World War One The Great War\The War to End All Wars: 1914-1918

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World War One

The Great War\The War to End All Wars:


• Kaiser Wilhelm II

• Trade

• Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

• Anti-German Propaganda

• Anti-war groups

• US warnings

• Peace without Victory speech

• Russian Revolution, March 1917

• Bolshevik Revolution, Oct 1917

• Industry

• I.W.W.

• Great Migration

• Bonds

• Committee on Public Information

• Women

• Armistice

• Mid-term elections

• Henry Cabot Lodge

• Ratification of treaty

• Isolationism

• 1920 Elections

• Warren G. Harding


Long term causes of WWI


What were the

four underlying

causes of the



#2: What event in Sarajevo was the “spark” of WWI?

He is heir to the Austrian


He goes to Bosnia (Sarajevo)

Killed by Gavrilo Princip

(The Black Hand) a Serbian

nationalist who wanted Slavic


Immediate cause of the war

Led to Austria declaring war

on Serbia (which is what

Austria wanted anyway)


• There were 7 conspirators who lined up throughout the city to wait for their chance to attack.

• The first attack was a grenade thrown at the Duke’s car which hit the back and bounced off, then exploded.

• The assassin drank a container of cyanide and jumped into the river.

• He was fished out; the cyanide was old and didn’t work.

• The other conspirators heard the explosion and later found out the attempt failed.

• The Duke sped to the Town Hall, made a speech and then tried to find the quickest way out of town.


Germans control

the war

Kaiser Wilhelm II



Plan to avoid a two

front war called the

Schlieffen Plan

Invade France through

Belgium quickly and

then worry about


Trench Warfare

• After the German invasion, it was eventually halted and both sides began building a series of trenches along the Western Front in France

• This led to a 3 1\2 year stalemate where little land was gained on either side

• Nearly 475 miles of trenches were built

Could be 5 to 1000 yards


No Man’s Land

– Land between the trenches

Over the Top

– Attacking



2006 Hill Pearsall-Topsail High School

Since there were no washing machines or cleaners at that time, the soldiers would re-wear their cloth many times. The lice

would lay there eggs in the seams of the cloth




Both Central Powers

and Allied Powers

tried to woo the US

Many Austrians and

Germans (11 million)

were happy to be out

of the Europe and in

the US


Most Americans were

anti-German from the



Things get worse


German operative left

his briefcase on an

elevator by mistake

and plans for

industrial sabotage

were found

Shaped American


On July 30, 1916, German saboteurs targeted the ammunition depot on New Jersey's Black Tom Island, shipping point for three-quarters of U.S. ammunition bound for Allied Europe. The resulting explosion was heard as far away as Philadelphia. (Library of



When the war began the US experienced an

economic boom

Loans to the Allies

US trading with Germany(limited)

Germany found it difficult to trade with a




• The Brits set up a blockade and the Germs responded with

unrestricted submarine warfare

#5: Understand the events of Lusitania: May 7,1915

• Long term cause of US involvement in the war

• Germans agree to end the unrestricted warfare if Britain lifted its blockade; never



The British were

smuggling goods or

contraband back to

England from the US

This is one reason the

Germans were


Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.

Imperial German Embassy


Anti-German Propaganda

Propaganda over the radio from the British

Stories of German atrocities in Belgium and

France (killing children)


US Warnings

Wilson sent a strong warning to

Germany and they would be held


Aug. 1915: The Germans were

convinced to warn unarmed ships

before firing on them


1916 Election

The US remained

neutral and the

American people liked

that (also good for


#10 What’s the


Peace without Victory speech

An attempt to end

the war and avoid

US intervention by



Causes of the US entering the

War: April 6, 1917


Russian Revolution: March. 1917

Overthrow of the Czar of


Bolshevik Revolution, Oct. 1917

Communist takeover of


In early 1918, after the

new government was

overthrown by the

Communists, peace was

sought with Germany

Followed by a Russian

civil war 1918-1920


After the election, war seemed

inevitable due to



Selective Service Act, May 1917


10 million in one



Roles of us

Who are we? #12

Baruch, Taft, Hoover

Baruch: War Industry Board

Taft: War Labor Board


More info for you on WWI

Unions increase

more work

women had to work

Controls were placed

on certain parts of

industry (railroads,

fuel, etc)

War Industries

Board…who led it?


Food Administration

Who led it?

Hoped to use

voluntary actions; not

compulsory laws

Urged people to grow

their own food


Attempts to ration……….

Victory Gardens

Shorter skirts

Cloth used for military


Tall leather boots


Daylight savings used

Meatless Monday


International Workers of the World

Union opposed to US

involvement in WWI

Led by William Haywood

The I.W.W. broke away

from the AFL

Accepted immigrants


Great Migration

Movement of


Raising Money for

the War

Taxes and Bonds


were the most

important way to raise

money for the war

– movie stars held rallies for the war effort


Committee on Public Information

– Get people to support the war effort

– George Creel


What will my

bonds buy?

A $50 bond will buy: – 14 rifle grenades.

– 160 first-aid packages to dress wounds.

– Truck knives for an entire rifle company.

A $100 bond will: – Clothe a soldier.

– Buy 5 rifles.

– Feed a soldier for 8 months.

A $1,000 bond will buy: – An X-ray apparatus outfit.

– Pistols for an entire company.

$5,000 worth of bonds will buy: – 1 Liberty truck.

– 7 Lewis machine guns.

$50,000 worth of bonds will:

– Maintain a submarine for over a year.

– Construct a base hospital with 500 beds.


– Will buy 5 fighting airplanes.


– will maintain a battleship for a year.


– will build onedestroyer.



Hyphenated Americans

Civil Liberties were abused especially against immigrants

People with German sounding names were discriminated

against and fired from jobs

Orchestras didn’t play Mozart, Bach, Beethoven

Cities with German sounding names were changed

German measles called Liberty Measles

Hamburger called Liberty Steak


Espionage and Sedition Acts, 1917 and 1918


The Espionage Act, passed in 1917, made it a crime to obstruct military recruitment and it authorized the Postmaster General to deny mailing privileges to any material he considered treasonous or

harmful to the war effort.

The Sedition Act, passed in 1918, made it illegal to “utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive language” about the government, the Constitution, the flag, the

armed forces or even the “uniform of the Army or Navy.”

Considering the two above mentioned Acts, decide whether or not the defendants in the cases to follow are “guilty” or “not guilty.” Your job is not to interpret the law in terms of its constitutionality, but to apply it to the cases in question. Be prepared to explain your


• Case #1: The American Revolution Movie

– A Hollywood movie producer issued a film, The Spirit of 76, which portrayed some scenes in which British soldiers committed some atrocities.Claiming that the film questioned the faith of our ally, Great Britain, the prosecution argued that the war effort demanded total Allied support.

– Guilty or Not Guilty? Sentence/Fine:__________

• Case #2: The Anti-Draft Circulars

– An American Socialist, feeling that American involvement in World War I was an attempt to bolster the capitalist system, mailed circulars to men eligible for the draft, stating that being conscripted against one’s will was unconstitutional and should be resisted.The prosecution argued that this interfered with the

government’s right to raise an army in time of war.


• Case #3: The Leaflets Dropped From a Window

– Several men, concerned about America’s involvement in the

unfolding Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, dropped some leaflets

from a window to pedestrians below.The leaflets urged that American workers go on strike to protest America’s involvement in another

nation’s civil war.The prosecution argued that while the leaflets made no statement about the U.S.’s role in World War or its allies, a strike might hamper war production and thus their actions were illegal.

– Guilty or Not Guilty? Sentence/Fine:______

• Case #4: The Anti-Draft Speech

– An American Socialist leader stood on a street corner in Cincinnati, Ohio and told a crowd of passers-by that the draft was wrong, that the European War was not America’s fight, and that the U.S. should

withdraw its troops immediately.The prosecution contended that these words were inflammatory and could hinder the recruitment of soldiers by the Selective Service Administration.


• Case #1: The American Revolution Movie

U.S. v. Spirit of ’76. The producer was fined $10,000 and given a 10-year prison sentence (later commuted to three years).

– Note: The judge supported the jury’s decision stating that the film might cause Americans "to question the good faith of our ally,

Great Britain.“

• Case #2: The Anti-Draft Circulars

Schenck v. U.S.A 10-year sentence upheld by the Supreme Court, which established the “clear and present danger” doctrine for the boundaries of permissible speech.

– Note: ''The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of

proximity and degree.'' Justice Holmes


• Case #3: The Leaflets Dropped From a Window

Abrams v. U.S.A 20-year sentence upheld by the Supreme Court .Abrams was later released from prison on the condition that he emigrate to the Soviet Union.

Note: Majority Reasoning: Based on Schenk, this speech is clearly

prohibitable. Even though their primary purpose was pro-Russian, it had an anti-American effect by urging strikes.

• Dissent Reasoning: [Holmes] Abrams did not intend to interfere with the war against Germany. There was not clear and present danger present because the leaflet was silly and posed no immediate danger to the U.S. government. Free speech is necessary because it is the "marketplace of


• Case #4: The Anti-Draft Speech

U.S. v. Debs 10-year sentence commuted by President Harding in 1921.

Note: Debs told his listeners: "Wars throughout history have been waged for conquest and plunder.... And that is war, in a nutshell. The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles." The judge who sentenced Debs said "who would strike the sword from the hand of this nation while she is engaged in defending herself against a foreign and brutal power." • In court, Debs refused to call any witnesses, declaring: "I have been accused of obstructing the war. I

admit it. I abhor war. I would oppose war if I stood alone." Before sentencing, Debs spoke to judge and jury, "While there is a lower class, I am in it. While there is a criminal element, I am of it. While there is a soul in prison, I am not free."


Schenck v. US, 1919



Women in WWI

Took the place of men in

factories and farms

Their work aided them in

obtaining the right to vote

Most women were let go

when the war was over as

the men returned from



Conscientious Objectors

Oppose the war based on

religion or moral grounds

Alvin York among most

famous in WWI

Eventually accepted the

war as a moral cause and

in Oct. 1918 killed 25

enemy soldiers and with

the help of 6 others


1918 Fears

• The first doughboys were not well trained; the French and British didn’t care

• Fear of Bolsheviks

– With Russia leaving the war the Germans wouldn’t be so spread out

Feared weapons would end up the hands of

Germans during the revolution

– Some feared the Bolsheviks would get the weapons

• In May 1918 the Germans got within 40 miles of Paris


US Forces Enter Europe

American Expeditionary



Nickname of US troops in


His nickname was


The End Is Near

In Nov. 1918, a mutiny occurred in Germany and

the Kaiser had to leave the country and went to the




was signed on the 11th month, on

the 11th day, at the 11th hour…..the guns fell

silent (truce….not peace treaty)


Death Totals

Russia: 1,700,000

Germany: nearly 2,000,000

France: over 1,300,000

Britain: over 940,000

US: over 116,000


Mid-Term Elections

Wilson needed Democratic support in Congress to

pass his plan

Republicans gained

Only leader at the peace table without a legislative



Republican Henry Cabot Lodge


14 Points

– Wilson’s plan for after the war introduced to Congress in Jan. 1918

I. The abolition of secret treaties

II. The freedom of the seas

III. Free trade

IV. Disarmament

V. Adjustment of colonial claims.

– VI-XIII Deal with self-determination

• National groups decide where they want to live; independence

XIV. A general association of nations


Treaty of Versailles,

June 1919

Peace treaty to end WWI

9 New Nations created

Ottoman Empire divided


Polish Corridor created; land taken

from Germany to give Poland a


Who made the treaty?


