Intan Shafika Saiful Bahri
Faculty of Civil Engineering
1. Describe the process involved in the development and construction of highways
2. Carry out simple traffic studies and apply the
knowledge in highway geometric design and traffic
control devices by using recommended standards and specification
3. Perform simple flexible pavement design according to JKR Arahan Teknik (Jalan) method and the selection of appropriate material for used in the construction. 4. Supervise road construction, identify road defect and
recommends appropriate solution.
5. Perform the standard highway laboratory tests and data analysis.
Programme Outcomes1. Ability to acquire & apply basic knowledge of science,
mathematics & engineering.
2. Ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with the public.
3. Ability to identify, formulate & solve engineering problems. 4. Ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
5. Ability to act effectively as an individual and in a group, with leadership, managerial & entrepreneurial capabilities 6. Understanding the social, cultural, global & environmental
responsibilities & ethics of an engineering personnel & the need for sustainable development
7. Recognizing the need to undertake lifelong learning & possessing the capacity to do so.
• Historical development of highways in
• Traffic Engineering theory
• Road geometric design
• Traffic control devices
• Pavement design
Development of highway
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: • Describe the process involved in the
development and construction of roads and highway as general as well as in Malaysia. • Describe the general aspects of highway
classification and administration
• Explain the importance of feasibility studies and identify the route location consideration factors. • Discuss on way to improve road safety and
• Transportation :
Everything involved in moving either the
person or goods from the origin to the
Movements – different modes e.g walking, driving etc
Why do we provide and develop road
To expedite economy recovery
May benefit the surrounding areas -
upgraded to reduce accidents, congestions
Investment in mode and road
infrastructure – to meet the demands and
History of road construction
Mac Adam’s Road
Roman RoadsPaving Stones Fine Concrete Broken Stones Rubble Stones
•Used by horses, chariot, wagon – pulled by animals
the stone blocks placed closed
together Development of highway transportation (con’t)
Metcalf’s RoadGravel Excavated Road Material Large Stone Foundation
•Insisted on good drainage and foundation or subbase
•carriageway was arched – assist surface water drainage
•Crossing soft ground, he introduced a
subbase raft of bundled heather
Hand Pitched Stone
•Improved ride ability - ‘sandwich’ smaller stones between the boulders
•smaller stones filled voids between the stone blocks –
compacted until smooth surface obtained
Mac Adam’s Road
•Several layers of compacted stones
•Foundation improvement – removing the topsoil
Last decade before
independent – tar road
constructed in cities
and town – Mac Adam
Animal drawn carts to
Before independent – walking or animal’s
cart and few motorized car by means of
footpath and bullock cart tracks
Rubber plantation and tin mining increase
demand for a better serviceability of road
network – weak laterite
Planning of road in Malaya – British
Now, Malaysia has one of the finest systems
of road network system in the world
Bituminous or concrete road – provide
accessibility to residents (urban or rural)
Expressway stretching from the north to the
south of peninsular Malaysia (PLUS)
Federal highway – links between states
Roads are divided into two groups by area: -
* Located outside of cities
* Serve as links
between population centers
* Used for commuting & shopping trips
* Serve areas of high density land
- divided highway for through traffic
- full access control and grade separation at all intersection.
