Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction:
• Asexual vs. sexual reproduction
• Mitosis – steps, diagrams, purpose
o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
• Meiosis – steps, diagrams, purpose
• Fertilization – steps, diagrams, purpose
• Cell Cycle – general steps
• How do Mitosis, Meiosis and fertilization work together to keep the correct chromosome
o number in an organism?
• How mitosis causes growth in an organism
o Why does your body grow? What happens to the cells – more cells? Larger cells?
• Similarities / differences between mitosis and meiosis
• Number of chromosomes in body cells vs. sex cells
• Oogenesis & Spermatogenesis
• Haploid vs. Diploid Chromosome #’s
• Function of spindle fibers
• Be able to sequence pictures of mitosis and/or meiosis
• How many times does DNA copy during mitosis? During meiosis?
• Cancer cells – why are they abnormal?
• Causes and symptoms of aging
Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:
Note: These questions Umay or may not be the same form or contentU as the questions on the EOC test. They are provided as a study guide and to help remind you of concepts that you have learned this year.
1) Which sequence represents the correct order of processes that result in the formation and development of an embryo?
(a) meiosis Æ fertilization Æmitosis (b) mitosis Æfertilization Æmeiosis (c) fertilization Æmeiosis Æmitosis (d) fertilization Æmitosis Æmeiosis
2) The sequence of events occurring in the life cycle of a bacterium is listed below.
(1) The bacterium copies its single chromosome.
(2) The copies of the chromosome attach to the cell membrane of the bacterium.
(3) As the cell grows, the two copies of the chromosome separate.
(4) The cell is separated by a wall into equal halves.
(5) Each new cell has one copy of the chromosome.
This sequence would best be described as (a) recombination
(b) zygote formation (c) binary fission
(d) meiotic cell division
3) Which cell is normally produced as a direct result of meiosis?
(a) a uterine cell having half the normal species number of chromosomes (b) an egg having the full species number of chromosomes
(c) a zygote having the full species number of chromosomes
(d) a sperm having half the normal species number of chromosomes 4)
5) A yeast cell is in the process of budding, a form of asexual reproduction. Which statement describes the outcome of this process?
(a) The bud will develop into a zygote.
(b) The two cells that result will each contain half the species number of chromosomes.
(c) The two cells that result will have identical DNA.
(d) The bud will start to divide by the process of meiotic cell division.
6) Even though each body cell in an individual contains the same DNA, the functions of muscle cells and liver cells are not the same because
(a) mutations usually occur in genes when muscle cells divide (b) liver tissue develops before muscle tissue
(c) liver cells produce more oxygen than muscle cells (d) liver cells use different genes than muscle cells
7) Tissues develop from a zygote as a direct result of the processes of (a) fertilization and meiosis
(b) fertilization and differentiation (c) mitosis and meiosis
(d) mitosis and differentiation
8) Variation in the offspring of sexually reproducing organisms is the direct result of (a) sorting and recombining of genes
(b) replication and cloning
(c) the need to adapt and maintain homeostasis (d) overproduction of offspring and competition
9) The least genetic variation will probably be found in the offspring of organisms that reproduce using
(a) mitosis to produce a larger population (b) meiosis to produce gametes
(c) fusion of eggs and sperm to produce zygotes (d) internal fertilization to produce an embryo 10)
11) A basketball player develops speed and power as a result of practice. This athletic ability will not be passed on to her offspring because
(a) muscle cells do not carry genetic information
(b) mutations that occur in body cells are not inherited
(c) gametes do not carry complete sets of genetic information (d) base sequences in DNA are not affected by this activity
12) Which of the following is a similarity between the two homologs? (fill in all that apply) a. They both have the same centromere position
b. They have the same nucleotide sequences at all points on the chromosome c. They both have genes that code for the same traits (ex. eyecolor)
d. They both are the same size
13) This is the form DNA takes when it is highly condensed and tightly coiled around proteins a. chromatin b. histone c. centromere d. chromosome
14) This is the longest phase: when chromosomes appear, the centrioles separate, and the spindle fibers begin to form.
a. metaphase b. anaphase c. prophase d. telophase 15) This event UDOES NOTU take place during telophase
a. The chromosomes begin to uncoil.
b. The nuclear membrane begins to disappear.
c. The spindle fibers begin to break apart.
d. The nuclear membrane begins to reform.
Answers: 1) a, 2) c, 3) d, 4) 1, 5) c, 6) d, 7) d, 8)a, 9) a, 10) 3, 11) d, 12) a, c, d, 13) d, 14) c, 15) b
Bio EOC Topics for Genetics:
• Define “genetics” – (the study of what?)
• Gregor Mendel – father of Genetics (be able to summarize his work with pea plants)
• Define and give examples for the following terms: Genotype, Phenotype, Dominant, o Recesssive, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Purebred, Hybrid
• Punnett squares
o be able to do punnett squares
o what do letters on outside vs. inside the square represent?
o Heterozygous (hybrid),pure (homozygous) dominant,pure(homozygous) recessive
o be able to use punnett squares to predict offspring or figure out parents o to predict chances of having a boy or girl
• Human Traits
o dominant: examples include free earlobes, dimples, widow's peak
o recessive: examples include attached earlobes, no dimples, smooth hairline
o body cells (2 of each gene); sex cells (1 of each gene) o dominant vs. recessive (incl. punnett squares)
o incomplete dominance (incl. punnett squares)
o genes on X chromosome (ex, color blindness) (incl. punnett squares)
• Amniocentesis, Genetic Counseling, Placenta Sampling
• Sex Chromosomes - male XY, female XX (23PrdP pair)
• Autosomes vs. Sex Chromosomes
• Diseases: down’s syndrome, hemophilia, color blindness, cystic fibrosis,
• What does it mean if we say someone is a “carrier” for a disease?
• Identify the relationship between the following terms: cell, nucleus, chromosomes, o genes, DNA
Bio EOC Questions for Genetics:
Note: These questions may or may not be the same form or content as the questions on the EOC test. They are provided as a study guide and to help remind you of concepts that you have learned this year.
1) The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as (a) differentiation (c) immunity
(b) heredity (d) evolution
2) A child has brown hair and brown eyes. His father has brown hair and blue eyes. His mother has red hair and brown eyes. The best explanation for the child having brown hair and brown eyes is that
(a) a gene mutation occurred that resulted in brown hair and brown eyes (b) gene expression must change in each generation so evolution can occur (c) the child received genetic information from each parent
(d) cells from his mother’s eyes were present in the fertilized egg
3) Viruses frequently infect bacteria and insert new genes into the genetic material of the bacteria. When these infected bacteria reproduce asexually, which genes would most likely be passed on?
(a) only the new genes (b) only the original genes
(c) both the original and the new genes (d) neither the original nor the new genes
4) A mutation changes a gene in a cell in the stomach of an organism. This mutation could cause a change in
(a) both the organism and its offspring (b) the organism, but not its offspring (c) its offspring, but not the organism itself (d) neither the organism nor its offspring
5) Which statement best explains the observation that clones produced from the same organism may not be identical?
(a) Events in meiosis result in variation.
(b) Gene expression can be influenced by the environment.
(c) Differentiated cells have different genes.
(d) Half the genetic information in offspring comes from each parent.
6) The Law of Dominance and Recessiveness states that, if alleles in a gene pair differ, the form of the trait expressed is
a) recessive b) hybrid c) hidden d) dominant
7) The Law of Segregation states that, during meiosis I, each pair of alleles in a gene pair
a) is transferred to the same gamete.
b) separate, such that each gamete receives only one allele from the pair.
c) is transferred to the zygote.
d) separate so that the sperm and egg receive both copies of the gene pair.
8) The probability that the first baby born in a family is a boy is ______________.
The probability that the first and second babies will be boys is ___________.
a) 50 : 100 b) 50 : 25 c) 25 : 50 d) 25 :25 9) Gene pairs are located on
a) homologous chromosomes b) sister chromatids c) sex chromosomes only
10) A gene pair can contain
a) two dominant alleles b) two recessive alleles
c) a dominant and a recessive allele d) any of these
11) Which of the following shows a cross involving two pure bred parents?
a) YY x yy b) Nn x Nn c) ZZ x Zz d) Rr x rr
12) A marshmalien (imaginary organism) is homozygous recessive for two body segments as opposed to the dominant trait which is three body segments. What is the probability that an egg cell formed from this parent will contain an allele for two body segments?
a) 0% b) 1:4 c) ½ d) 3:1 e) 100%
13) What is the probability that a heterozygous parent will produce a gamete with the dominant allele for the trait?
a) 0% b) 1:4 c) 1/2 d) 100%
14) Only one of two children in a family expresses the recessive trait for deafness (t). Which of the following could be the genotypes of the childrens’ parents?
a) TT x Tt b) Tt x Tt c) TT x tt d) tt x tt
15) A sperm cell containing a single Y chromosome can help produce a) only a male offspring b) only a female offspring
c) either male or female offspring
Answers: 1) b, 2) c, 3) c, 4) b, 5) b, 6) d, 7) b, 8) b, 9) a, 10) d, 11) a, 12) e, 13) c, 14) b, 15)