Cells & Cell Organelles

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(1)Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life. H Biology.

(2) Types of cells. bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles. Eukaryotes - organelles. animal cells Regents Biology. plant cells.

(3) Cell size comparison most bacteria. Animal cell Bacterial cell.  1-10 microns. eukaryotic cells  10-100 microns. Regents Biology.  micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter  diameter of human hair = ~20 microns.

(4) Why study cells?  Cells → Tissues → Organs → Bodies bodies are made up of cells  cells do all the work of life! . Regents Biology.

(5) The Work of Life  What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live… . “breathe”  gas exchange: CO2 vs. O2. . eat  take in & digest food. . make energy  ATP. . ATP. build molecules  proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids.    . remove wastes control internal conditions respond to external environment build more cells.  growth, Regents Biology. repair, reproduction & development.

(6) Organelles  Organelles do the work of cells . each structure has a job to do  keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive. Regents Biology. Model Animal Cell.

(7) Cells need power!  Making energy . to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…    . ATP. . take in food & digest it take in oxygen (O2) make ATP remove waste. organelles that do this work…    . Regents Biology. cell membrane lysosomes vacuoles & vesicles mitochondria.

(8) Cell membrane  Function separates cell from outside  controls what enters or leaves cell. phosphate “head”. .  O2,CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste . recognizes signals from other cells  allows communication between cells.  Structure . double layer of fat  phospholipid bilayer. . receptor molecules  proteins. Regents Biology. lipid “tail”.

(9) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals.

(10) Vacuoles & vesicles  Function moving material around cell  storage . small food particle.  Structure . membrane sac. vacuole. Regents Biology. digesting food inside cell.

(11) Food & water storage food vacuoles. plant cells central vacuole. animal cells. Regents Biology. contractile vacuole.

(12) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals.

(13)  Function. Lysosomes.  . digest food clean up & recycle  digest broken. organelles.  Structure . lysosomes small food particle. digesting broken organelles vacuole digesting food. Regents Biology. membrane sac of digestive enzymes.

(14) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling.

(15) Mitochondria  Function . make ATP energy from cellular respiration  sugar + O2 → ATP  fuels the work of life.  Structure . double membrane. in both animal & plant cells Regents Biology. ATP.

(16) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling.

(17) Plants make energy two ways!  Mitochondria . ATP. make energy from sugar + O2  cellular respiration  sugar + O2 → ATP.  Chloroplasts . make energy + sugar from sunlight  photosynthesis  sunlight + CO2. → ATP & sugar.  ATP = active energy  sugar = stored energy . Regents Biology. build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars. sugar. ATP.

(18) Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells. mitochondria Regents Biology. chloroplast.

(19) cytoplasm central vacuole storage: food, water or waste cell wall support. mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes Regents Biologysignals. chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis lysosome digestion & clean up.

(20) Cells need workers (proteins)!  Making proteins . to run daily life & growth, the cell must…  read genes (DNA)  build proteins  structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)  enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)  signals (hormones) & receptors. . organelles that do this work…    . Regents Biology. nucleus ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi apparatus.

(21) Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work!. structure enzymes signals receptors. DNA Regents Biology. proteins. cells.

(22) Nucleus  Function control center of cell  protects DNA .  instructions for building proteins.  Structure nuclear membrane  nucleolus .  ribosome factory . chromosomes  DNA. Regents Biology.

(23) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling. nucleus protects DNA controls cell chromosomes DNA. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals.

(24) Ribosomes  Function  . protein factories read instructions to build proteins from DNA.  Structure   . 2 subunits some free in cytoplasm some attached to ER Ribosomes on ER large subunit. Regents Biology. small subunit.

(25) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling. nucleus protects DNA controls cell. ribosomes builds proteins.

(26) Endoplasmic Reticulum  Function . part of protein factory  helps complete the proteins. . makes membranes.  Structure . rough ER  ribosomes attached  works on proteins. . smooth ER  makes membranes. Regents Biology.

(27) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling. ribosomes builds proteins. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. nucleus protects DNA controls cell. ER helps finish proteins makes membranes.

(28) Golgi Apparatus  Function . finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins  like UPS headquarters  shipping & receiving department. . ships proteins in vesicles  “UPS trucks”.  Structure . vesicles carrying proteins. membrane sacs. Regents Biology. transport vesicles.

(29) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling. ribosomes builds proteins. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. nucleus protects DNA controls cell. ER helps finish proteins makes membranes. Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins.

(30) endoplasmic reticulum. nucleus. protein on its way!. DNA RNA. vesicle. TO:. TO:. TO:. vesicle. ribosomes TO:. finished protein. protein. Making Proteins Regents Biology. Golgi apparatus.

(31) nucleus control cell protects DNA. endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins makes membranes ribosomes make proteins. cytoplasm. central vacuole storage: food, water or waste. Golgi apparatus finish & ship proteins. cell wall support. mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes Regents Biologysignals. chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis lysosome digestion & clean up.

(32) Cells need to make more cells!  Making more cells . to replace, repair & grow, the cell must…  copy their DNA  make extra organelles  divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells. . organelles that do this work…  nucleus  centrioles. Regents Biology.

(33) Centrioles  Function . help coordinate cell division.  Structure one pair in each cell  “motor” proteins . Regents Biology.

(34) cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling. nucleus protects DNA controls cell. centrioles cell division ribosomes builds proteins. mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out Regents Biology recognizes signals. ER helps finish proteins makes membranes. Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins.

(35) Cell Summary  Cells have 3 main jobs . make energy  need food + O2  cellular respiration & photosynthesis Our  need to remove wastes. . make proteins. organelles do all those jobs!.  need instructions from DNA  need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein . make more cells  need to copy DNA & divide it up. Regents Biology.

(36) That’s my cellular story… Any Questions? H Biology.

(37) EXTRA SLIDES. H Biology.

(38) Nucleus. Regents Biology.

(39) nucleus nuclear pore. Making proteins cell membrane. protein secreted. rough ER. ribosome. vesicle. proteins. smooth ER Regents Biology. transport vesicle. cytoplasm. Golgi apparatus.

(40) Lysosomes. Regents Biology. white blood cells attack & eat invading germs = digest them in lysosomes.

(41) When things go bad….  Diseases of lysosomes are fatal digestive enzyme not working in lysosome  picks up food, but can’t digest it .  lysosomes fill up with undigested material . grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function  example: Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells. Regents Biology.

(42) But sometimes cells need to die…  Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed . some cells have to die for proper development in an organism  ex: tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog  ex: getting rid of webbing between your fingers during fetal development. . “auto-destruct” process  lysosomes break open and kill cell  cell “suicide”. Regents Biology.

(43) Fetal development. syndactyly. 6 weeks. 15 weeks. Regents Biology.

(44) Chloroplasts  sun energy →→ ATP & sugars  photosynthesis. ATP. carbon + water + energy → glucose + oxygen dioxide 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 energy. Regents Biology.

(45) Compare the equations Photosynthesis carbon + water + energy → glucose + oxygen dioxide 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 energy Respiration glucose + oxygen → carbon + water + energy dioxide C6H12O6 + Regents Biology. 6O2. → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP.

(46) The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun. Photosynthesis plants. CO2. + H2 O. O2 + Respiration animals & plants. ATP Regents Biology. glucose sugar.

(47) Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum  rough ER ribosomes attached  works on proteins .  smooth ER . makes membranes. Regents Biology.

(48) Growth & Reproduction We’ll learn about this in a later unit!. Regents Biology.

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