Respond to each question on a separate sheet of paper

12  86  Download (0)

Full text

(1)

Chapter 10

Renaissance and Discovery

Respond to each question on a separate sheet of paper

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following cities played a key role in the trade between Europe and the Near East? A. Bologna

B. Venice C. Florence D. Milan Page Ref: 319

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

2. Medieval Europe was a feudal society that had a(n) ________. A. growing lay and secular control of thought and culture

B. agricultural economy and was dominated by the church C. growing national consciousness and political centralization D. urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism Page Ref: 318

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

3. Which of the following comprised Florence’s popolo grosso in the Renaissance? A. the old merchant classes

B. the lower urban classes C. guild masters

D. capitalists and bankers Page Ref: 320

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

4. What occurred in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of society and the disruption caused by the Black Death?

A. the Jacquerie B. Ciompi Revolt C. French Revolution

D. signing of the Treaty of Lodi Page Ref: 320

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

5. Cosimo de’ Medici brought stability to which city after his rise to power in 1434? A. Florence

B. Rome C. Milan D. Venice Page Ref: 320

(2)

6. The first humanists were ________. A. orators and poets

B. politicians and their secretaries C. farmers and blacksmiths

D. historians and musicians Page Ref: 323

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527) 7. Who was known as the “father of humanism”? A. Giovanni Boccaccio

B. Dante Alighieri C. Francesco Petrarch D. Guarino da Verona Page Ref: 323

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

8. Which of the following was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance?

A. Spartan military strategies B. Roman law

C. Roman studies D. Greek studies Page Ref: 324

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

9. The great masters of the High Renaissance were ________. A. Titian, Donatello, and Giotto

B. Titian, Vincent van Gogh, and Masaccio C. Vincent van Gogh, Donatello, and Giotto D. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo Page Ref: 327

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

10. Who is considered the “father of Renaissance painting”? A. Donatello

B. Raphael C. Michelangelo D. Giotto

Page Ref: 327

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527) 11. Whose most famous painting is the Mona Lisa? A. Donatello

B. Michelangelo C. Raphael

D. Leonardo da Vinci Page Ref: 327-328

(3)

12. In 1500, the title “duke of Romagna” was given to ________. A. French King Charles VIII

B. Ferdinand of Aragon C. French King Louis XII D. Cesare Borgia

Page Ref: 331-332

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527) 13. The term “Machiavellian” has become synonymous with ________. A. tools made by machinists

B. ruthless political expediency C. welfare policies

D. slow decision-making Page Ref: 333

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

14. The Habsburg-Valois wars were fought between France and ________. A. Austria

B. Spain

C. the Holy Roman Empire D. Russia

Page Ref: 332-333

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

15. A new alliance between monarchs and ________ helped break the bonds of feudal society. A. nobles

B. clergy C. peasants D. townspeople Page Ref: 333-334

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

16. King Louis XI shared conquered Burgundian lands with ________. A. Habsburg emperor Maximilian I

B. Isabella of Castile C. Ferdinand of Aragon D. Charles the Bold Page Ref: 335

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

17. Who sponsored Genoese adventurer Christopher Columbus? E. Catherine of Aragon

F. King Henry VIII

G. Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain H. Archduke Phillip

Page Ref: 335–336

(4)

18. One way in which the northern humanist Desiderius Erasmus gained fame as a religious reformer was by ________.

A. elaborating Scholastic theology

B. editing the works of the Church Fathers C. issuing a new edition of Abelard’s works D. pleasing church authorities

Page Ref: 338-339

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

19. Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in which of the following countries? A. England, France, and Spain

B. France, England, and Denmark C. Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain D. England, France, and Germany Page Ref: 339-340

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

20. What English humanist wrote a famous book called Utopia? A. Roger Bacon

B. Thomas More C. William of Ockham D. Johann Reuchlin Page Ref: 339

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

21. Columbus thought his first landfall was ________. A. India

B. China C. Indonesia D. Japan Page Ref: 341

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

22. By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of ________. A. eastern Peru

B. present-day California C. Central Mexico D. Cuba

Page Ref: 343

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

23. ________ was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors. A. Michel de Montaigne

B. Francisco Pizarro C. Bartolomé de Las Casas D. Hernán Cortés

Page Ref: 345

(5)

24. The ________ of the West Indies and Brazil became the major center for black slavery in the mid-sixteenth century. A. cotton plantations B. sugar plantations C. gold mines D. sweet-potato fields Page Ref: 346-347

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

25. Endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor ________. A. was a boon for the landed nobility

B. had all but ended by the year 1000 C. assisted the growth of Italian city-states D. had little effect on Italy

Page Ref: 319

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

26. Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the Italian city-states that most evolved into ________.

