03 Board of Vet Med


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Rationale and Overview

Veterinarians who are graduates of accredited veterinary colleges will have to take and pass licensure examinations in order to practice veterinary medicine in the country. Graduates must be competent in the practice of general veterinary medicine such as food animal practice (ruminants, swine, poultry and aquatic animals), companion animal practice (equine, feline, canine, etc.), zoo wildlife and laboratory animal practice and veterinary public health. The examinees are expected to be equipped with the knowledge and skills in the treatment, prevention, and control diseases of economic importance, diseases of animals transmissible to man (zoonoses), animal production, research and extension. The examinees must also be conscious of his social and civic responsibilities, must know the obligations in ethical practice, including their contributions towards national goals and development of the government. After all, the veterinary schools, government and private owe their existence to the national government.

Objectives of the Primer:

1. To provide answers to queries frequently asked regarding PRC activities before and after the examination.

2. To guide the examinees on the requirements and implementation of the licensure examinations.

3. To enable the examinees to know the type of questions being asked, the purpose and the coverage of the subject matter they are expected to answer.

4. To guide the examiners on how to improve their testing abilities that will gauge the competence and readiness of the examinees to practice veterinary medicine.

5. To coordinate and disseminate the activities of the PRC, Board of Veterinary Medicine and the examinees, on the pre-examination and post examination requirements.

6. To serve as reference for the examiners, examinees and the accredited veterinary colleges.

Scope and Coverage

The primer will discuss briefly the different activities of the Philippine Regulation Commission related to the licensure examinations conducted by the Board of Veterinary Medicine. Some are strictly confidential and some are available to all concerned, the examinees, examiners and other interested parties. Specifically the examination system of the PRC will be thoroughly discussed. The contents of the primer-syllabus which are to be carefully studied to serve as a guide for the prospective examinees. The examination questions will come from the subjects and topics including the equivalent weights in percentage. Sample questions that measure the levels of abilities are given. The answers are likewise provided. At the end of each subject will be found the list of text books recommended for the use by the veterinary schools. Additional references are also listed for further readings.


Since the veterinary licensure examinations are given only once a year, it has been regularly scheduled in the month of August. The exact date and venue will vary. The schedule of the subjects for examinations are permanent and are listed accordingly.

Finally, the list and schedule of the post examination information, e.g. the release of the results, activities and relevant oath-taking ceremonies and the procedures for the renewal of licenses can be found in the primer.

Legal Basis of the Board Examination

As provided for in Republic Act No. 382 entitled: “An Act to Regulate the Practice of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery in the Philippines”, Section 6, “A person who desires to obtain a license shall apply therefore to the Veterinary Examining board (now Board of Veterinary Medicine). Each application shall contain and be accompanied by proof of particular qualifications required under oath and shall be accompanied by the examination fee.”

It is provided further in Section 7 “The Veterinary Examining Board shall consist of three reputable veterinarians appointed by the President of the Republic upon recommendation of the Secretary of Agriculture and National Resources (now the Chairman of the Professional Regulation Commission upon recommendation of five (5) nominees by the Philippines Veterinary Medical Association.)”

Section 8, provides that “It shall be the duty of the Veterinary Examining Board to examine the application, diplomas, affidavits and proof of all applicants, and when satisfied of the genuineness of the same, it shall examine all applicants for examination and shall issue a license to each person successfully passing the examination.”

Section 14 states: “The Veterinary Examination Board shall meet and hold examinations at least once a year, should there be any applicant for the examination. The subjects for this examination shall be the following: anatomy, physiology, pathology, parasitology, materia medica and therapeutics, bacteriology (now microbiology), medicine and surgery and zootechnics.”




Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

Section 1. That is shall be unlawful for any person to practice veterinary medicine and surgery in any of its branches, including veterinary dentistry, and excepting the castrating and spaying of animals and dehorning of cattle, in the Philippines who shall not have complied with the provisions of this Act.

Section 2. No person shall practice veterinary medicine and surgery, in any of its branches without a valid and existing license to do so.

Section 3. A person shall be regarded as practicing veterinary medicine and surgery within the meaning of this Act who shall append or cause to be appended to his name the letters V.S., D.V.M., V.M.D., M.D.C., D.V.S., or the words “Veterinary,” “ Veterinarian,” “Veterinary surgeon,” “Veterinary dentist,” or any other initials or title implying qualifications to so practice, or who shall treat, operate on, or prescribe for any physical ailment in, or any physical injury to, or deformity of, any domestic animals, for which he shall receive any monetary compensation. The terms of this act shall not apply to commissioned veterinarians in the United States or the Philippine Army.

Section 4. An accredited school of veterinary medicine and surgery within the meaning of this Act shall be (1) one approved by the Department of Education1; (2) one requiring, among other things, that, as a prerequisite for admission, its students must have a four-year course in any public high school, or other secondary school accredited by the Department of Education2; (3) one that requires for graduation a five-year course in veterinary medicine and surgery, teaching the subjects of anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, general and special pathology, veterinary materia medica and therapeutics, veterinary medicine and surgery, bacteriology, parasitology, chemistry, and such other subjects as are ordinarily included in the curricula of veterinary colleges and topics, knowledge of which is commonly and generally required of candidates for the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine by reputable veterinary colleges or universities.

Section 5. A person is qualified to receive a license (1) who is over twenty-one years of age; (2) who is of good moral character and temperate habits; (3) who has graduated from a four-year high school or secondary school approved by the Department of Education3; (4) who has graduated from an accredited veterinary college; (5) who has passed an examination conducted by the Veterinary Examining Board4 to determine his fitness to receive a license; and (6) who is a citizen of the Philippines or who has made a declaration of intention to become a citizen and has filed a petition for naturalization within thirty days after becoming eligible to do so.

Section 6. A person who desires to obtain a license shall apply therefore to the Veterinary Examining Board.5 Each application shall contain and be accompanied by proof of particular qualifications required under oath and shall be accompanied by the examination fee.

Section 7. The Veterinary Examining Board6 shall consist of three reputable veterinarians appointed by the President of the Republic upon recommendation of the Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources.7

1 Now Commission on Higher Education.

2 Now Department of Education, Culture and Sports 3 Now Department of Education, Culture and Sports 4 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine

5 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 6 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 7 Now Professional Regulation Commission.


Section 8. It shall be the duty of the Veterinary Examining Board8 to examine the applications, diplomas, affidavits and proof of all applicants, and when satisfied of the genuineness of the same, it shall examine all applicants for examination and shall issue a license to each person successfully passing the examination.

