspection

x Hard parts separate from soft parts x Case is removed from the stand

Parts are cleaned by: x Hand washing and then x Hot washed (shown)

(20)

Spray cans are used to paint the: x Case

x Pan

x Pump cover

Hard parts are replaced if necessary Parts come from the parts department

Soft parts are shown in the background x Replaced as needed

(21)

Steels are replaced as needed Assembly starts

Assembly

Final drive assembled:

x New bearings if necessary x End play adjusted

x Most pressure port plugs installed x Valve body installed

(22)

TC installed

x Filled with ATF

x Unit mounted to tester

x Quick disconnect installed at test ports

100% of units tested Test results are: x Printed out

x Included with internal documents Unit removed

ATF drained from pan

Plugs installed into line pressure ports. x Line pressure testing is no longer

allowed due to case damage. x Plugs are marked/painted as a

tamper indicator.

Case is vacuum tested for ATF leaks Installed for shipping:

x ATF hose & dipstick tube plug x Axle plugs

x TC hold down x VSS plug

(23)

Assemblies:

x Placed in the shipping case x Cooler flush can

x Washers if needed x Document bag x Caution tag x Part number

RH side: Empty clean cases

LH side & background: Completed assemblies waiting shipping to PDC

When returned cores disassembled in the component room, the failed causal

components are kept for recall by the supplier.

(24)

Broken or cracked case should be marked and documented prior to returning the core by technician.

This damage could have been done: x Before the repair

x Cause of the concern x After removal from vehicle Should be documented by technician

Exterior damage should be well marked and documented by technician

(25)

Damaged pan possibly the cause of the concern

This new reman A/T assembly was not installed into a vehicle and returned as a core.

(26)
(27)
(28)

NOTE PAGE

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(29)

Automatic

Transmission

Automatic Transmission

Preliminary Inspection

(30)

SAFETY FIRST

Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles as well as the personal safety of the individual performing the repair. There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of the individual performing the service. This module cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or caution to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instruction provided in this module must first establish that they compromise neither their personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by their choice of methods, tools or parts. The following list contains general warnings that should always be followed while working on a vehicle. • Always wear safety glasses for eye protection.

• Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires underbody work.

• Be sure the ignition switch is always off unless otherwise specified by a procedure. • Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle.

• Operate the engine only in a well ventilated area. • Keep clear of moving parts when the engine is running.

• To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler.

• Do not smoke while working on a vehicle.

Within this module you will find Notes, Cautions and Warnings which provide critical information and help you do your job safely and efficiently. Below are the definitions of these terms.

When you see a Note, Caution or Warning, be certain you understand the message before you attempt to perform any part of a service procedure.

NOTE

The purpose of a Note is to help you do your job more efficiently. A Note may provide additional information to help clarify a particular point or procedure.

CAUTION

A Caution alerts you to the possibility of damage to tools, equipment, or the vehicle. A Caution recommends that a procedure must be done in a certain way to avoid potential problems resulting from improper techniques or methods.

WARNING

A Warning alerts you to the highest level of risk. Warnings inform you that a procedure must be done in a particular way to minimize the chances of an accident that could result in personal injury or even loss of life.

(31)

The content of this course is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any reliance placed on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. In no event will Kia Motors America, Inc. ("KMA") or Kia University be liable for any loss or damage including, without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage,

property loss, damage, personal injury or death caused to any persons arising out of or in connection with the use of this course.

(32)

TT-ATID207-IL-GP03 6th Printing - January 2011

(33)

TARGET AUDIENCE

MODULE GOALS

MODULE OBJECTIVES

The target audience for this module consists of Kia Senior and Master Service Technicians who will diagnose Kia A/T.

The goal of this module is to train the technician to perform properly the preliminary A/T inspection prior to verifying the customer’s concern.

Given this module, a vehicle, required tools/materials and upon completion, the technician will have perform the following tasks with 80% or greater accuracy: x Measure the vehicle’s engine coolant temperature

and ATF temperature using a scan tool x Accurately determine the A/T ATF level and

condition

x Given ATF samples, determine those that have any abnormal odor, contamination, or indication of A/T internal damage.

x Check the operation and adjustment of the range switch.

x Perform a lag test.

x Determine if the MIL is ON.

x Given a Kia scan tool, retrieve engine and A/T DTCs if the MIL is ON.