- speed limit is 110 km/h • Highway
- link up directly/indirectly federal capitals, state capitals. - serve long to intermediate trip lengths
- speed high to medium (not important as expressway) - smooth traffic with partial access control
• Primary road
- major roads within a state
- serve intermediate trip lengths & medium travelling speed - smooth traffic with partial access control
- link up state capitals, district capitals and major towns • Secondary road
- major road within district
- serve intermediate trip lengths with partial access control • Minor road
- apply to all road other than mentioned earlier
- serve mainly local traffic, short trip lengths, no access control
Urban Road• Expressway
- as mentioned in rural road • Arterial
- continuous road with partial access for through traffic within urban area
- Convey traffic from residential area to CBD - smooth traffic flows and carry large traffic
- Serve as collector or distributor between the arterial and local road system
- partial access control
- penetrate and serve identifiable neighbourhoods, commercial areas and industrial areas
• Local street
- basic road networks within a neighbourhoods - serve direct access to abutting land
- links to the collector road & short trip lengths - through traffic should be discouraged
•City Hall, Municipal or Local Council
•Kampung (District Office) Roads – depend on
•Under Federal Road Ordinance
•Linking State Capitals, airport, railway station and ports
•Road within the FELDA land
scheme those with other regional land scheme constructed with
•Constructed with state funds
Traffic census Class of Road Capacity Route Location Environmental Impact Assessment
StudyStructures Finalizing the Route
Topography – terrain
Example:7- Keep grades and curvature to minimum 6- Avoid sudden changes in
sight distance, especially near junction
1- Avoid crossing waterways 2- Flat area rather
than mountainous 3- Avoid
destruction/removal man-made culture
4- Avoid deep cuttings and expensive tunnel
5- Locate near to sources of pavement material
8- Avoid ground of mining subsidence 9- Locate highway on soil
that need least pavement thickness above it 10- River crossing should be right
Road Safety in Malaysia
How to improve? Multimedia Road
Safety Campaign Ops STATIK and Ops SIKAP
Intro to Defensive Driving Proposed
Amendments To Road Safety Act 1987
Increase awareness and understanding of road safety
Improve heavier penalties on drivers –
including mandatory jail
Driver’s offences recorded and
summonses were given
Upgrading quality of instruction, instructors and training facilities at driving school
Safety helmet & safety clothing Proposal for Dedicated Motorcycle Lane Proposal to Limit Max Speeds of Motorcyclists
Road Safety in Malaysia (con’t)
How to improve?
Safety campaigns at state & district level
To reduce accidents and fatalities
Still under study by The Ministry of Transport Be a policy decision for proposed new highway
Standard application to
Higher design speeds for roads those
provide long distance travel
Lower design speeds for roads those
serve local traffic, where the effect of
speed is less significant
Higher standard for roads with heavier
In Malaysia, design standards for roads are classified into 7 groups for urban & rural categories. The reason why road design standards in Malaysia need to be standardized particularly with their geometric design features are as follows:
To provide a uniformity in the design of
roads based on the performance requirements To provide consistent, safe and reliable road facilities for traffic movement
To provide a guide for less subjective decisions on road design
Agencies Involved In Highway &
• JKR (The Public Works Department)
- Implementation of development projects (federal road, state road, bridge & airport)
- make sure all roads are in a good condition & safety • JPJ (The Road Transport Department)
- increase road safety through observation of motorized vehicles & drivers
- implement the Road Transport Act 1987 - Update the road tax system
• LLM (Malaysia Highway Authority)
- plan, design, construct & maintain highway links & facilities.
Benefits of Highway Privatization
Reduce government financial burden
Cost saving due innovation in const.
Users enjoy – improved standard of
service & greater accessibility
Earlier implementation and completion
of highway project
Roadway Ideal Conditions
Lane width 3.6 m Clearance 1.8 m
Free-flow speed of 100 km/h
No No Passing Zone on two-lane highway No parking near the curb
Level terrain No pedestrians
Only passenger cars in the traffic stream (no heavy vehicles)
• Transportation system exists to meet perceived social and economic needs.
• As the transportation system itself evolves, situations arise as a problem – serve as challenges to the
transportation engineering profession. • These challenges are
1. Managing congestion – by demand or supply measures 2. Improving safety – traffic accidents concern
3. Providing equal access – poor, elderly, and physically handicapped
4. Protecting the environment – EIA 5. Incorporating new technology - ITS 6. Securing financial resources - funding
Serious urban traffic congestion
- Over 40,000 traffic fatalities each year
1. Spot speed studies, design speed,
operating speed, running speed and
2. Traffic volume characteristics, flow
rate, highway capacity and Level of
At the end of the chapter, students should be able to: 1. Carry out simple speed studies and apply the
knowledge in highway geometric design by using recommended standards and specification.
2. Carry out simple volume studies and apply the knowledge in traffic signal design by using
•Traffic Stream Parameters
•Traffic Stream Models
Green shield's speed-density relationship
•Three (3) main categories:-
A list or graphic display of existing information – street widths, parking spaces, transit routes, etc
Existing engineering records, available in government agencies & departments
collection of data under operational conditions – speed, traffic volume, travel time & delay,
Plan, improve road system
Distribution & performance of existing traffic
Traffic flow & speed
Traffic planning studies
Implemented with the help of 3-E’s
Microscopic vs. Macroscopic Measures
•Microscopic measures: individual vehicle
1.Time headway: hi (sec/veh)
2.Space headway: si (ft/veh or km/veh)
3.Speed of individual vehicle: ui (mi/hr or km/hr)
•Macroscopic measures: average of n vehicles
1.Flow: q (veh/hr or vph)
2.Density: k (veh/mi or veh/km)
3.Speed: u (mi/hr or km/hr)
Spot Speed Studies
Study of speed of traffic at one point or spot on a
Aims – to determine the enforceable speed limits
To estimate the speed distribution of the traffic stream
Time of day & Duration
1. Establish posted speed limits
2. Observe speed trends
3. Collect basic data
4. Response to citizen complaints
→ reflects the nature of complaints
Duration at least 1 hour and the sample size is at least 30 vehicles.
free-flowing, usually off-peak hours
Where to make spot speed studies?