The Veterinary Examining Board9 may refuse to issue or may suspend, or revoke any license for any one or any combination of the following causes:

1. The employment of fraud, misrepresentation or deception in obtaining such license;

2. Conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude or conviction of a felony, in which case the record of such conviction shall be conclusive evidence;

3. Chronic inebriety or habitual use of drugs;

4. For having professional connection with or lending one’s name to any illegal practitioner of veterinary medicine and the various branches thereof;

5. Violation or attempting to violate, directly or indirectly, any of the provisions of this Act; 6. Fraud or dishonesty in applying, treating or reporting on tuberculin or other biological tests; 7. False or misleading advertising having for its purpose or intent deception or fraud;

8. For failing to report, as required by law, or making false report of any contagious or infectious diseases.

Section 9. The members of the Veterinary Examining Board10 shall serve for a period of three years beginning from the date of their appointment. The members shall be appointed such that the term of office of one member shall terminate every year. Any vacancy shall be covered by an ad interim appointment for the rest of the term only.

Section 10. The President of the Republic will have the power to dismiss any member of the Board because of unprofessional conduct, inefficiency, dereliction of duty or any sufficient and justifiable reasons.

Section 11. The officers of the Veterinary Examining Board11 shall consist of a President and a secretary who shall be elected every year from among the members of the said Board.

Section 12. Each member of the Veterinary Examining Board12 shall receive a compensation of ten pesos per candidate taking the examination for practice as a veterinarian.

Section 13. The secretary shall keep the minutes of the Board and a book or registration of all veterinarians to whom a license has been issued, indication their names, age, place of practice, the veterinary institution from which they graduated, the number of years of study, the degree or certificates they obtained, and shall furnish a duplicate copy of the minutes and the book of registration to the Bureau of Civil Service13.

Section 14. The Veterinary Examining Board14 shall meet and hold examinations at least once a year, should there be any applicant for the examination. The subjects for this examination shall be the following: anatomy, physiology, pathology, parasitology, materia medica and therapeutics, bacteriology, medicine and surgery, and zootechnics.

The date, place and hours of examinations shall be published in one or more newspapers at least one week previously.

Section 15. There shall be paid to the Insular Treasurer15 the following fees: (a) For examination, thirty pesos; (b) For a license, ten pesos; (c) For certified statement that a licensee is

8 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 9 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 10 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 11 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine 12 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine

13 See P.D. 223, section 5 (c), promulgated June 22, 1973 14 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine


licensed, ten pesos; (d) For issuance of duplicate license in case the original has been lost or destroyed, ten pesos. No fee shall be required for a second examination if taken within twelve months after failure in the first examination. The examination fee may be returned to the candidate if he withdraws before the examinations have started.

Section 16. The Veterinary Examining Board16 may reciprocate with other countries in the recognition of exchange of licenses upon a basis of equality of educational standard and mutual recognition, which standard shall not be lower than the requirements of this Act.

Section 17. Any person practicing veterinary medicine and surgery or dentistry in the Philippines without a license, or who shall fail to comply with any of the terms of this Act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred pesos nor more than two hundred pesos or by imprisonment for not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment for each and every offense; and it shall be the duty of the Provincial or City Fiscal where such offense is committed to prosecute all persons violating the provisions of this Act, upon proper complaint being made. All fines collected under this Act shall be paid into the treasury of the province or city where the prosecution is held.

Section 18. Any person filing, or attempting to file, as his own, the diploma of another, or a forged or fictitious or a fraudulently obtained diploma or certificate, upon conviction shall be subject to such fine and imprisonment as are made and provided by the statutes for the crime of forgery.

Section 19. This act shall take precedence above all existing rules and regulations regarding the practice of Veterinary Medicine and surgery in the Philippines.

Section 20. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved, June 18, 1949.

16 Now Board of Veterinary Medicine. See P.D. 657, promulgated February 19, 1975 amending P.D.




Section 1. Title. -- No member of the Philippine Veterinary Medical Association (PVMA) who is licensed to practice Veterinary Medicine shall use a degree or title to which he is not entitled.

Section 2. Mutual Respect. -- No member of the association shall belittle nor injure the professional standing of another member nor unnecessarily condemn the character of his professional acts.

Section 3. Undercharging. -- No member of the association shall endeavor to build up a practice by undercharging another practitioner.

Section 4. Reputation. -- It shall be considered a breach of this code for a member to assail the professional reputation of a fellow practitioner particularly for his own individual advancement.

Section 5. Compliance to Laws. -- All members shall comply with the common laws governing their obligations to the clients and shall obey without obvious fault the official public regulations and laws governing their acts.

Section 6. Professional Deportment. -- Members are expected to conduct themselves at all times with professional deportment. He shall conduct himself in a manner completely above suspicion or reproach. Any flagrant violation of these principles shall be considered as a violation of this code and may subject the violator to suspension or expulsion.

Article II


Section 7. Primary Duty. -- The veterinarian’s primary duty of servicing the public is accomplished by giving the best professional service and to act himself in such a manner as to hold the profession in high esteem.

Section 8. Emergency Service. -- A veterinarian when consulted in an emergency by the client of another, shall attend only to the conditions leading to the emergency. Upon completion of the treatment, the patient must be referred back to the attending veterinarian. However, if the client refuses to go back and decided to stay, the veterinarian who attended the emergency case may accept the case. The following conditions should be present: (a) Findings and discussions with the client shall be handled in such a confidential manner as to avoid criticism of the attending veterinarian and; (b) In making emergency calls upon a patient already under treatment, it is unethical to institute radical changes in the treatment previously prescribed in such a way as to attract unusual attention.

Section 9. Authorized Visit of a Consultant as requested by the attending veterinarian. -- When in the course of authorized visit it will be unethical to offer services whether free or compensated or to give advice other than that service which comes strictly within the scope of the official call.

Section 10. Revisit of Patient. -- Consultants shall not revisit the patient or client or communicate directly with the client without the knowledge or consent of the attending veterinarian.

Section 11. Veterinary Auxiliaries. -- It is the primary responsibility of the practicing veterinarian that laboratory workers, clinic assistants, veterinary aides, Medical Technologists, Radiologic Technologists and other auxiliaries shall act in such a manner that will not contradict any provision of these code.


Section 12. Billing Clients by the Consultant. -- In no instance, under no circumstances, shall a consultant take charge of a case or problem without the consent of all concerned, particularly when the client’s financial obligation to the attending veterinarian have not yet been settled/adjusted/cleared.

Section 13. Delegation of Services. -- A veterinarian shall not delegate to any person such as but not limited to veterinary auxiliaries (unlicensed veterinarian, veterinary aides, x-ray technicians, medical technologist, animal caretakers, agricultural extension technicians) the performance of any service or operation which requires competence as a professional, unless expressly authorized by law.

Section 14. Supervision of Work. - The veterinarian shall supervise associates or auxiliaries personally in the performance of their duties.

Section 15. Professional Fees. -- The veterinarian shall charge fees taking into consideration the nature of the case (span of time used in the operation and improvement of facilities for the veterinarian to work with ease, grace and comfort thereby constituting to the highest professional level of service), efforts, skills and materials involved and the capacity of the client to pay. The veterinarian is obliged to reveal to client when requested, the itemized details of the professional fees charged. No demand rebates and commissions shall be demanded nor split fees other than the legitimate professional fees.

Section 16. Discoveries of Works. -- In the interest of the veterinary profession and public health, the veterinarian must make available discoveries, inventions or research works useful in safeguarding or promoting health subject to patent or copyright laws. He shall not claim discoveries not his own.

Section 17. Volunteer Program. -- The veterinarian may be encouraged to participate in programs designed for veterinary public health education and animal health care. Members can participate on volunteer programs for the delivery of veterinary services in underserved or unserved areas. In case of disasters or national emergencies, the veterinarian may assist in alleviating the sufferings of stricken animals and human population of affected areas.

Section 18. Animal Welfare. -- Cognizant of Animal Welfare Law, the veterinarian shall ensure the patients are taken good care of properly, handled and managed as humanely as possible.

Animals used for experiments/instructional purposes should be managed properly and humanely.

Section 19. Professional Commitment to Service. -- In all efforts to improve professional service in the health of the public, the veterinarian shall make available to the community his skills, knowledge and experience.

Article III


Section 20. Keeping Professionally Competent. -- The veterinarian shall endeavor to be professionally competent by updating knowledge, skill and efficiency thus better serving the clients, community and country.


a. Continuing Professional Education

Every veterinarian shall pursue continuing professional education programs offered by the PVMA, its Chapter and Affiliates, Special groups, schools, alumni associations, study clubs and veterinary associations abroad duly accredited by the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) Council of Veterinary Medicine of the Professional Regulation Commission.

b. CPE Credit Units

Every veterinarian shall complete minimum CPE credits every 3 years in accordance with the accreditation guidelines set by the PVMA and the CPE Council of Veterinary Medicine. c. Each specialty group shall evolve its own system of accreditation, establish its council,

police its own ranks and shall at all times safeguard the public against those who do not meet the qualifications prescribed by this code.

Section 21. Display of Certificates. -- No certificates, plaques, or testimonials except recognition and awards by peers other than the veterinarian’s school diploma, certificates issued by the specialty council, the PVMA Board, PRC License, PTR and such others required by law shall be displayed in the Clinics or reception room at all times.

Section 22. Duty to Report. -- The veterinarian either in government or private service shall report all violations of the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Act, the rules and regulations governing the practice of veterinary medicine and this code, which comes to his knowledge, to the appropriate chapter or affiliate society, the PVMA Board or the Professional Regulation Commission.

Section 23. Professional Consultation and Referral. -- The veterinarian may seek consultation or make a referral whenever the welfare of the patient requires recourse to those who possess special skills, knowledge and experience.

a) The consultant shall hold the details of the consultation in confidence and shall not undertake an operative procedure without the consent of the referring veterinarian.

b) The consultant shall observe post-operative conditions and immediately thereafter return the patient to the referring veterinarian. In making emergency calls upon a patient already under treatment by another veterinarian it is unethical to institute radical treatment previously prescribed in such a way as to attract unusual attention.

Section 24. Criticism and Expert Testimony. --a. Justifiable Criticism.

Every veterinarian shall report to the appropriate authority or professional society, instances of repeated faulty treatment by another veterinarian but this should be kept confidential.

b. Expert Testimony.

The veterinarian may provide expert testimony whenever called upon to do so in administrative, judicial, quasi-judicial or legislative proceeding.

Section 25. Unfair Means to Gain Professional Advancement. -- The veterinarian shall not use unfair means to gain professional advancement, or injure the opportunities of other veterinarians. He must be receptive to new ideas and suggestions from other veterinary practitioners and ready to recognize, encourage and accredit those to whom such credit is due. Constructive suggestions from other veterinarians should be given careful attention.

Section 26. Use of Term Clinic/Hospital. -- A veterinarian shall use only the term “Clinic, Hospital or Center” in his veterinary practice following the guidelines set by Philippine Animal Hospital Association (PAHA) only.


Section 27. Testimonials. -- A veterinarian or any association of veterinarians shall not give testimonials, directly or indirectly to any therapeutic/prophylactic agents or their preparations such as remedies, vaccines and other articles for prevention of disease.

Section 28. Soliciting Patients. -- A veterinarian shall not solicit patient personally or employ his clients, agents or agencies to solicit patients or clients including such practice as “door to door” solicitation.

Section 29. Cover up for Illegal Acts. -- No veterinarian shall willfully engage in such services that shall cover up or facilitate prejudicial practices by certain commercial or industrial establishments (public or private).

Section 30. Performance of Obligations. -- The veterinarian shall perform in good faith and with due diligence all his obligations arising from agreements with clients or other persons, and financing institutions or other instrumentality’s, in order not to undermine the prestige of the profession.


Section 31. Advertising in General. -- Advertising as a means of obtaining patronage is objectionable, unethical and unprofessional. Some objectionable advertising consists of:

a) Personal superiority over one’s colleague b) Secret remedies or exclusive method c) Fixed fees for given services

d) As a corporation or partnership beyond that which would be ethical of either party e) Reports allegedly unintentional

f) Hospital or clinic equipment and other special services rendered therewith g) Solicited and repeated publicity of the building or occupation of a new hospital.

Section 32. Authorized advertising. -- The best and honorable means by which the veterinarian may make known and advance his reputation for skill and competence in the practice of veterinary medicine is through his professional services to his patients and the public.

a) The veterinarian or veterinary clinic or hospital shall have not more than one window or building sign per exposure.

b) Letters for windows or building signs of the first floor shall not be larger than 1/5 of the facade and shall show only the name of the veterinarian and the term “veterinarian.”

c) The term “gas anesthesia or air-conditioned” or any technical description must not appear in the card, stationaries, office doors and signboards of the veterinarian.

d) A veterinarian may identify himself as veterinary practitioner only in the following manner; 1. Cards, letterheads, announcements. A veterinarian may properly utilize professional

cards, recall notices to clients of records and letterheads when the style and text are consistent with the dignity of the profession.

2. Announcement cards may be sent when there is change in location or an alteration in the character or practice, but only to other veterinary members and to clients of records.

3. Professional cards must be of traditional size and type and shall not include more than the veterinarian’s name, title, address, telephone number and office hours. If he confines himself to the specific field of practice, he may include the following: “practice limited to, or if Board certified, specialist in... (“specialty”).

e) Office Door Lettering and Signs. The use of door lettering should be limited to 1/5 of the size of the door and shall show only the name of the veterinarian. Window or building signs above the first floor shall show the name of veterinarian and term veterinarian only and the letter shall be no bigger than 16cms in size.


f) Building Directory. When placing his name upon the directory of an office building, a veterinarian must adopt only the size of lettering regularly used by the tenants in said building.

g) The veterinarian shall not use neon signs and/or mobile sign board flashing lights in any form.

h) Directional signboards may be used by veterinarians but shall not be more than two along the street where the veterinarian is practicing and shall be limited to the name of the veterinarian, the address and an arrow.

i) A veterinarian shall not allow his name to be listed in the directories in bold face type or advertise his hospital or clinic in any way differing from the established standard style. j) A veterinarian shall not allow his name to be printed in public directories as a

specialist in the treatment of any disease or in the performance of any service within the scope of veterinary practice.

Section 33. Advertising in Local Newspaper.

--a) Advertisement in local newspaper should be reasonable in size and display. It should be limited to name, title, address, office hours, and telephone number. Such advertisement should be place under Section on “Professional” and not under “Per Section”.

b) Members are encouraged to write articles for the local press announcing the presence of a contagious disease and their control or treatment, provided the motive is a bona fide attempt to inform the clients rather than personal gain.

c) A veterinarian shall use newspaper announcement only when opening a new clinic/hospital, practice, provided that the newspaper announcement shall not be within 30 days from the date of opening, change or limitation of practice.

1. The veterinarian shall use only the usual titles and academic degrees such as “Doctor, Veterinarian, DVM, or VMD” in connection with the name or signature, such as but not limited to MS, PhD, LLB; recognized specialty titles, any be if legitimate holders.

2. The veterinarian is authorized to the listing of his name in a telephone or other directory, provided that the listing shall not be in bold type nor in a box or in different colors.

Section 34. Advertising in Mail. -- The distribution in cards, circulars by mail or other wise reminding clients that the time is at hand for rendering certain services other than vaccination, is a questionable practice.

Section 35. Advertising by Personal Cards and Letterheads. -- The letterhead of a professional should be modest, announcing his name, title, address, telephone number, and office hours.

Section 36. Advertising by Display Signs. -- Display signs of reasonable size and dimensions in veterinary hospitals or clinics are not objectionable provided they do not announce special services such as bathing, plucking, clipping, and x-ray works which characterizes the ways of the charlatan. Streamers announcing such practices as free consultation, vaccination, bathing, etc. Should be avoided. Use of outside displays like mounted dogs, cats or large pictures of animals depicting various practices, etc. Are considered objectionable.

Section 37. Testimonials, Guarantees, Frauds. -- It is considered unprofessional or unethical to:

a) Write testimonials as to the proprietary remedies or food except to report the results of properly controlled experiments or studies, such report to be given publicity through a veterinary journal or at convention or meeting of the association.

b) Guarantee a cure.

c) Employ questionable method to attract public attention or boast of possessing superior skill in the treatment or prevention of a disease.

d) Issuing of false certificates of health or official documents.


f) Criticize unfairly an animal about to be sold. g) Act or serve as judge in accredited animal shows.

Section 38. Illegal Practices.

--a)It is unprofessional to aid in illegal practices of others, practicing without license, teaching others to do so in violation of the laws governing the practice of veterinary medicine. b)It is the duty of members of the association to report illegal practices to the proper authorities

and to report such practices by members of the associations to the PVMA.

Section 39. Use of Association’s Endorsement. -- No member or employee of the PVMA shall use the name of the association in connection with the promotion or advertising or endorsement of any commercial product or commercial services, or any service without written permission from the Board of Directors.

Section 40. Loyalty. -- The veterinarian should first of all be a good citizen and a leader in movements to advance community welfare. He should commit no act that will reflect unfavorable upon the worthiness of the profession

Section 41. Membership and Financial Support. -- It is the duty and responsibility of the veterinarian to be an active member of the PVMA and bona fide chapters and affiliates of the association within the area of his practice. His membership requires financial support in reasonable amount fixed by his association or chapter.

Section 42. Enforcement. -- Violation of this code and the interpretation of any provision hereof shall be determined by the Council of Ethics.

Section 43. Sanctions. -- Reprimand, suspension or expulsion from the Philippine Veterinary Medical Association for violation of this code.

Section 44. Council of Ethics. -- The findings of an AdHoc Ethics Committee would be submitted to the Council of Ethics for Adjudication.

Section 45. Confidentiality. -- Proceedings conducted by the AdHoc Committee on Ethics shall remain confidential. All proceedings of the investigations being conducted by the AdHoc Committee and the Council of Ethics involving any member of the Philippine Veterinary Medical Association shall be conducted with utmost decorum.


Section 46. This Code shall be published din the PVMA Journal, Newsletter, or Souvenir Program upon ratification by the members of the PVMA in a Business Meeting during the Annual Convention and shall take effect within 15 days after ratification on February 23, 1992 in Cagayan de Oro.





Microbiology (formerly Bacteriology) is the study of living organisms that cannot be seen by the naked eye. They can only be seen by the use of the microscope. The subject covers a wise area of study involving the characteristics of the microbes, the harm they do in the form of disease in animals involving the different groups of microbes, the response of the animals body, their resistance, the effects of harmful microorganisms in populations and finally the involvement of the veterinarian in protecting public health through food hygiene. The subject is divided into 5 topics namely: Bacteriology (General and Pathogenic), Virology, Immunology, Food Hygiene and Epidemiology.

I. Bacteriology 25%

A. General

The general characteristics of the different classes of bacteria including their morphology, biochemical reactions, laboratory techniques including microscopy must be learned. The following topics are included in this field.

1. Development of microbiology as a science 2. Nature of bacteria and classification 3. Morphology, physiology and genetics 4. Laboratory techniques

4.1 Microscopy

4.2 Cultivation and biochemical reactions 4.3 Staining techniques

4.4 Identification of bacteria, fungi and rickettsiae

B. Pathogenic

An important aspect of bacteriology that a practicing veterinarian is expected to know. It is an important pre-requisite in making an accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. The examinee must review the following topics:

1. Descriptions, recognition and diagnosis of bacterial diseases of animals (terrestrial and aquatic).

2. Pathogenesis of bacterial, fungal, chlamydial, rickettsial and other diseases caused by organisms of unknown classification.

3. Diagnosis using bacteriological techniques

4. Prevention (vaccination), and control of pathogenic organisms. 5. Diagnosis, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. II. Virology 25%

The study of microorganisms smaller than bacteria that can cause harmful animal diseases are called viruses. They cannot be seen by the ordinary microscope but can be seen only by the electron microscope. Many of the new emerging animal disease are caused by viruses. Several can be transmitted to man which are called zoonoses. Hence the veterinarian is expected to have a thorough knowledge of the following of the topics:


1. Nature, classification and nomenclature of viruses 2. Laboratory techniques

2.1 Electron Microscopy

2.2 Ultra filtration and ultra centrifugation 2.3 Cultivation of viruses

3. Physical and chemical properties 4. Replication

5. Chemotherapy

6. Host response and resistance

7. Diagnosis and control of important harmful viral disease of economic and public health (zoonoses) significance in animals with emphasis in the Philippine setting. III. Immunology 20%

The study of natural resistance of animals and man to pathogens. The resistance maybe natural (acquired) or artificial. This is an important aspect of veterinary medicine the knowledge of which a practicing veterinarian must have. The following topics are recommended for review and study:

1. Immune responses and resistance 2. Antigens and antibodies

3. Immunoglobulins - physical, chemical and biological properties 4. Hypersensitivity and immune response

5. Cellular and humoral basis of immune response 6. Immune prophylaxis - vaccination and vaccines 7. Erythrocyte antigens - blood groups

8. Defects in the immune system IV. Food Hygiene 15%

An important aspect in veterinary medicine with public health significance is food hygiene. It is an obligation of the veterinarian to see to it that the food of animal origin meat and their by products (milk, dairy products and eggs) are safe for human consumption. Another important public health concern that is the professional responsibility of the veterinarian is meat inspection. Included in this topics are the following:

1. Microorganisms in food and microbial growth. 2. Elements of meat hygiene

3. Meat inspection - Slaughtering procedures 3.1 Ante-mortem - judgment

3.2 Post-mortem - judgment

4. Meat processing, meat storage and distribution 5. Sanitation facilities in plants

6. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) 7. Microbial spoilage in canned foods.

8. Physical and chemical factors affecting milk products quality including laboratory tests.

9. Control and supervision of milk production with emphasis on sanitation and hygiene. 10. Food borne diseases - diagnosis and control.

V. Epidemiology 15%

It is defined as the study of diseases (occurrence and distribution) in populations. Epidemiology has two principal uses. It serves as the investigative of diagnostic discipline or tool for herd medicine and its supports different forms of action against diseases. A modern veterinary practitioner must have an up to date knowledge of epidemiology that includes:


1. Development of epidemiology 2. Scope

3. Uses and functions 4. Methods

5. Concepts of multifactorial causation of disease

6. Strategies in the study of diseases causation specially in population 6.1 Patterns of disease occurrence

6.2 Spectrum of infection

6.3 Procedures of outbreak investigation and reporting REFERENCES

1. Bernard Tome, Jean-Pierre Vaillancourt, et.al. Ed. Dictionary of Veterinary Epidemiology. 1999. Iowa State University Press. 2121 S. State Ave., Ames, Iowa 50014-8300 USA.

2. Department Administrative Order (DAO) 96-37. Procedural Manual. Philippine Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). 1996 3. Dizon. 1986. Epidemiology and Disease Control (Communicable Diseases)

4. Epidemiology in Veterinary Practice. C.W. Schwabe. H.P. Rieman, C.E. Franti. 1977. Lea Febiger. Philadelphia, USA.

5. Hagan and Bruner’sMmicrobiology and Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals. 8th ed. 1988. J.F. Timoney, J.H. Gillespie, F.W. Scott and J.E. Barlough. Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca and London

6. McMahon and Pugh. 1970 Epidemiolog: Principles and Methods

7. Microbiology. Pelczar, MJ., L.C. Chan and N.N. Krieg. 5th ed. 1993. Locally available and recommended. Mc Graw - Hill, Inc.

8. Veterinary Medicine and Human Health. Scwabe, S.W. 1984. 3rd ed. William and Wilkins. Baltimore, USA.

9. Veterinary Immunology. An Introduction. I. Tizard. 1987. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. USA.

10. Zinsser’s Microbiology. Smith and Conant. Latest ed. D.T. Smith. N.F. Conant, et al. Appletox Century Crofts, Inc. N.Y.

11. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. 2nd Ed. Pedro N. Acha and Boris Szyfries. Scientific Publication No. 503. Pen American Health Organization. World Health Organization (WHO) Washington D.C. 20037, USA




1. What is the basis for the classification of Pasteurella multocida using Carter’s method? a. Hemagglutination c. Biochemical tests

b. Differential media reaction d. Agglutination

2. What is the causative agent of bacillary white diarrhea of chicks? a. Salmonella dublin c. S. gallinarum

b. S. pullorum d. S. anatum

3. The following microorganisms have been implicated in the cause of bloody scours in pigs usually in combinations. However one of them has NOT been implicated in this disease. Which is this organism?

a. Treponema cuniculi c. Fusobacterum necrophorus b. Bacteroides vulgatus d. Treponema hyodysenteriae

4. Leptospira icterohemorraghiae is the causative agent of one of the following diseases. What is this disease?

a. Rubarth’s b. Glasser’s c. Stuttgart’s d. Woolsorter’s 5. Which of the following Salmonella sp. is transmitted vertically?

a. Salmonella pullorum c. S .choleraesuis

b. S. newport d. S. anatum

II. Virology

1. Measles virus of humans and rinderpest virus of cattle have shown some similar antigenic relationship with a canine disease virus. What is this virus?

a. Parvovirus b. Distemper c. Hepatitis d. Reovirus 2. What animal species will you encounter Teschen disease?

a. Pigs b. Goats c. Cattle d. Dogs

3. In the pathogenic classification of NCD virus the velogenic strain is considered as the:

a. Least b. Moderate c. Non-pathogenic d. Most

4. When is the best stage of the disease to collect specimens for viral isolation?

a. Hyperacute b. Acute c. Chronic d. Subchronic

5. What disease of canines do you observe “blue eyes”? a. Infectious hepatitis c. Distemper

b. Para-influenza d. Tracheo-bronchitis III. Immunology

1. What is the immunoglobulin associated with allergy and is also responsible for hypersensitive response?

a. IgE b. IgD c. IgA d. IgM

2. What material will you use to make a vaccine to give more effective immune response? a. Supplementor b. Antibiotic c. Adjuvant d. Probiotic


3. What is the most sensitive binding test to use in measuring the quantity of antibody? a. Tertiary b. Secondary c. Primary d. Quaternary 4. Which classification of hypersensitivity types does anaphylaxis belong?

a. III b. II c. IV d. I

5. There are several kinds of adjuvants being used to increase the immunogenecity of a vaccine. The following are examples of adjuvants. One of them is NOT recommended for use. Which is it?

a. Aluminum phosphate c. Aluminum hydroxide b. Saponin d. Mineral oil

IV. Food Hygiene

1. What is the smell of a product that is spoiled by the Lactobacillus?

a. Acrid b. Putrid c. Sour d. Rancid

2. Which of the following tests is used to measure the amount of fat in milk?

a. Hehner b. Babcock c. Wode d. Hotis

3. What condition in man will be produced when there is a continuous use of the preservatives, nitrites or nitrates?

a. Anomalies b. Gastroenteritis c. Mutagenecityd. Carcinoma 4. What is the black mold responsible for the spoilage of bread?

a. Altenaria tenuis c. Amanita phalloide b. Botytis cineriea d. Aspergillus niger