(34)

MODULE INSTRUCTIONS

REQUIRED MATERIALS

TIME TO COMPLETE

Carefully read and follow the instructions for each task. Answer the questions and fill in the blanks with the requested information as you perform the task. When you have finished, have your training instructor

evaluate your work and sigh-off on the scorecard that it has been complete.

In order to complete this module, you will need the following items:

x Kia vehicle with A/T and dipstick x 2009 Borrego 3.8L without dipstick x Kia scan tool

x ATF Samples

x White Paper for Inspection x Wheel Chocks

x Writing Instrument Approximately 45 minutes

(35)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION In this module, we will perform the following tasks that are required before the test drive and while verifying the customer’s A/T related concern.

x Check the fluid level and condition

x Check the operation of the range switch and shift position indicator

x Perform a lag test

x Retrieve and clear any DTCs if the MIL is ON

Station 1: Assigned vehicle (5 points)

x ATF inspection x Range switch check

(36)

ATF INSPECTION

All A/T diagnosis begins with an inspection of the ATF for:

x Correct level x Condition & Color x Odor

x Unknown fluid

x Evidence of internal A/T failure

NOTE: New ATF is red in color. With time and normal

A/T operation, the color will change to light brown. If the fluid has a burnt smell, it is an indication that the clutches have been slipping. This may be caused by: x Low fluid level

x Wrong fluid type x Internal problems x Electrical problems

x Vehicle being driven aggressively x Incorrect towing

(37)

STATION 1:

ATF INSPECTION Using the vehicle provided, check the temperatures and ATF level, then record the results below. Use a scan tool to determine the temperatures.

Engine temperature (Key ON, engine OFF): _________________________ Degrees F A/T temperature (Key ON, engine OFF): _________________________ Degrees F Fluid level inspection procedure:

1. Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface.

2. Wipe all dirt or contaminates from around the ATF level dipstick before removing it.

3. Set the parking brake, ensure that the gear select lever is in “Park”, and start the engine.

4. Shift through all gears then return to “Park”. This will fill the torque converter and all circuits with “Hot” Operating

Range – 158-176° F

“Cold” ATF Level Indicator Range

(38)

STATION 1: CONTINUED

RANGE SWITCH

LAG TEST

MIL STATUS

Does the engine start in park and neutral YES NO

Does the engine start in any other position? YES NO

Does the indicator show the correct position for each position?

YES NO

What is the approximate amount of time for the A/T to engage?

Park to Reverse ________________________________ Park to Drive __________________________________ Is the MIL on?

YES NO

If the MIL is ON, what does this indicate?

_____________________________________________ List any DTCs stored.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

(39)

STATION 2:

ATF INSPECTION ON DIPSTICK LESS A/T

BORREGO 3.8L

Using the vehicle provided, check the temperatures and ATF level, then record the results below.

Use a scan tool to determine the temperatures. A/T fluid temperature should be between 130° and 140 °F (54° - 60°C)

A/T temperature (Key ON, engine OFF): _________________________ Degrees F Fluid level inspection procedure:

1. Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface.

2. Set the parking brake, ensure that the gear select lever is in “Park”, and start the engine.

3. Shift through all gears then return to “Park”. This will fill the torque converter and all circuits with ATF.

(40)

STATION 2 CONTINUED:

4. Safely raise the vehicle to a height that allows you to gain access to the fill and overflow plugs

5. Place a drain pan below the A/T then remove the fill and overflow plugs

6. Observe the flow of ATF from the overflow plug. 7. Install and tighten the overflow plug.

8. Install and tighten the fill plug.

9. Lower the vehicle and turn off the engine. 10. How did the ATF flow from the overfill port?

___________________________________ Discuss your results with your instructor. Clean up your area when finished.

(41)

STATION 3:

ANALYZING FLUID SAMPLES

Analyze the ATF and determine what’s wrong if anything.

Take a small amount of the supplied ATF samples and place it on the paper supplied. Visually look, feel, and smell each sample. Determine if the fluid is good, burnt, contaminated, contains clutch material or metal flakes and describe below.

Sample 1: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Sample 2: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Sample 3: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Sample 4: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Sample 5: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Sample 6: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

(42)

NOTE PAGE

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(43)

NOTE PAGE

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(44)

NOTE PAGE

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(45)

Automatic

Transmission

Automatic Transmission

Diagnostic Flowchart

(46)

SAFETY FIRST

Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles as well as the personal safety of the individual performing the repair. There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of the individual performing the service. This module cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or caution to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instruction provided in this module must first establish that they compromise neither their personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by their choice of methods, tools or parts. The following list contains general warnings that should always be followed while working on a vehicle. • Always wear safety glasses for eye protection.

• Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires underbody work.

• Be sure the ignition switch is always off unless otherwise specified by a procedure. • Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle.

• Operate the engine only in a well ventilated area. • Keep clear of moving parts when the engine is running.

• To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler.

• Do not smoke while working on a vehicle.

Within this module you will find Notes, Cautions and Warnings which provide critical information and help you do your job safely and efficiently. Below are the definitions of these terms.

When you see a Note, Caution or Warning, be certain you understand the message before you attempt to perform any part of a service procedure.

NOTE

The purpose of a Note is to help you do your job more efficiently. A Note may provide additional information to help clarify a particular point or procedure.

CAUTION

A Caution alerts you to the possibility of damage to tools, equipment, or the vehicle. A Caution recommends that a procedure must be done in a certain way to avoid potential problems resulting from improper techniques or methods.

WARNING

A Warning alerts you to the highest level of risk. Warnings inform you that a procedure must be done in a particular way to minimize the chances of an accident that could result in personal injury or even loss of life.

(47)

The content of this course is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any reliance placed on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. In no event will Kia Motors America, Inc. ("KMA") or Kia University be liable for any loss or damage including, without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage,

property loss, damage, personal injury or death caused to any persons arising out of or in connection with the use of this course.

(48)

TT-ATID207-IL-TH04 6th Printing - January 2011

(49)

TARGET AUDIENCE

MODULE GOAL

MODULE OBJECTIVES

MODULE INSTRUCTIONS

REQUIRED MATERIALS

The target audience for this module consists of Kia Senior and Master Service Technicians who will diagnose and repair Kia automatic transmissions. The goal of this module is to train the Kia Service Technician with the skills required to diagnose A/T related concerns using the A/T Diagnostic Flowchart to determine if the cause is internal and the assembly needs to be replaced.

Given this module, and a written multiple-choice test, the technician will be able to complete the following with 80% or greater accuracy:

x Proper use of the A/T Diagnostic Flowchart x Proper use of the GDS to:

o Retrieve and clear DTCs o Retrieve current A/T data

x Analysis of ATF levels and conditions

x Analysis of range switch and lag-test results x Proper use of the GR8-1299

x Proper use of the A/T Tester Plus x Analysis of stall-test results

x Analysis of voltage drop test results

Carefully read the material, take notes based on the classroom discussion and study each illustration. Throughout the module, there will be Progress Check questions for you to answer. You may use the module to answer the questions.

In order to complete this module, you will need the following items:

(50)

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE

The A/T Diagnostic Flowchart and A/T Core Data Form (ATCDF) are the keys to your success in properly troubleshooting and diagnosing A/T problems. In this module, we will follow the:

x A/T Diagnostic Flowchart x The 5-step process

To quickly and efficiently diagnose A/T system for internal malfunctions and concerns.

The purpose of the A/T Flowchart is to provide you with a systematic plan, based on the Kia 5-step

Troubleshooting Process, for correcting a customer’s A/T related concern the first time, every time.

The ATCDF is used to document your findings and pass this information on to the warranty system and the A/T remanufacturing facility.

NOTE: Both the Flowchart and ATCDF are printable

(51)
(52)

A/T CORE DATA FORM (ATCDF)

The ATCDF is where you will record your findings while following the Flowchart in verifying and diagnosing a

(53)

REPAIR ORDER (RO)

The above RO is the type used in this course. It’s used by the dealership “customer care” team to track and document the service or repairs on a customer’s vehicle.

While the RO may look different from one dealer to another, they have the same basic information: x Owner information

x Vehicle information

x History of the previous 4 or 5 service/repairs at your dealership

x Recommended services

Customer states:

(54)

SERVICE ADVISOR SECTION

You begin by reviewing the customer’s stated concern on the RO, if necessary with the service advisor to assure no misunderstanding.

NOTE: An incorrect description of the customer’s

concern may lead to misdiagnosis.

Based upon the customer’s stated concern, circle the nature code that best describes the condition.

(55)

2

ND

OR SUBSEQUENT REPAIR ATTEMPT

After you have reviewed the customer concern, it’s time to look at the service and warranty history to determine if this is a 2nd or subsequent A/T related repair.