A. despotisms B. feudal states C. oligarchies D. democracies Page Ref: 319

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

27. The ________ greatly helped reduce the need to go to war and allowed increased control over the enemy.

A. use of despotism B. art of diplomacy C. hiring of mercenaries D. purchase of enemy territory Page Ref: 320-321

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

28. Along with his rigorous teachings of ancient languages, humanist Vittorino da Feltre included ________ as part of his daily educational instructions.

A. discussions after each subject B. physical exercise and games C. the art of agriculture

D. playing a musical instrument Page Ref: 324

(6)

29. How did Valla become a hero to Protestant reformers?

A. his defense of free will against the advocates of predestination B. his defense of predestination against the advocates of free will

C. his teaching to depict humans as the only creatures in the world who possess the freedom to be whatever they choose

D. his work, Oration on the Dignity of Man Page Ref: 326

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

30. Which of the following ideas was held to be true in both Renaissance Italy and in Reformation Europe?

A. The interests of laity are no longer subordinate to clergy. B. Medieval Christian values are important teachings.

C. The philosophies of Plato and Aristotle are counter to truth. D. Art must be abstract and formulaic.

Page Ref: 327

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

31. Medieval art tended to be abstract and formulaic, whereas Renaissance art showed ________. A. the natural world and human emotions

B. religious figures without faces C. sacred images painted on wood D. small scenes in the margins of text Page Ref: 327

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

32. A new style of art called “mannerism” allowed the artist to include ________ in his or her work. A. perfectly refined images

B. outdoor scenes

C. people dining together D. the strange and the abnormal Page Ref: 328

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

33. The political alliance known as the Treaty of Lodi did which of the following? A. brought Milan and Naples into an alliance with Florence

B. brought the Papal States into an alliance with Florence C. brought Venice and Naples into an alliance with Florence D. brought Milan and Naples into an alliance with Venice Page Ref: 303

(7)

34. How did the Dominican preacher Girolamo Savonarola convince the Florentines to allow King Charles VIII of France to enter Florence without resistance?

A. He told them that the king’s arrival was divine vengeance on their immorality. B. He promised to ask the king to leave all the land to the Florentines.

C. He explained that Charles VIII had only the best intentions for the Florentines. D. He delivered a heartfelt speech on the merits of good international relations. Page Ref: 331

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527) 35. What caused the Florentines to finally execute Savonarola in 1498? A. They felt he did not do enough to recover Pisa.

B. They felt that Florence was losing power under his rule. C. They tired of his puritanical tyranny.

D. They discovered that he had lied to them. Page Ref: 331

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

36. What did Pope Alexander VI hope to gain by securing a friendship with the French king? A. control over regions in Italy

B. protection by the French military in times of war C. his own piece of private land in France

D. a piece of land in France where his son Cesare Borgia could live Page Ref: 331-332

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527) 37. Which of the following expresses a viewpoint held by Machiavelli?

A. Roman rulers and citizens of ancient Rome did a poor job of defending their homeland. B. Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means.

C. Ancient Roman patriotism and self-sacrifice were ineffective. D. Republican ideals were outdated.

Page Ref: 333

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

38. The primary reason monarchs sought out new sources of income in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was due to the ________.

A. growing cost of warfare

B. growing cost of farming equipment C. food and clothing needs of the peasants D. need to build new public offices

Page Ref: 333-334

(8)

39. The monarchy of Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain was an example of the emergence of __ in the 1400s. A. absolute monarchy B. sovereign states C. despotism D. enlightened absolutism Page Ref: 334

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

40. What caused the secure government of France created by Louis XI to become a defeated nation under his successors?

A. bad foreign policy

B. the collapse of the English empire C. the dissolution of Burgundy D. newly acquired Burgundian lands Page Ref: 335

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

41. The Inquisition was a key national agency established in 1479 for the purpose of ________. A. monitoring the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain

B. increasing the size of the empire of Spain

C. converting Christians to join Jewish and Muslim religions D. merging the Anglican church and the English Reformation Page Ref: 335

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

42. During an assembly in Worms in 1495, Emperor Maximilian allowed the members to create _______. A. a permanent representative body

B. the Golden Bull agreement C. a seven-member electoral college D. a Supreme Court of Justice Page Ref: 337

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

43. The Brothers of the Common Life, an influential lay religious movement, eliminated what requirements from the religious life of men and women?

A. abstinence from food and drink before holy communion B. sleeping on wooden floors and benches

C. eight hours of prayer and meditation each day D. vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience Page Ref: 337

(9)

44. Why did German humanists rush to Reuchlin’s defense when Pfefferkorn attacked Reuchlin for being a Jew?

A. to promote pro-Jewish sentiment

B. to promote academic freedom and good scholarship C. to promote Luther’s ninety-five theses against indulgences D. to support the Dominican order in Cologne

Page Ref: 339

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

45. The Portuguese exploration of the African coast started out as a search for gold and slaves, but by century’s end it had established ________.