Free flow Junction
High frequency of accident rate
Important locations for traffic operation
Factors affecting spot speed studiesDriver Vehicle Roadway Traffic Environment OR OR OR
Application of spot speed data
For trends in the operating speed
For speed at
operation – speed limit & safe speed at curve For geometric design features For research studies
Methods of MeasurementManually Automatically 200m 0 sec Speed = distance/time = 200m/8sec V = 25m/s = 90kph 8 sec Speed Studies - Road detectors
- Radar speed meter
(commonly used) Or Sonic detector
Observe the time required by a vehicle to cover short distance.
Direct timing procedure
Two reference points are located at a roadway, fixed distance apart.
Observer starts and stops a stopwatch as a vehicle enters & leaves the test section.
It is most uncomplicated way.
Classified into two general categories: a) Pneumatic road tubes
two tubes laid across the lane
an impulse is recorded when the front wheels pass over the first tube, second impulse is recorded when the front wheels pass over the second tube.
time elapsed between the two impulses & distance between the tubes are used to compute the speed.
b) An inductive loop
rectangular wire loop buried under the roadway surface.
a) human errors are reduced b) accurate results
a) devices rather expensive b) affect driver behavior
a) Radar speed meter
transmit signal onto a moving vehicle
change in frequency between transmitted signal & reflected signal = speed.
operating distance about 45 m
b) Sonic detector meter
using ultrasonic tone (18-20 kHz)
output in current voltage that is proportional to vehicle speed.
Advantages: a) portable
b) reduced the influence on driver behaviour.
a) difficult for two-lane road b) expensive
Vehicles is detected through electronic means.
Traffic characteristics can be obtained – speed, volume, queues & headways.
Consists of an electronic camera & microprocessor.
Advantages: permanent visual will be recorded
– Rate of movement of the vehicle, expressed in
miles/hour (mi/h) or kilometers/hour (km/h).
Average spot speed /Arithmetic mean speed / Time mean speed (*)
- Arithmetic mean of all observed vehicle speeds. Total of spot speeds/No of vehicles.
Overall travel time
- Time travel including stop and delays.
Overall travel speed/journey speed (*)
- The speed over a specified section of highway. Distance/overall travel time.
Operating speed (*)
- the highest overall speed a driver can travel under a favorable weather condition w/out exceeds the speed limits
Running speed (*)
- the average speed maintained over a particular distance which the vehicle is in
motion. Distance/ (Time travel – time delay)
- delay caused by interference between
components of traffic (stream flow, parking)
- the speed determined for design as related to the physical features of a highway that might
influence vehicle operation.
- the max safe speed that can be maintained over a specified section of highway when conditions are so favorable.
- speed at the middle value in a series of spot speeds that are arranged in ascending order
- speed value with highest frequency
(observation) in a sample of spot speeds.
- the range of speed (5-10 km/h intervals) that has the greatest number of observations.
Standard deviation of speeds
- measure of the spread of the individual speeds.
Space mean speed
- the arithmetic mean of speeds of vehicles
occupying a relatively long section of street or highway at given instant.
Analysis and data presentation(refer Ex 4.2 pg 93) • Table Speed group Mean speed, v Frequency, f fv % f Cumulative % f f(v-u)2 10 – 14.9 12.5 0 0 0
• Histogramfr eq u en cy Speed, kph
Time mean speed vs. space mean speed
Time mean speed
= Total speed No of vehicles
Space mean speed
= Total distance Total time
Six vehicles traveling through a section of a rural secondary road with the speeds measured at 68, 71, 79, 82, 76 and 74 km/h respectively. Assuming every vehicle was traveling at constant speed over the
section of road, calculate the space mean speed and time mean speed.
•collect data on the no of vehicles and/or
pedestrians that pass a point on a highway facility during a specified time period.