If so, open a TechLine web case for assistance and

(56)

FLUID CHECK

The inspection starts with a check of the ATF level and

condition:

x Parking brake applied x Engine running

x A/T in “Park” or “Neutral”

The condition of the ATF typically fall into 4 categories: x Normal—light brown color with no abnormal odors. x Burnt—dark brown color with an odor similar to

burnt toast.

x Contaminated — dark brown color containing clutch material, metal particles or other fluids.

x Water or coolant contaminated — milky color

x NOTE: It is not critical at this time to have the engine and A/T up to normal operating temperature.

COLD

(57)

RANGE SWITCH – LAG TEST

The A/T range switch typically does not get out of adjustment unless there has been some type of service that would require disconnecting the shift cable,

engine, or A/T.

Adjustable range switches typically have an alignment procedure that uses a pin that aligns two holes on the switch.

Refer to the service information for the correct procedure for the vehicle you are diagnosing. Possible customer concerns are that the: x Engine may not start

x The A/T does not go into “Reverse” or “Drive” x There may be shift flare

(58)

SHIFT INTERLOCK CONTROL

SHIFT INTERLOCK In this schematic the ATM key lock control module receives the ignition switch input on terminal 1, the “P” Park input from the range switch on terminal 4 and the brake switch input on terminal 2. The ATM and KEY solenoids are energizes by grounding the solenoids.

(59)

MANUAL RELEASE

SHIFT INTERLOCK RELEASE The shift interlock is designed to prevent the gear shift from being placed into gear without the brake pedal being depressed.

This is controlled with a solenoid that operates when the ignition key is on and the brake pedal is depressed. The shift lock can be manually released by placing the ignition key in the slot and pressing on the release tab while moving the shifter into neutral. Then the vehicle can be started.

(60)

MIL STATUS –RECORD AND CLEAR DTCS

If the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) is on, it typically indicates an engine or A/T emission related DTC has been stored.

Use the scan tool, retrieve the DTC, record freeze

(61)

TEST DRIVE

Test-drive the vehicle under similar conditions as reported by the customer, if a DTC was retrieved and cleared, be sure to duplicate Freeze Frame data during the test drive.

Attempt to duplicate the customer’s concern and determine if the concern is a normal condition or is there a problem.

Contact the service advisor for further information. If necessary have the customer demonstrate the condition if you are unable to verify the concern.

(62)

TEST DRIVE RESULTS

Based on the results of your test drive you will follow one of the diagnostic paths on the Flowchart:

x No Trouble Found

x Engine Operation Concern x A/T Performance Concern x A/T Related Noise Concern x Fluid Leak Concern

(63)

NO TROUBLE FOUND

If during your test drive, you do not experience the customer’s concern and/or you did not experience an A/T malfunction, contact the service advisor to get additional information.

This may also require the customer driving the vehicle and demonstrating what they are experiencing.

If the transmission is operating as designed, it may be necessary to have the customer drive another vehicle to demonstrate its operation. You could also review the owner’s manual with them.

(64)

ENGINE OPERATION CONCERN

It is possible to have an engine related problem that feels like an A/T problem. Most engine drivability concerns have a related DTC.

x Use the Kia scan tool to: x Check for DTCs.

x Inspect current engine data. x Compare with service information.

Engine mechanical problems may require further diagnosis such as:

x Vacuum x Exhaust leaks x Fuel pressure x Ignition tests

x Compression checks x Cylinder leak down test x Restricted intake or exhaust x Timing belt/chain

(65)

A/T RELATED NOISES

When diagnosing noises, it may be difficult to

determine if the cause is from the tires, bearings, axles, engine or A/T.

Use a stethoscope or chassis ears to determine the origin of the noise.

If you have determined it is an A/T related noise, then drive a vehicle of the same model and year. If the noise is worse than the compared vehicle and there is no noise related service bulletin, open a TechLine WEB case to review diagnosis.

Prior to ordering A/T assembly replacement, contact the DPSM for authorization.

(66)

A/T FLUID LEAKS

External ATF leaks may occur from: x Gaskets.

x Damaged o-rings. x Connectors. x Cooler lines.

During your visual inspection for leaks, check for physical damage. This may be from:

x Accident damage. x Driving over debris.

x Improper repairs or modifications. x Incorrect towing.

x Improper use of a floor jack causing damage to the A/T oil pan or case.

It is important to mark the location of the leak on the A/T core prior to returning it due to the difficultly in visually finding the point of the leak at the plant. Prior to ordering A/T assembly replacement, contact the DPSM for authorization.

