Cable Modems. Xilinx Solutions for the Customer Premise

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(1)

Cable Modems

Xilinx Solutions for the

Customer Premise

(2)

The Cable Network

Receivers Receivers MPEG Encoders MPEG Encoders Remultiplexers (StatMuxes) Remultiplexers

(StatMuxes) TransmittersModulators/ Modulators/ Transmitters CMTS Router CMTS Router Video Servers Web & Application Servers Backplane

(e.g. Fibre Channel)

Backplane

(e.g. Fibre Channel)

Cable Modem Cable Modem Set Top Box Set Top Box

Cable Headend Customer Premise

Internet

(3)

The Cable Modem

Device that allows high-speed data access to the home

– Modulates/demodulates data signals

Delivers Internet data to the desktop at broadband

speeds (>1Mbps possible)

Uses the increased bandwidth of fibre or hybrid

fibre/coaxial (HFC) cable instead of ordinary phone line

Can be part modem, part tuner, part encryption/

decryption device, part bridge, part router, part NIC card,

part SNMP agent, part Ethernet hub…

(4)

Market Growth

• According to Gecko Research, 600,000 users in the U.S. are

currently using cable modem services

– This represents a penetration of 4% of the 15 million potential customers

• International Data Corporation predicts the worldwide installed

base of DSL modems from the total Internet connectivity methods to be growing rapidly from 4.3% in 2000 to 7.7% in 2002.

(5)

Market Accelerators/Inhibitors

+ Accelerators

– Increasing popularity of the Internet

– Increasing demand for high speed access to Internet

– Increasing availability of multimedia & interactive applications

– Increasing use of cable modem services by small businesses and SOHOs

– Growth in telecommuting

– Increased deployment of hybrid fiber coax systems

+ Accelerators

– Increasing popularity of the

Internet

– Increasing demand for high

speed access to Internet

– Increasing availability of

multimedia & interactive applications

– Increasing use of cable modem

services by small businesses and SOHOs

– Growth in telecommuting

– Increased deployment of hybrid

fiber coax systems

– Inhibitors

– Limited availability of cable modem services to residential and business customers

– Speed decrease due to shared nature of cable modem services

– Relatively expensive cost of

service, equipment purchase and installation

– Competition from ADSL services

– Concerns over data security

– Limited choices of Internet

Service Providers (ISPs) due to fight over open access

– Inhibitors

– Limited availability of cable

modem services to residential and business customers

– Speed decrease due to shared

nature of cable modem services

– Relatively expensive cost of

service, equipment purchase and installation

– Competition from ADSL services

– Concerns over data security

– Limited choices of Internet

Service Providers (ISPs) due to fight over open access

(6)

Connection to the CMTS

Cable Modem connected to TV outlet for cable TV

Cable TV operator connects a Cable Modem Termination

System (CMTS) at the headend

– CMTS is a central device for connecting cable TV network to

(7)

At the Customer Premise

One to Two Splitter QPSK/QAM Modulator RF Tuner MAC Data and Control Logic QAM Demodulator

Set Top Box

Cable Modem

PCs Cable

Channel

(8)

DOCSIS Cable Modem

Network Bridge USB Tuner SRAM DOCSIS Transceiver DOCSIS MAC SAW PGA LPF RAM Flash Main CPU HPNA 10/100 Ethernet Memo ry Interface

Xilinx Memory CPU Non-Xilinx Mixed Signal Embedded Logic

• DOCSIS - Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification

– Dominant standard defining interfaces for both cable modem and CMTS

– Also known as CableLabs Certified™ Cable Modem project

– DOCSIS2.0 product rollout has just started

(9)

Evolving into the Gateway

FEC Memory QAM Demod SAW 8/16/32-bit Microcontroller QAM/16QAM Modulator FEC Encoder Encryption IP Security Cable MAC/SAR DMA 10/100 Ethernet MAC Clock Gen & DLLs USB Device Controller DMA Interrupt Controller & Central Arbitor Flash Controller SRAM Controller SDRAM Controller FEC Decoder Decryption Conditional Access Flash SDRAM SRAM ADC Tuner Analog I/F AGC DAC

Home PNA PHY 10/100 Ethernet PHY

USB Transceiver

IP Telephony

Direct TDM CODEC I/F MI

Xilinx Memory CPU

(10)

Issues and Challenges

• Integrating different standards

– Broadband access

– Home networking

– System interfaces

• Evolving home networking

specifications

• Supporting different memory

and storage types

• Content protection/encryption

• EMI signal management

• Power management

• Competitive pressures to

bring new features rapidly to market

• In the field bug fixes and

feature enhancements

• Supply chain management

• Overall cost management

(11)

Peripheral Interfacing and

System Glue

Main Processor or Embedded uP Main Processor or Embedded uP Memory Memory IIC IIC PCI PCI Bluetooth Bluetooth A/D A/D USB USB Ethernet Ethernet Modem Modem

Interface features to the host processor

(12)

Bridging Disparate Protocols

Broadband Access Technology Home Networking Technology Internal Residential Gateway Bus Etc.. HPNA 2.0 IEEE 802.11a Ethernet IEEE 1394 USB 2.0 HiperLAN2 IEEE 802.11b HomeRF Bluetooth HomePlug HPNA FTTH V.90 Modem Ethernet Satellite ISDN Fixed Wireless Cable xDSL PCI ISA I2C Rapid I/O SPI VME PCMCIA Cardbus Ethernet/MII UART USB Pick your I/F

CoolRunner-II and Spartan-IIE are perfect solutions to bridge

(13)

e.g. SCSI-to-USB2.0 Solution

Kawasaki LSI UTMI Phy Mentor Graphics USB2.0 Core XC2S150 Mentor Graphics 8051 eWARP Mentor Graphics SCSI SCSI Port

Industry’s First USB2.0 Mass Storage Reference Design Industry’s First USB2.0 Mass Storage Reference Design

(14)

Evolving Specifications

• Home networking technologies continue to emerge

– Wireless LANs - IEEE802.11 to IEEE802.11b to IEEE802.11a

– Powerlines - CEBus, LONWork, CSMA/CD, X-10, Plug in, ….

• Home networking specifications continue to evolve

– HomePNA v2.0 released earlier this year (10Mbps)

• A 40Mbps specification is already in the works

– HomeRF SWAP v1.3 spec is already out

– With Bluetooth spec 1.1 out

• Bluetooth SIG is already developing 2Mbps and 10Mbps spec

• FPGAs provide the flexibility to support continuously evolving

specs - reprogramming the FPGA with minor updates

(15)

Supporting Fast Memory Types

Cable modems use different memory types

– SRAM - ZBT, QDR (currently 200MHz speeds)

– DRAM - DDR, SDRAM (currently 200MHz speeds)

– Flash - NAND, NOR

– Some boxes use multiple memories in the same gateway

Interfacing to the different memories requires high speed

interfaces and memory controller IP

– Require discrete level translators

(16)

Supporting Fast Memory Types

Spartan-IIE FPGAs

– Unique and extensive features, flexible architecture

– 19 high speed interfaces supported

• HSTL I, III, IV for high speed SRAM

• SSTL2, SSTL3 for SDRAM

– Eliminates external translators

• Lower cost, higher performance, less board space

Comprehensive memory controller IP & reference design

portfolio for interface to SRAM, DRAM, flash memory

– Xilinx provides FREE VHDL source code for implementing the

memory controllers in Spartan-IIE

(17)

Memory Controller

Reference Designs

• DRAM reference designs

– 64-bit DDR DRAM controller

– 16-bit DDR DRAM controller

– SDRAM controller

• SRAM reference designs

– ZBT SRAM controller

– QDR SRAM controller

• Flash controller

(FPGAs/CPLDs)

– NOR / NAND flash

controller

• Embedded memory reference

designs

– CAM for ATM applications

– CAM using shift registers

– CAM using Block SelectRAM

– Data-width conversion FIFO

– 170MHz FIFO for Virtex

– High speed FIFO for Spartan-IIE

Download from Xilinx Memory Corner Download from Xilinx Memory Corner

(18)

Content Protection

-Significant Value Add

• Spartan-IIE encryption solutions are NIST approved

• The programmable nature of these solutions allows easy customization/flexibility

based on end application requirement

• Hardware-based solutions provide higher performance - software can’t keep up!

Note: Solution includes encryption, decryption and key generation * 128-bit key implementation

(19)

Content Protection/Encryption

• Cable modems and residential gateways require conditional

access for downloading material and firewall security

– Authenticating the source of the information

– Data privacy/encryption (integrity and secrecy)

• Several standard & proprietary encryption algorithms exist

– RSA, Diffie-Hellman, RC4/RC5, SHA, Blowfish, elliptic curves, ElGamal, Lucas Sequence, DES, triple-DES, AES

• Lack of consensus between companies on the encryption

schemes and their implementation is leading to chaos

– Gateways require different encryption algorithms for different applications

(20)

Cost Management Through

System Integration

• Replacing discrete parts – Dual port memory/ FIFO

– Clock buffers

– Localized clock drivers

– DLLs – Level translators – Hot socketing – Schmitt triggers – TTL devices – Backplane drivers – Board deskew • Benefits – Cost savings – Fewer components

– Board area savings

– Higher reliability

(21)

Managing Supply Chain Issues

Eliminate manufacturing lines down due to component

shortage

Example 1: Streaming hard-disk drives

– Employing FPGAs for HDD controllers allows dual sourcing of

multiple hard disk drives for residential gateways

Example 2: Supporting NAND and NOR flash

memory types

– Implementing flash controller in FPGAs allows flexibility of

(22)

Internet Reconfigurable

Logic (IRL)

Remote update of software and hardware

Fix a bug

Enhance

Performance CompatibilityEnsure Get your

Customers to Market Early

(23)

Value of Remote Upgrades

Adds key differentiation between competitive products

– Future-proofs your products

• Enables instant compliance to new standards

• Continuous improvement

• Results in increased lifetime for the gateway

– Enable product features per end-user needs

– Large “bottom line” impact

• Reduce maintenance costs

• New Internet-based revenue opportunities

– Increased market share

• Get in earlier and stay in longer

• Develop customer loyalty

(24)

Low Cost Packaging Options

44 PLCC 44 VQFP 17.6 mm 12 mm 6 mm 12 mm 17.6 mm 6 mm 132 CP 56 CP 8 mm 8 mm

Uses standard IR techniques for mounting to PC board

(25)

Time-to-Market Value

Quicker time-to-market and reprogrammability provide the best chance of achieving full product profit potential

Time Additional Profit from Field Upgrades Reduced Profit for Late Introduction 1st to Market Profit Fastest Time-to-Market Longest Time-in-Market Revenue

(26)

Low Cost Spartan-IIE FPGA

Total Cost Management for Consumer Products

• No obsolete inventory • Extend product life

through design upgrades

• Cost-optimized silicon and packaging • Hardware software

co-development

• Fewer

engineer-ing man hours

• No NRE

(27)

Spartan-IIE Family at a Glance

I/O Performance >300 MHz

Core Voltage 1.8 Volts

Architecture Virtex-E Based

5V Tolerant I/O Yes*

Differential I/O Performance Up to 400 Mbps I/O Standards Supported 19 standards

(including LVDS, BLVDS, and LVPECL

DLL's 4

Memory Distributed RAM + Block RAM

Densities 50K – 300K

system gates

Speed Grades -6 and –7

Packages TQ144, PQ208, FT256, FG456

(28)

Spartan-IIE Capabilities

Flexible Clocking

– Delay Locked Loops (DLL): clock multiply, divide, de-skew, and phase shift

On-chip Memory

– Parameterizable block RAM and distributed RAM

Advanced Interfacing

– Support for 19 I/O standards:

• Chip to Backplane: PCI, GTL, GTL+, AGP 2X

• Chip to Memory: HSTL-I, HSTL-III, HSTL-IV, SSTL3-I, SSTL3-II, SSTL2-I, SSTL2-II, CTT

• Chip to Chip: LVTTL, LVCMOS2/18

• Differential: LVDS, BusLVDS, LVPECL

Cost-optimized DSP

– Nearly one billions MAC/s/$

– System Generator tool bridges directly to MathWorks DSP tool suite

– Reed Solomon, Viterbi Decoder, Convolution Encoder, Interleaver/

De-interleaver, Color Space Converters, Other DSP building blocks

Soft Processors and Other IP – Over 200 algorithms and cores

• Interfacing: Cardbus, Ethernet, POS-PHY 3

• Processors: MicroBlaze, PicoBlaze CoreConnect, ARC

• General purpose: CAM, FIFOs, memory

(29)

High Performance 3.5ns tPD, fmax 303Mhz

Improved features

Low Cost

0.18µ = small die size Lowest cost packaging

Lowest Power 12mW*

~20uA typical stand-by

Storage Systems, Routers Set-Top Box, Cell phone Handheld, Portable Equipment

* Estimated 128 macrocell device, Eight 16-bit counters @ 50MHz

CoolRunner-II CPLD

(30)

CoolRunner-II Family Overview

XC2C32 XC2C64 XC2C128 XC2C256 XC2C384 XC2C512 Tpd(ns)* 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.0 Max. I/O 33 64 100 184 240 270 I/O Banks 1 1 2 2 4 4 I/O Standards LVTTL,LVCMOS 15*,18,25,33 LVTTL,LVCMOS15*,18,25,33 LVTTL,LVCMOS15*,18,25,33 SSTL 2-1,3-1 HSTL 1 LVTTL,LVCMOS 15*,18,25,33 SSTL 2-1,3-1 HSTL 1 LVTTL,LVCMOS 15*,18,25,33 SSTL 2-1,3-1 HSTL 1 LVTTL,LVCMOS 15*,18,25,33 SSTL 2-1,3-1 HSTL 1 Clock Doubler,

Input Hysteresis yes yes yes yes yes yes

Clock Divide, CoolCLOCK, DataGATE n noott e

necceessssaarryy nneeccnenesosoststaarryy yes yes yes yes

Packages VQ44 PC44 CP56 VQ44 PC44 CP56 VQ100 VQ100 CP132 TQ144 VQ100 CP132 TQ144 PQ208 FT256 TQ144 PQ208 FT256 FG324 PQ208 FT256 FG324 * Note: T PD speeds are preliminary and 1.5V LVCMOS inputs need hysteresis

(31)

CoolRunner-II I/O Support

I/O Standard VCCIO Input

VREF

Board Termination

Voltage (VTT)

LVTTL 3.3 N/A N/A

LVCMOS33 3.3 N/A N/A

LVCMOS25 2.5 N/A N/A

LVCMOS18 1.8 N/A N/A

1.5V I/O 1.5 N/A N/A

HSTL-1 1.5 0.75 0.75

SSTL2-1 2.5 1.25 1.25

SSTL3-1 3.3 1.5 1.5

Mixed I/O voltages compatible with 1.5V, 1.8V, 2.5V and

3.3V logic levels on all parts

LVTTL and LVCMOS available on all devices

SSTL2-I, SSTL-3-I and HSTL-I on 128 macrocell and

(32)

RealDigital CPLD Advantage

RealDigital Features Customer Benefits

2nd generation

FZP™ 0.18µ design

with 100% digital core

• High performance up to 303MHz (32mc)

• Ultra low power of 20uA typical standby, 12mA dynamic (128mc)

with no price premium

• Scalable for faster technology migration to lower voltage & power

Advanced I/O’s • • 400mV input hysteresis for improved noise immunity LVTTL, LVCMOS, SSTL, HSTL standards (1.5v to 3.3v capable)

• DataGATE for lower power consumption

Superior clock management • Clock doubler for increased performance > 400MHz toggle rate

Clock divide & CoolCLOCK for reduced power consumption

Enhanced security • 4 levels of security for ultimate design protection

Advanced packaging • • Smallest footprint chip scale High performance BGA with higher I/O per macrocell density

• Lowest cost quad flat pack

Single world class software environment

• One software system for all Xilinx products – ISE4.1i

• Free web download or CD - WebPACK™

• Design fit optimizing - WebFITTER™

• Power estimator - XPower

(33)

Xilinx Cable Modem Solutions

Xilinx provides significant value when used to interface

various ASSPs together

– Resolving differences in interface control signals

– Bridging between disparate network protocols

– No need to wait for an ASSP re-spin to get you to market

In-system programming capability of Xilinx devices

speeds time-to-market and increases time-in-market

– F

eatures

can

be

remotely

upgraded

/added

while product

(34)

Xilinx Cable Modem Solutions

Cable modems expected to grow into residential

gateways

– Spartan-IIE FPGAs provide rapid system integration and

interconnectivity to multiple home networking interfaces

Save money!

– Xilinx offers low cost FPGAs and CPLDs

– System integration lowers BOM and board costs

– Remove the hidden costs of supply management

– Recoup investments quicker with in-system programming and

(35)

Further Reading

www.cablemodems.com

– CableLabs Certified Cable Modems

www.docsis.org

– Web resource for MSOs

www.scte.org

– Society of Cable Telecommunication Engineers

www.cable-modem.net

Figure

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References

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