5. When amidol test is used in detecting unauthorized food preservatives, what preservative is being tested?

a. Chloroform b. Nitrate c. Nitrite d. Formalin V. Epidemiology

1. What is the zoonotic classification of arbovirus infections? a. Sapprozoonoses c. Cyclozoonoses

b. Direct zoonoses d. Metazoonoses

2. What is the state of the animals being studied in epidemiology?

a. Sick b. Alive c. Alive, sick and dead d. Dead

3. In the study of epidemiology, pathogenecity refers to the property of the causative agent to:

a. Determine the severity of a resulting infections as measured by its fatality rate b. Lodge itself in the host

c. Induce disease

d. Be transmitted to a susceptible host

4. The study of epidemiology by making observations in the field in order to observe a particular disease event as fully necessary is referred to as:

a. Analytical b. Investigative c. Descriptive d. Experimental

5. The method of formulating experimental hypothesis by searching for some factor the strength of which varies with the frequency of a disease is called the method of:


a. Concomitant variation c. Difference




The study of anatomical, chemical and physiologic alterations in an animal as a result of disease. In the licensure examination the subject covers 3 topics namely: General, Systemic (Special) and Clinical. In order to arrive at an accurate diagnosis of diseases of terrestrial and aquatic animals, the veterinarian must have a good working knowledge of this subject.

I. General Pathology 35%

It is concerned with the basic changes in tissues and cells both microscopic and macroscopic. The following areas are covered and should be reviewed:

1. Basic pathology and definition terms 2. The cell: normal and pathological

3. Degenerative change: necrosis and death.

4. Disturbances in circulation - hyperemia, congestion, embolism, edema, thrombosis, infarction 5. Inflammation and repair - function, components exudates, tissue injury and fever, healing,

therapeutic influences, regeneration.

6. Disturbances of growth - hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, malformations and aging. 7. Neoplasms - classification, microscopic and macroscopic appearance, diagnosis. 8. Host parasite relationships - infectious disease processes and pathogenesis of disease. II. Systemic Pathology 35%

The veterinarian must be able to apply the basic alteration/pathological changes learned in general pathology and correlate these with the clinically diagnosed specific diseases. Post mortem techniques and pathology diagnosis of all the organs concerned is part of this subject that must be learned by the veterinarian.

The following systems of the animal must be studied and reviewed: 1. Integumentary system

2. Musculo-skeletal 3. Respiratory 4. Cardiovascular 5. Hemic and lymphatic 6. Digestive

7. Urinary

8. Genital (male and female) 9. Endocrine

10. Nervous

11. Organ of special sense 12. Nutritional deficiencies III. Clinical Pathology 30%

In disease processes chemical alterations are produced in a sick animal. A good clinician should always resort to laboratory methods to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. The following laboratory examinations are going to be helpful to the veterinarian and therefore must be studied and reviewed.

1. Preparations, collection, preservations and transport of specimens from bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases.


3. Hematology - techniques for examinations 4. Clinical chemistry

5. Clinical enzymology

6. Water, electrolytes and acid base balance 7. Synovial fluids and miscellaneous fluids 8. Function tests for organs

9. Cerebrospinal fluids 10. Microbiological diagnosis 11. Avian clinical pathology REFERENCES

1. Food Animal Pathology and Meat Hygiene. 1991. With Section on Hazad Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) Drago Carl Herenda and Don A. Franco. Mosby Year Book St. Louise, Baltimore. Boston, Chicago, Londo, Philadelphia.

2. General Pathology. R.G. Thomson 1978, W.B. Saunders CO. Philadelphia. Locally available. 3. Histopathology. Thomas, C. 1989. B.C. Decker, Inc. Toronto and Philadelphia.

4. Pathology of Domestic Animals. Edited by D.C. Jubb, P.C. Kennedy and N. Palmer. 4th Ed. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, USA

5. Principles of Veterinary Pathology. R.A. Runnells, W.S. Monlux and A.W. Monlux. Latest ed. Iowa University Press. Ames Iowa, USA.

6. Textbook of Comparative General Pathology. 1990. 2nd Ed. Ed. By David O. Slauson and Barry J. Cooper

7. Thomson’s Special Veterinary Pathology - W.W. Carlton and M. Donald Mc Garcia. 2nd Ed. 1995. St. Louis Mo. USA.

8. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. E.H. Coles. 1986. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, USA (Locally Available).

9. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. 1981. Duncan, J.R. and Prasse, K.W.

10. Veterinary Pathology. T.C. Jones and R.D. Hunt. 5th Ed. 1983. Lea and Febiger. Philadelphia. USA.




1. What structure in the cell is the metabolic center for forming new or breaking down new compounds?

a. Mitochondria

b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum c. Rough endoplasmic reticulum d. Golgi apparatus

2. What do you call these inflammatory cells that resemble the prickle cells of the squamous epithelium?

a. Epitheloids c. Plasma cells

b. Neutrophils d. Macrophages

3. Which of the following anomalies does NOT belong to the group?

a. Aplasia c. Atresia

b. Hypoplasia d. Hyperplasia

4. What will be the result if the proteins (colloids) are depleted in the capillary system? a. Decrease of tissue fluid c. Dehydration

b. Increase of tissue fluid d. Capillary hemorrhage

5. What is the pathological term when the normal body opening is absent?

a. Hypoplasia c. Agenesis

b. Aplasia d. Atresia

II. Systemic

1. Improper disposal of fecal material in a poultry or piggery farm will produce poisonous gases and will cause the following pathological lesions:

- pulmonary edema - hyperemia

- catarrhal inflammation of the air passages What gas will produce these lesions?

a. H2S c. CO

b. CO2 d. Cl

2. A young pig died within a few hours. Upon necropsy you found the following cardiac and pulmonary lesions:

- edema with spotted hemorrhages - round shape heart

- pulmonary edema

What will be your pathologic diagnosis?

a. Mulberry heart disease c. Shaggy heart disease

b. Myocarditis d. Tiger heart disease

3. In what species of animals is gastric ulcers often encountered? a. Sheep b. Pigs c. Dogs d. Cattle

4. In what species of animals is perosis commonly seen?


5. What will be the result of Zn deficiency in pigs?

a. Dyskeratosis b. Fluorosis c. Hyperkeratosis d. Parakeratosis III. Clinical

1. Prolonged clotting time is an indication of a severe disease in which of the following organs?

a. Bone marrow b. Heart c. Liver d. Spleen

2. Which of the following blood picture in NOT correct when describing an unfavorable prognosis? a. Temporary increase of monocytes

b. Persistent lymphopenia c. Absence of eosinophils d. Presence of toxic neutrophils

3. Which of the following elements will trigger the action of calcitonin?

a. Iron b. Calcium c. Phosphorus d. Manganese 4. Which is the most expensive among the following anticoagulants?

a. Na oxalate b. Na fluoride c. Heparin d. EDTA 5. What species of animal will ESR be useful in a preliminary diagnosis of disease?




The Scope of this subject includes the physiological effects of drugs and the mechanism of their actions.

II. Clinical Pharmacology (60%)

This topic covers the use and application of drugs for modification of functions and control of diseases of the various body system. It also covers the drugs used for the treatment and control of a wide variety of infectious diseases. It also includes informations on antibiotics, antivirals, insecticides and anthelmintics.


1. Philippine National Veterinary Drug Formulary. 1988. 1st ed.

2. Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and Biologicals. 1996. Kansler, K. & D. Blevins. 9th ed. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co., Kansas.

3. Veterinary Applied Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1982. Brander, Pugh and Bywater. 4th ed. Cassel Ltd., London SWIP ISB

4. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1982. Booth & Mc Donald 5th ed. Iowa State University Press/Ames.

5. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1995. Richard Adams. 7th ed. Iowa State University Press/Ames.




1. What do you call the component of a pharmaceutical preparation which is responsible for its therapeutic effect?

a. Active ingredient c. Vehicle

b. Adjuvant d. Mediator

2. A 10% solution of sodium chloride contains:

a. 10 gm in 100 ml c. 10 mg in 100 ml

b. 10 gm in 10 ml d. 10 gm in 1000 ml 3. On which muscle tissues will acetylcholine evoke excitatory response?

a. Smooth muscles of the GI tract b. Myocardium

c. Vascular smooth muscles d. Atrioventricular node

4. How does atropine acts on the parasympathetic nervous system? a. Competitive antagonism of acetylcholine

b. Depresses formation of acetylcholine c. Enhances formation of cholinesterase d. Stimulates adrenergic activity

5. Alpha-adrenergic receptors in the medullary part of the brain when stimulated will produce:

a. A decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia b. An elevation of blood pressure and tachycardia c. Vasoconstriction and bradycardia

d. A vasodilatation and tachycardia II. Clinical Pharmacology

1. The following infections are correctly paired with effective antimicrobial therapy, except: a. Tetanus - oxytetracyline

b. Salmonellosis - chloramphenicol c. Ehrlichiosis - doxycycline d. Mycoplasmosis - tylosin

2. If an animal patient has a history of penicillin allergy, which of the following anit- infectives is an appropriate replacement?

a. Erythromycin c. Doxycycline

b. Gentamicin d. Ciprofloxacin

3. Drug of choice for congestive heart failure:

a. Digitalis c. Atropine

b. Quinidine sulfate d. Procainamide hydrochloride

4. Chronic use of this therapeutic agent may cause vitamins A, D, E and K deficiency:

a. Mineral oil c. Chloramphenicol


5. The following conditions or drugs have been correctly paired with their appropriate antidotes or specific remedies, except:

a. Halothane - epinephrine b. Morphine overdose - naloxone c. Xylazine overdose - yohimbine




I. Principles Of General Physiology (25%)

This subject covers the physiology of excitation, physiology of contraction, the nervous system, the blood and the cardiovascular system.

II. Systemic Physiology (45%)

The scope of this subject includes the physiology of the respiratory system, the digestive system, metabolism, fluids and the kidneys.

III. Endocrinology And Reproductive Physiology (30%)

The subject covers endocrinology and reproduction in domestic animals with special attention given to four farm species (horse, cattle, swine and sheep) and two companion animals, the dog and cat. Reproductive patterns of these animals, artificial breeding and associated endocrine glands are included.


1. Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals. Swenson, J. & W. Reece. Cornell Univeristy Press. 2. Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 1987. Feldman and Nelson. W.B.

Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

3. Medical Physiology, 5th Ed. Guyton. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.




I. Principles Of General Physiology

1. What nutrient is stored in the liver as glycogen and efficient source of energy?

a. Carbohydrates c. Fat

b. Protein d. Vitamins

2. The vitamin vital to the coagulation of blood is:

a. K c. E

b. D d. C

3. Which group of substance will cause skeletal muscle relaxation? a. Nicotinic antagonist c. Adrenergic antagonist b. Muscarinic antagonist d. Dopanergic antagonist 4. If the vagus nerve is severed, which of the following conditions will occur?

a. Movement of food through GI tract will slow down b. Difficulty breathing

c. heart rate will decrease d. Skeletal muscle weakness

5. What is the pH range of blood compatible with normal life?

a. 7.0 - 7.8 c. 8.0 - 8.5

b. 6.2 - 6.8 d. 9.0 - 12.0

II. Systemic Physiology

1. Which of these respiratory functions prevents over-distention of the lungs? a. Herring-Breuer inflation reflex

b. Cheyne-Stokes respiration

c. Carbon dioxide blood level maintenance d. Herring-Breuer deflation reflex

2. The major stimulus in the size and muscular development of the rumeno-reticulum in ruminants is:

a. Bulk effect of roughage

b. Generous amount of milk ingested after colostral absorption c. Profuse salivary secretions at the start of solid food ingestion d. Volatile fatty acids at the start of microbial fermentation

3. The absence of this in the muscular stomach of the bird will cause the digestion of hard food slower.

a. Grit c. Hydrochloric acid

b. Enzyme d. Saliva

4. The principal organ responsible for gluconeogenesis is the:

a. Liver c. Kidney

b. Spleen d. Intestines


a. Acute increase in arterial pressure will cause a decrease in heart rate b. Acute changes in arterial pressure do not alter heart rate

c. Acute decrease in arterial pressure cause arterial vasodilation d. Acute decrease in arterial pressure cause a decrease in heart rate III. Endocrinology And Reproductive Physiology

1. The most significant physiologic change following the removal of adrenal glands in mammals is:

a. Rise in blood potassium concentration and marked sodium excretion b. Increased in blood bicarbonate level

c. Hypertension

d. Increased body hydration

2. Which group of agents are collectively known as catecholamines? a. Epinephrine, dopamine, norepinephrine

b. Norephinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine c. Epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin

d. Dopamine, adrenocorticotrophin, norepinephrine

3. Which of the following hormones stimulates the Leydig cells of the testis to produce testosterone?

a. Luteinizing hormone (LH) c. Prolactin

b. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) d. Estrogen

4. The secretion of which hormone is increased at the stage close to parturition in contrast to decreased progesterone production?

a. Estrogen c. Luteinizing hormone

b. Follicle stimulating hormone d. Somatotrophin 5. The physiologic effects of oxytocin does not include:

a. Inducement of estrus cycle b. Induction of milk ejection reflex

c. Contraction of the smooth muscles of the gravid uterus d. Facilitation of sperm transport in the non-pregnant uterus.




I. Prevention Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals (15%)

Knowledge in preventing animal diseases is essential as part of management of domestic animals. A general overview is hereby tested on graduate veterinarians.

II. Diagnosis Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals (35%)

Diagnostic skill and knowledge is one of the most important intellectual possession of a graduate veterinarian. Success of disease treatment depends on how accurate a veterinarian determines the abnormalities of ailment of an animal with or without the aid of diagnostic tools (e.g. X-ray, laboratory facility). Diagnostic knowledge is hereby extensively measured.

III. Treatment Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals (25%)

After correctly diagnosing an animal disease knowledge about the procedures of treatment (medication or surgery or both) is measured. Effecting treatment and recovery is after all the culmination of any medical effort.

IV. Obstetric And Gynecology (15%)

This branch of veterinary medicine involves knowledge in physiology, pathology, microbiology, nutrition, medical and surgical therapy of genital diseases and it also includes artificial breeding.

V. Aquatic And Exotic Animal Medicine (5%)

As any other branch of veterinary medicine a veterinarian must have a fairly good knowledge about aquatic and exotic animal medicine because in any community the veterinarian will be bound to be consulted regarding these creatures.

VI. Ethics And Jurisprudence (5%)

Any veterinarian living with fellow professionals must know the ethical practices toward his colleagues. His professional conduct must be guided by the code of ethics. In addition, he must be knowledgeable about government laws, acts and regulations related to all aspects of veterinary practice.


1. A to Z of Tropical Fish (Diseases & Health Problems). 1998. Baily, et.al. Howell Book House, New York, NY 10019

2. Bovine Medicine, Surgery and Herd Health Management. 2nd ed. 1980. Gibbons, et al. American Veterinary Publications, Inc. Illinois

3. Canine Medicine. 4th Ed. 1979. E.J. Catcott, et.al. American Veterinary Publications, Inc. 4. Canine Surgery. 1st Ed. 1965. Archibal, J., et.al. American Veterinary Publications, Inc. Sta.

Barbara, California, USA

5. Compilation of Government Quarantine and Regulatory Laws, Acts and Administrative Orders (e.g. Animal Welfare Act of 1998, Generic Act etc)

6. Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 4th Ed. 1998. Bojrab, J.M. et.al. Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore.

7. Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 2nd Ed. 1997. Robinson, E.N. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia


8. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds 2nd Ed. 1982. Petrak, M.L. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia 9. Diseases of Goat. 2nd Ed. 1999. Matthews, J. Clarendon House Veterinary Center,

Chelmsford, UK.

10. Diseases of Poultry. 9th ed. 1991. Calnek, B.W., et al. Iowa State University

11. Diseases of Swine. 6th ed. 1990. Leman, A.D., et al. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

12. Diseases Transmitted from Animals to Man. 1975. Huber, W.T., et al. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, USA.

13. Large Animal Surgery. 4th ed. 1980. Oehme & Prier. Williams & Wilkings, Baltimore. 14. Manual of Equine Practice. 1993. Rose & Hodgson. W.B. Saunder Co., Philadelphia.

15. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th ed. 1997. Aiello, S.E., et.al. Merk & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA.

16. Philippine Code of Veterinary Ethics. Philippine Veterinary Association.

17. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, 2nd ed. 1991. Roberts. Ithaca, New York, USA. 18. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 1978. Fowler. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.




I. Prevention Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals

1. Osteoporosis in sows and gilts can be effectively prevented by: a. Adequate nutrition and diet

b. Adequate exposure to sun

c. Adequate and comfortable farrowing crates d. Selective breeding

2. Lymphoid leukosis (avian leukosis) in a chicken breeder farm could be eradicated by: a. Elimination of egg transmission and isolation rearing

b. Providing adequate energy feeds c. Antibiotic feed additives

d. Regular vaccination

3. It is not advisable to subject a cow to general anesthesia because of the serious risk from: a. Bloat

b. Foreign body pneumonia c. Atony of the urinary bladder d. Paralysis of the hind limbs

4. Why is it necessary to infiltrate the bite wound inflicted by a rabid dog with hyperimmune serum at the start of post exposure vaccination in human?

a. Rabies virus stays at the site of bite wound for a while and replicate b. It promotes the healing of wound

c. It reduces the pain

d. It enhances the antigenicity of the vaccine simultaneously given.

5. Which of the following measures is the safest thing to do on a carcass of an animal that died from anthrax?

a. Bury it deeply b. Burn it

c. Butcher it and subject it to rendering machine for animal feed d. Open it and generously pour potent disinfectant

II. Diagnosis Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals

1. What is the significance of the absence of urobilirogen from the intestinal content of an icteric animal?

a. Biliary obstruction c. Hemolytic anemia b. Liver cirrhosis d. Hepatic necrosis

2. An animal suffering from viral infection most likely show which significant blood cell change?

a. Lymphopenia c. Eosinophilia

b. Increased target cell d. Neutrophilia

3. Which of the following conditions will you associate high serum lipase and serum amylase level?


b. Liver necrosis d. Musculoskeletal disease 4. Identify which animal is suffering from some form of immuno-deficiency?

a. A dog with demodectic mange and concurrent candidiasis b. A horse suffering from impacted colon

c. A cow down with grass tetany d. A piglet with atresia ani

5. Most accurate diagnosis of acute myocarditis can be obtained by:

a. Electrocardiography c. Radiography

b. Percussion d. Auscultation

III. Treatment Of Diseases Of Domestic Animals

1. A circumscribed squamous-cell carcinoma on the free margin of the nictitans in a cow is best treated by:

a. Excision of the affected portion of nictitans including a normal margin of the cartilage

b. Radiation therapy

c. Complete avulsion of the affected eyeball d. Subconjunctival enucleation

2. Post parturient eclampsia in a bitch is most responsive to which medication?

a. Calcium gluconate c. Phynytoin

b. Diazepam d. Potassium chloride

3. Which of the following therapeutic regimen will you avoid when treating laminitis in horse? a. Administration of dexamethasone

b. Administration of phenylbutazone c. Correction of endotoxin

d. Administration of dimethyl sulfoxide in saline solution IV

4. Which of the following injuries will you treat first on a cat involved in vehicular accident? a. Ruptured urinary bladder c. Severe muscle bruising

b. Femoral bone fracture d. Skin laceration

5. If you are not sure of the location of lesion in the abdominal cavity, the most appropriate incision for exploratory surgery is:

a. Ventral midline c. Paralumbar

b. Flank d. Paramedian

IV. Obstetrics And Gynecology

1. The best contraceptive for a cot not intended for breeding is:

a. Ovariohysterectomy c. Androgen injection b. Progesterone injection d. Estrogen injection 2. This drug of choice in inducing parturition in a mare is ineffective in a cow:

a. Oxytocin c. Relaxin

b. Dexamethasone d. Prostaglandin F2 3. Fetotomy operation is primarily indicated to:

a. Reduce the size of the fetus so it can be removed in the birth canal b. Relieve the dam of pain

c. Minimize infection in the uterus





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