Currently Kia does not authorize performing A/T pressure checks.

(67)

FILL IN ATCDF

With this section completed, now fill out the related section on the ATCDF.

(68)

A/T PERFORMANCE – REPAIR HISTORY – RELATED SERVICE

INFORMATION

If you have verified the concern, and it is an A/T

Performance Concern, it is time to analyze/diagnose

the concern.

You will need to review the vehicle repair with warranty history and research related service information such as TSBs, Technical Times etc. for the verified concern using GDS.

(69)

BATTERY AND CHARGING SYSTEM VOLTAGE

Your first check when diagnosing an A/T Performance

Concern is to inspect and test for proper battery and

charging system voltage.

The battery is the heart of all electronic components on the vehicle.

If a computer does not see the proper input value or apply the proper output signal, the system being controlled will not function as designed.

(70)

BATTERY AND CHARGING SYSTEM TEST

Always test the battery before performing any other diagnosis. If any conditions warrant repairs, perform them before you continue with your diagnosis. x Battery test

o Good battery o Good recharge o Charge & retest o Replace battery o Bad cell-replace

The current Kia recommended method is to use the GR8-1299 Multitasking Battery and Electrical Diagnostic Station to perform the test using the conductance method to determine the battery’s ability to store electricity. Conductance is a measure of the plate surface available in the battery to determine how much electrical energy the battery can store.

In most cases, the analyzer can test the battery in the vehicle without recharging. Since no loads are placed on the battery, this test procedure is completely safe. If the battery does not pass the test, perform the necessary repairs before continuing with your

diagnosis. Attach a print-out of the test results to the RO.

(71)

DTCS

Now is the time to begin the troubleshooting process. The next step is to record if the MIL is ON or OFF, and use the scan tool to check for DTCs in the ENGINE and AUTO TRANS menus.

You will follow one of the following three paths on the flowchart based on your results:

x Drivability/Engine Related DTC x No DTC Found

(72)

DRIVABILITY RELATED DTCS

If you have drivability DTCs, always follow the service information for diagnosing the DTC.

You should be here in the Flowchart if the MIL came on during your test drive and you retrieved an engine related DTC. If you did not clear the DTC prior to the test drive, clear the DTC and re-test drive.

(73)

A/T RELATED DTCS

If you have an A/T related DTC, use the current service information and follow the appropriate diagnostic procedure.

(74)

NO DTC FOUND –CURRENT DATA

If you are directed here because of no DTC found, in the engine or A/T systems, use the scan tool to analyze A/T current data.

Compare A/T data with the vehicle’s service information.

If the data is not within specification, diagnose the circuit(s) where the data is out of specification. Refer to the appropriate service information for component troubleshooting and circuit diagnosis.

(75)
(76)

A/T TESTER PLUS

MODES OF OPERATION The tester has two modes of operation:

• Normal Mode “Nor” • Test Mode “Test”

The Normal Mode allows the TCM/PCM to control the A/T while the operator observes the status of the solenoids during test-drives.

The Test Mode allows the operator to manually select each forward gear of the A/T and observe the state of the solenoids. When the tester is cycled from normal to test mode, it electrically checks the A/T internal wiring and solenoids for shorts and opens.

A/T Tester Plus is updatable by a download you’re your pc and additional A/T cable, if necessary. The A/T Tester Plus consists of:

a. The tester

b. Main/Power cable d. Sub-cable

(77)

A/T TESTER PLUS

SUB CABLE The process of using the A/T tester is straightforward. 1. With Key OFF and Engine OFF.

2. Install the A/T Tester Plus sub cable between the engine room harness connector and the A/T connector.

3. Connect the sub cable to the main cable, and then attach the main cable to the tester.

(78)

A/T TESTER PRO

SELECT VEHICLE 5. Turn the key to ON

6. Press vehicle up/down button for more than 1 second to access vehicle selection.

7. Press the vehicle up/down button again to select the vehicle you are diagnosing then press N/T to

confirm.

NOTE: The A/T Tester Plus may be damaged and will

(79)

A/T TESTER PLUS

TEST DRIVE AUTOMATIC MODE

1. Next, press the N/T button to cycle between Normal and Test modes pausing in the Test mode for a few seconds to test the solenoids for shorts or opens then select Normal mode for the test drive.