•Time period – little as 15 min to as much as a
year, depends on the use of the data.
Types of Traffic Daily Volume
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) Average 24 hour volume over a year
Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT) Average 24 hr volume occurring on weekdays
over a year
Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
Same as AADT, but average over period less than a year, say, a month
Average Weekday Traffic (AWT)
Same as AAWT, but average over period less than a year, say, a month
Applications of AADT/ADT
1.Estimation of highway use
2.Estimation of trends
3.Economic feasibility evaluation
1.Planning of highway activities
Peak Hour Volume (PHV)
•The max no of veh passing a point on a
highway over 60 consecutive minutes
•Peak Hour Factor (PHF)
PHF = Peak hour volume
4 x The maximum15 minute volume
•Mainly used for urban:
1.Highway design (e.g. highway classification, no of lanes, signalization)
2.Traffic management (e.g. capacity analysis, parking)
(a) the hourly volume,
(b) the peak rate of flow within the hour, and (c) the peak hour factor
Time Period Volume
8:00 – 8:15 AM 150
8:15 – 8:30 AM 155
8:30 – 8:45 AM 165
Three basis of traffic flow: 1. Hourly
The traffic flow mostly for a day – traffic volume varies from hour to hour.
Distribution of traffic flow every day from Sunday to Saturday in a week.
Distribution of traffic flow for each month from January to December in a year
The duration can be 1 hour, 1 day or 1 year
Unit: no. of vehicle or passenger car unit (PCU)
Traffic can be divided into type & class of vehicle – car, motorcycle, bus, lorry, etc
PCU – standard unit of measurement designed to give the effect of an
Equivalent Value in PCU’s
Rural Roads Urban Roads Roundabout Traffic Signal/ Junction Passenger Cars Pedal Cycle Motor Cycles Light Vans Medium Lorries Heavy Lorries Buses 1.00 0.50 1.00 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.00 1.00 0.33 0.75 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.00 1.00 0.20 0.75 2.00 2.80 2.80 2.80 1.00 0.20 0.33 2.00 1.75 2.25 2.25
Table 2.1: Conversion factor from no of veh to PCU
Methods of Conducting Volume Counts
•Involves one or more persons recording observed vehicles using a counter.
a) not required specialized b) accurate results
a) labour intensive – can be expensive
•Laying of surface detectors (pneumatic road tubes) or subsurface detectors (magnetic or electric
contact devices) on the road.
•Detect the passing vehicle & transmit the information to a recorder.
a) not required specialized b) accurate results
•Disadvantages; a) wear & tear
Types of Volume Counts
* conduct at central business district (CBD). * imaginary closed loop as cordon area.
* intersection crossing the cordon line – count station.
* Volume counts of vehicles enter & leaving cordon area are taken.
* data used: planning parking facilities,
updating & evaluating traffic operational technique.
•Screen Line Counts
* study area are divided into large sections by running imaginary lines (screen lines) across it.
* traffic counts are taken at each point where a road crosses the screen line.
* determine vehicle classifications through movements & turning movements at
* determine phase lengths & cycle time for signalized intersection, design of
Analysis of Traffic Volume Data
Hourly Volume Characteristics
Fl o w (pcu/ h/ l) Time (a.m-p.m) 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Weekday Weekend
Daily Volume Characteristics
Day per week
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Zone A
Fl o w (pcu/ h/ l) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Annually Volume Characteristics
- Increment of traffic
The volume of traffic estimated to use the road during the design life.
A selected motor vehicle which the weight, dimensions & operating characteristics are used to establish highway design controls to accommodate vehicles of a designated type.
Max volume of traffic that a designed roadway would be able to serve without undue congestion falling below prescribed level of service (LOS) at the time the traffic is at design hourly volume.
Ability to accommodate traffic & usually expressed as no of vehicles that can pass a given point in a certain period of time at a given speed.
Level of service (LOS)
Term used to classify the varying conditions of traffic flow that take place on highway. The various level of service range from the highest level (flow where drivers are able to travel at their desired speed with freedom to manoeuvre) to the lowest level (obtained during
Level of service (LOS)
The LOS of existing highway may be
evaluated by comparing measured traffic volume to the capacity of that facilities.
Each road has its own capacity depending on a) speed b) travel time c) safety d) traffic interruption LOS = volume/capacity
Relationship of LOS to operating speed and Flow A B C D E F Spe e d Flow Free Flow Stable Flow
Approaching Unstable Flow