Who made the


Who was left



Three provisions set the

Causes of WWII

war guilt clause:

war was blamed on


reparations (33

billion): Germany

had to pay

Loss of German land

(50,000 miles)

including the



German Politics

A weak republic (govt)

was established in


Ratifying the Treaty?


Wilson had alienated many


Many Republicans didn’t

like it because of the

League of Nations and

harshness towards Germany

The Big Three knew Wilson

would concede much to get

the League approved

Wilson was forced to

compromise much to

keep the League of


Viewed differently in

Europe now


Revised treaty sent to Congress

Wilson returned to the US to gain support for the

treaty in the Senate

Once again the League wasn’t supported

Republicans didn’t want to get involved in Europe

It may cause Europe to violate the Monroe


Made Wilson look weak as his own govt.


Lodge v. Wilson

Lodge wanted to

amend the treaty and

Americanize it

Wilson went on a

good will tour to gain

support for the treaty

While in Colorado, he

collapsed from

exhaustion and a few

days later had a stroke

Paralyzed one side of

his body

The treaty was

submitted with

Lodge’s reservations

and still rejected

Treaty was never

approved by the US

and we made a




Other countries are upset at the


The Soviets lost more land than anyone and had more

deaths (nearly 1 million total)

Irish hoped to gain independence from Britain and didn’t

(what about self-determination??)

South East Asian colonies wanted independence and were


One man, Ho Chi Minh, went to meet with Wilson and he

was ignored


1920 Elections

• Wilson hoped that if the Democrats won, it was be a symbol of support for the treaty and the League of Nations

• Republicans chose Warren G. Harding

• Democrats chose James M. Cox and FDR as VP

• With women now voting, the Republicans won the election

• Even Eugene V. Debs, who was in jail, garnished 900,000 votes

• The largest ever for the Socialists party

• Harding called for a “Return to Normalcy”


League of Nations results

The US never joined the League of Nations

Should they have joined it?

Power of the League was undercut by the

US not joining

The French feared Germany wouldn’t be


Zeppelin, flieg,

Hilf uns im krieg,

Flieg nach England,

England wird


Zeppelin, flieg.

Zeppelin, fly,

Help us win the war,

Fly against England,


""I think of this war as it really is, not as the people at home imagine,

with a hoorah! and a roar. It is very serious, very grim…"

Manfred von Richthofen

Canadians get a lift on a British Mark

IV. They won’t get where they're


Mustard gas:

•caused blisters internally and externally •Used by Germany

•Brought on several hours after exposure.

•Protection against mustard gas proved more difficult than against either chlorine.

The use of mustard gas also proved to have mixed benefits. While inflicting serious injury upon the enemy the bacteria remained potent in soil for

weeks after release: making capture of infected trenches a dangerous


Eddie Rickenbacker:


WWI pilot achieved 26 victories (22

aircraft and 4 balloons) and had

received the title "American Ace of


•Courage is doing what you're afraid to

do. There can be no courage unless





The last living WWI

Vet passed away Feb.


Frank Buckles

He also served in

WWII and was a

POW in the

Philippines held by


Lied about his age


Hold My Breath as I Wish for Death Oh Please God,wake Me

Now the World Is Gone I'm Just One

Oh God,help Me Hold My Breath as I Wish for Death

Oh Please God Help Me


Imprisoning Me All That I See Absolute Horror I Cannot Live I Cannot Die Trapped in Myself Body My Holding Cell


Has Taken My Sight Taken My Speech

Taken My Hearing Taken My Arms Taken My Legs

Taken My Soul

Left Me with Life in Hell I Can't Remember Anything

Can't Tell If this Is True or Dream Deep down Inside I Feel to Scream this Terrible Silence Stops Me

Now That the War Is Through with Me I'm Waking up I Can Not See

That There Is Not Much Left of Me Nothing Is Real but Pain Now

Hold My Breath as I Wish for Death Oh Please God,wake Me

Back in the Womb its Much Too Real in Pumps Life That I must Feel

but Can't Look Forward to Reveal Look to the Time When I'll Live

Fed Through the Tube That Sticks in Me Just like a Wartime Novelty