2. Test-drive the vehicle in the automatic shift normal (“Nor”) mode and observe the solenoid operation.

(80)

A/T TESTER PLUS

TEST DRIVE MANUAL MODE 1. Turn the key to the OFF position for 10 seconds

2. .Turn the key to the ON position

3. Use the N/T button and cycle between normal and test mode leaving it in the Test mode.

4. Turn the key OFF for 10 seconds the turn the key back ON

5. Test-drive the vehicle in the manual shift test (“Test”) mode and manually shift the vehicle in the forward gears using the tester and observe the solenoid operation.

6.

NOTE: Shift shock can be felt due to line pressure at

full.

WARNING: Transmission may be in gear when the

A/T Tester Plus indicates “N” or Neutral position and vehicle will move if the brake is released.

(81)

A/T TESTER PLUS

DCC LOCK-UP 7. With the A/T Tester Plus is still in the Test mode,

operate the vehicle in 4th gear with the engine speed above 1600 RPM.

8. Press the DCC button. The DCC engagement should be felt and the engine RPM should drop ~ 200-400 RPM when the DCC engages.

After using the A/T Tester Plus, clear any DTCs that were set.

(82)

FILL IN ATCDF

After you have finished with the A/T Tester Plus, record your results on the ATCDF.

(83)

TORQUE CONVERTER STALL TEST

The torque converter stall test is performed after using the A/T Tester Plus and the A/T is at normal operating temperature. The stall test will help you determine if there is slippage or a malfunction of hydraulic

components.

Brake torque the A/T in “Drive” and “Reverse” while observing the engine RPM on the scan tool.

If the RPM is too high, the A/T needs replacement. If the RPM is too low, check engine performance. If OK replace the A/T.

Note: To prevent A/T damage, do not hold down the

accelerator pedal for more than 5 seconds. Allow sufficient cooling of the ATF by idling the engine in

(84)

A/T RELATED WIRING AND CONNECTIONS

Wiring harnesses, connectors and terminals are all essential parts of any electrical circuit. The harness provides the path for current between components as well as to the battery and chassis ground connections.

The A/T wiring is typically located in the engine harness where it is subjected to very harsh conditions that can cause circuit problems.

The terminals in the connectors provide the electrical connection for the circuits. It is in this area where problems may exist, like loose fitting female terminals that can cause intermittent concerns.

You must consider the entire circuit, including grounds, when inspecting related wiring harnesses and

connectors.

Caution: Always push/pull with the connector not the

(85)

TERMINAL AND INTERMITTENT TESTING

To prevent causing loose fitting terminals, never insert a test light, meter lead or other tool into the terminal unless directed by the service information.

(86)

GROUND INSPECTIONS

Besides inspecting wires and connectors, power feed and ground lines and connection points can also be a source of problems. This may be due to loose or weakened attaching hardware or corrosion at the terminal.

A ground problem may be found with a visual inspection or by using the voltage drop method. During your visual inspection, don’t overlook the obvious with wiring, connectors and grounds: • Collision damage.

• Chaffed wires against sharp metal edges, including pinched wires.

• Battery acid causing terminal corrosion. • Damaged connectors.

• Connectors not fully seated. • Terminals backed out.

• Previous substandard repairs.

• Use of snap & lock together wire connectors.

• Aftermarket accessories incorrectly installed such as towing and radio/phone accessories.

(87)

TECHNICIAN COMMENTS

This is where the technician records their comments regarding what they found during their diagnosis. Since the ATCDF is returned with the core, the remanufacturer gets direct comment from the technician.

Record your comments on what issues were

(88)

FILL IN ATCDF

Finish recording your results on the ATCDF. Close the TechLine WEB case, if opened.

Prior to ordering A/T assembly replacement, contact the DPSM for authorization.

(89)
(90)
(91)

PRIOR TO REPLACING THE A/T

Before ordering a remanufactured A/T, recheck all your information on the ATCDF and decide if an external repair will fix the concern or if it requires a replacement A/T.

If it’s determined that the A/T must be replaced, the District Parts and Service Manager (DPSM) must authorize the replacement repair under warranty. Remember that TechLine cannot authorize an A/T replacement, only the DPSM.

If a replacement A/T is authorized there are two types of remanufactured A/T units:

x federal remanufactured A/T unit (49 state) x California remanufactured A/T unit

If the A/T is being replaced in the state of California, it requires a California certified remanufactured unit. California has strict requirements for remanufactured A/T units, which require certain parts, such as clutches, be replaced not just inspected, therefore the cost of the California remanufactured A/T unit is slightly more expensive.

Your parts department should refer to Kia Parts Bulletin No. 1910-0006 for the correct A/T part number and record the part and serial numbers from the two A/T units onto the ATCDF.

Before installing the remanufactured A/T unit, do a visual inspection to determine that it is the correct replacement. Completely drain the A/T prior to

(92)

CAUSAL CODE

Circle the causal code that best describes the root cause of failure on the ATCDF. Root cause is the primary failure, not secondary failures.

NOTE: The casual codes changed effective August 2005. CA1: BURNT FLUID

The ATF may be described as very dark to black in color with a burnt toast smell. Friction materials may also be felt in the fluid.

CA2: CRACKED CASE

The case may be best described as having an identifiable crack in it. Mark the location for easy reference.

CA3: POROUS CASTING

The case may be best described as having an ATF leak weeping from an identifiable area of the casting. The location has been marked.

CA4: LACK/LOW ATF

The ATF may be described as not being measurable on the dipstick.

CA5: STICKING/SEIZED

The A/T internal components, including shift rod, may be described sticking or seized.

CA6: FAILED TEST – DCC

The DCC may be described as not applying due to internal A/T electronics or hydraulics.

CA7: FAILED A/T TESTER

This may be described as the internal A/T has failed the short or open solenoid, manual or auto test mode of the A/T Tester Pro.

CA8: LEAKING-SEAL

The A/T may be described has having an external leak due to a seal.

CA9: LEAKING-GASKET

The A/T may be described has having an external leak due to a gasket.

(93)

A/T COOLER FLUSH

Whenever an A/T is replaced, the ATF cooler and lines must be flushed to remove any contaminates such as metal particles and friction material.

If these particles were allowed to remain in the cooler, eventually they could be circulated through the A/T, or restrict the flow of ATF, and lead to future A/T damage. Be sure to flush the cooler in both directions to ensure all contaminants are removed.

The ATF cooler is flushed using the Kia Transmission Cooler Flush, P/N UM990 CH001.

(94)

ENGINE COOLING

The engine cooling system is something that could be easily overlooked.

The radiator and A/T cooler perform two separate but equally important functions. The radiator removes heat from the engine and it removes heat from the A/T. The A/T cooler removes heat from the A/T and passes it into the coolant, but it also picks up heat from the coolant and passes it onto the A/T to help bring it up to operating temperature as soon as possible.

Therefore, do not overlook the engine cooling system. When replacing the A/T always check the coolant for signs of ATF, which would indicate that the A/T cooler is leaking internally. Also, check the radiator for

blockage in the coolant tubes and cooling fins. With the A/C condenser being placed in front of the radiator, it is easy to overlook debris that has collected between the condenser and radiator, which could affect airflow through the radiator. Remove debris.

Blow air through radiator and condenser from the cooling fan side. For best results, you may need to remove the cooling fans.

(95)

COMPONENT TRANSFER AND ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS

Install and adjust if necessary, the: • Range switch

• Vehicle speed sensor

• Input and output speed sensor • Dipstick

Connect electrical connectors: • Vehicle speed sensor

(96)

FILL A/T WITH DIP STICK, CHECK FOR LEAKS AND ATF CHART

After you have installed the remanufactured A/T, and have transferred all appropriate components, remember to fill the A/T with the correct ATF. Be sure to check the ATF level with the engine and A/T at normal operating temperature in Park or Neutral. Check for leaks on the A/T and all the lines and hoses.

The following chart guides you to which fluid is required. Always refer to the current service information for the correct ATF requirement.

SP III Dexron Kia Red-1 Shell

M-1375.4

SP IV

Amanti 04-09 Sorento 03-04 Sorento 05-07 Borrego 4.6L Forte 2011 Forte 2010 Borrego 3.8L Optima 2011-

Optima 01-10 Sedona 2011- Rio 05- Sorento 2011- Rondo 07-10 Sportage 2011- Sedona 01-10 Sephia 95-01 Soul 10- Spectra 02-09 Sportage 05-10 Sportage 95-02

NOTE: The Sephia (94-97) OEM A/T uses Dexron, but a

remanufactured A/T uses SP III. The Kia branded ATF must be used for warranty repairs (except Dexron.)

(97)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK

BORREGO 4.6L 6HP26 FLUID LEVEL

WARM UP PROCEDURE

The 6HP26 transmission requires a different ATF level inspection procedure.

x Shell M1375.4 is required.

x The engine and transmission must be at room temperature.

x Connect the scan tool and view ATF temperature on the A/T current data screen.

x Park the vehicle on a level surface and set the parking brake.

x With the transmission in Park start the engine. x With your foot on the brake shift the transmission

through all ranges from park, to reverse, into neutral then drive and finally 3rd using the sport mode.

x Stay in each position for at least three seconds, when finished return the park position.

x Allow the transmission to reach 86° to 95° F then shut the engine off.

x Do not use a “stall test” to raise the ATF

temperature, and do not let the ATF temperature go over 122° F.

(98)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK CONTINUED

BORREGO 4.6L The 6HP26 A/T only has one plug on the passenger

side (right) towards the rear for both fill and level inspection.

x Remove the filler plug.

x ATF should drip from the filler hole, if it does not, add fluid until it does.

(99)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK CONTINUED

BORREGO 3.8L JATCO A5SR2 FLUID LEVEL

WARM UP PROCEDURE

The JATCO transmission also requires a different ATF level procedure.

x The engine and transmission must be at room temperature.

x Connect the scan tool and view ATF temperature on the A/T current data screen.

x Park the vehicle on a level surface and set the parking brake.

x With the transmission in Park start the engine. x With your foot on the brake shift the transmission

through all ranges from park, to reverse, into neutral then drive.

x Stay in each position for at least three seconds x When finished return the park position

x Allow the transmission to reach 86° to 95° F. x Do not use a “stall test” to raise the ATF

temperature, and do not let the ATF temperature go over one hundred twenty-two degrees Fahrenheit.

Note: While the JATCO A5SR2 is also used in the

Sorento, the Sorento has a dip stick to measure the ATF level.

(100)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK CONTINUED

FILL PLUG OVERFLOW PLUG

BORREGO 3.8L The A5SR2 A/T has two plugs, one on the passenger side (right) towards the front for fill and driver (left) towards the front for level inspection.

x Remove the inspection and overflow plug

x ATF should drip from the overflow hole, if it does not add fluid at the fill plug until it does

x Install the filler plug and overflow plugs, and torque to 25 foot pounds.

(101)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK CONTINUED

2011 SORENTO A6LF2 & A6MF2 FLUID LEVEL

WARM UP PROCEDURE

The A6LF2 and A6MF2 transmission also requires a different ATF level inspection procedure.

x SP IV ATF is required.

x The engine and transmission must be at room temperature.

x Connect the scan tool and view ATF temperature on the A/T current data screen.

x Park the vehicle on a level surface and set the parking brake.

x With the transmission in Park start the engine. x With your foot on the brake shift the transmission

through all ranges from park, to reverse, into neutral then drive and finally 3rd using the sport mode.

x Stay in each position for at least three seconds, when finished return the park position.

x Allow the transmission to reach 86° to 95° F. Do not use a “stall test” to raise the ATF temperature, and do not let the ATF temperature go over 122° F.

(102)

FILL AND INSPECTING A/T WITHOUT DIP STICK CONTINUED

The A6LF2 and A6MF2 transmission has three plugs, a rubber fill plug on the top of the valve body cover, an oil level plug on the side of the valve body cover, and a drain plug on the bottom of the case.

x Remove the oil level plug

x ATF should drip from the oil level hole, if it does not add fluid at the fill plug until it does

Install the oil level plug, and torque to 25 - 32 foot pounds.

If the rubber fill plug was removed replace the plug.

Oil Fill Plug

Oil Level Plug

References

Related documents

The structure then dissipates the excess energy in the form of either plastic deformation in case of ductile materials or through various damage mechanisms in the case of

The most recent wireless dispositif includes, therefore, a broad "menu” of functions and applications defining various usage programs, such as: social communication from

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the magnitude of the impacts of agricultural activities on the status of biodiversity inside

Mix flour, gram flour, chopped fenugreek leaves, salt and then add Curd/Yogurt to make a semi hard dough, knead it well and keep aside for 10 minutes. Divide into 8

This research aimed to understand Minnesota Muslim girls' experiences and perceptions of current school sports uniforms and their preferences for the design of culturally

land transacted in rental markets by increasing the amount rented out by households with low agricultural ability (who will join the off-farm labor force) and the amount rented in

Pipelining Pipelining pipeline pipeline d d unpipelin unpipelin Time Time Cycle Cycle Time Time Cycle Cycle CPI CPI stall stall Pipeline Pipeline CPI CPI Ideal Ideal depth