A. an organization promoting freedom of religion B. friendly relations with Muslims and pagans C. an organization promoting the freedom of slaves D. a sea route around Africa to Asia’s spice markets Page Ref: 340

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East 46. What was the primary reason Spanish explorers sailed the Atlantic Ocean? A. to measure the actual size of the Atlantic Ocean

B. to bring more slaves back to Spain

C. to find more gold on the other side of the Atlantic D. to find a shorter route to the East Indies

Page Ref: 340

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

47. European voyages of discovery and conquest provided several profound biological impacts on Native Americans, including the ________.

A. spread of measles and smallpox B. spread of a virulent form of syphilis C. introduction of corn

D. introduction of a new species of fish Page Ref: 345

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

48. What argument about Native Americans caused tension between the mendicant friars and Spanish conquerors?

A. the renaming of Native American groups B. the education of Native American children

C. the need to conquer Native Americans to convert them D. preserving Native American traditions

Page Ref: 345

(10)

49. Renaissance art was much more likely than medieval art to attempt to represent ________. A. what we see

B. the cosmic order

C. an abstract concept of the world D. imaginary worlds

Page Ref: 327

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

50. Ludovico of Milan’s fatal mistake was that he ________. A. sold the city of Milan to the French without proper authority B. appealed to the French for help

C. claimed Naples for himself, as king, and disregarded French dynastic claims to rule D. disregarded the threat posed by Milan and denied French aid or assistance

Page Ref: 331

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

51. The Spanish voyages of discovery can be seen as an outgrowth of _______. A. the beginning of the Reconquista

B. the Inquisition C. the Renaissance

D. the unification of Spain Page Ref: 335-336

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

52. Examine Map 10–2 on page 342. According to the map, which of the following statements is true? A. By 1600, Spain controlled most of coastal Central and South America.

B. Portugal had the largest claims to land in the New World. C. Spain claimed all of Central and South America.

D. Spain held claims in both modern India and the Philippine Islands. Page Ref: 342

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East SHORT ANSWER

53. Most scholars agree that the ________ (literally “rebirth” in French) was a time of transition from medieval to modern times.

Page Ref: 318

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

54. By the fifteenth century, the great Italian cities acted as the ________ for much of Europe. Page Ref: 319

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

55. Because despots could not count on the loyalty of the divided populace, they operated through mercenary armies obtained through military brokers known as ________.

Page Ref: 320-321

(11)

56. _________ was the scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, both for its own sake and in the hope of reviving respected ancient norms and values.

Page Ref: 321

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

57. The goal of humanist studies was ______ eloquently spoke, both knowledge of the good and the ability to move others to desire it.

Page Ref: 323

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

58. The appeal of ________ lay in its flattering view of human nature, which distinguished between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans actually lived.

Page Ref: 325

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

59. ________ is a reaction to the simplicity of High Renaissance art and made room for the strange and the abnormal, giving freer reign to the individual perceptions and feelings of the artist, who now felt free to paint, compose, or write in an “affected” way.

Page Ref: 328

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

60. After the Black Death reduced the supply of laborers everywhere in Western Europe, the demand for _________ soared.

Page Ref: 328-329

Topic: The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

61. The Concordat of Bologna helped to keep France Catholic after the breakout of the ________. Page Ref: 332-333

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

62. Spanish colonials born in Spain were known as _______, as opposed to the American-born creoles. Page Ref: 347

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

63. Between the newly acquired Burgundian lands and his own inheritance, King Louis XI was able to end his reign with a kingdom almost ________ the size of that he had inherited.

Page Ref: 335

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

64. An agreement called the ________, reached in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV and the major German territorial rulers, established a seven-member electoral college to administer the German empire. Page Ref: 336-337

Topic: Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

65. A(n) ________ is the formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians. Page Ref: 346-347

(12)

66. The ________ is a device, often harsh, that required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises.

Page Ref: 346-347

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

Short Answer – Answers should be brief—either 1-3 sentences, or a bulleted list. 67. Why was Pope Julius II called the “warrior pope”?

Page Ref: 332-334

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527) 68. What did Machiavelli believe is the most important trait for a ruler? Page Ref: 333

Topic: Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527) 69. In what way did the humanist movement lead to the Reformation?. Page Ref: 339-340

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

70. Describe the impact of the printing press. Page Ref: 337–338

Topic: The Northern Renaissance

71. What were the principal effects of the European voyages of “discovery”? Page Ref: 347-349

Topic: Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :