Analysis Of Road Traffic Noise At Express Highway

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Analysis Of Road Traffic Noise At Express

Highway

Ashvini D. Dhote

UG Students, PRMIT&R Badnera,

Amravati, India Email Id:

ashwinidhote96@gmail.com

Mahendra P. Nawathe,

Assistant Professor, PRMIT&R Badnera,

Amravati, India

Dr. C.R. Patil

Professor, PRMIT&R Badnera,

Amravati, India Email Id: crpatil333@rediffmail.com

Abstract- Noise, defined as unwanted or excessive

sound, is an undesirable by-product of our modern way of life. In world health organization (WHO) statements, “large city noise is considered to be the third most hazardous pollution”. Amravati is the seventh most populous metropolitan city in Maharashtra state. Apart from Amravati district itself- Akola, Yavatmal, Buldhana, Washim, these district also comes under Amravati Division. The city is located on the national highway NH-6 leading to Mumbai in the west and Kolkata in the east. Several trips were required to identify enough sites that would meet the criteria and be appropriate for the measurement methods. In front of PRMIT&R, crossing at kondeswar square, crossing at MIDC, these three spots are taken into account for study. Noise barriers and building insulation are probable implications. In the study, the minimum and maximum noises level observed were 52.9 dB and maximum 104.5 dB. Basing on the findings in the study, it can be inferred that there is an urgent need to set up noise standards in the country to minimize the noise pollution.

Keywords- Noise levels;vehicular noise;decibles.

I. INTRODUCTION

Noise is an inevitable part of everyday life-a plane flying overhead, faulty muffler of the passing car, the television, dog barking, children playing. Mild noise can be annoying, excessive noise can destroy a person hearing. People do not easily become accustomed to noise. The slightest unwanted sound can become very annoying if it is continued for some time. Sound is the form of energy that is transmitted by pressure variation which human ear can detect. Sound waves need to travel through a medium such as solid, liquid or gas. The sound waves move through each of these mediums by vibrating the molecule in the matter. Factor such as the magnitude, characteristics, duration and time of occurrence may affect ones subjective impression of the noise.

II. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY

In world health organization (WHO) statements, “large city noise is considered to be the third most hazardous pollution”. Researches study noise problems in cities and try to find solution for these problems. At the time air pollution in incurs a large bill to pay when it comes to stop the escalation of global warming, urban noise pollution is in fact another complex issue for which academic community does not see possible short term plans to save the situation. It is only long term strategic planning that might realize some recovery to the current increasing levels of noise. However, transportation works is seen to a expanded and accelerated in the term of amount and variety, it is impractical to hinder traffic in main arterial for decrease traffic flow but it might be possible to detour traffic or to construct new roads, or other forms of end–of-pipe solutions. Noise will be a larger and serious social problem in the future if effective precautions are not taken accordingly.

III. AMRAVATI CITY PROFILE

Amravati is a city in the state of Maharashtra, India and the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Maharashtra. Amravati is also the head-quarters of the “Amravati division” which is one of the six divisions of the state of Maharashtra (Amravati and Nagpur division together form vidarbha region). Apart from Amravati district itself, following four districts also comes under Amravati division:

1.Akola 2. Yavatmal 3. Buldhana 4. Washim.

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499 NH-6 leading to Mumbai in the west and Kolkata in the east. Amravati has good road, rail connectivity with almost all important cities in India. it is extremely well connected to Nagpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.

IV. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOUND AND NOISE

Not all people are affected the same way by the same sound. Often, we take for granted the sound we hear every day. On the occasions in the varying situations, however, common everyday sounds can interfere with our routine task. When this happen, sounds become noise.

What may be disturbing noise for one person may be a pleasant sound for someone else. Train whistles, children playing, someone coughing during symphony, and people taking in a movie are examples of sounds that can evoke extreme reactions. Sound generally considered pleasant, create variations in the pressure with a regular pattern. Sound wave commonly translated as a noise often has irregular patterns.

The pattern created by human voice has both irregular and regular sound pulses. An adult with good hearing can hear frequencies between 20 and 20000 Hz; frequencies between 2000 Hz and 8000 Hz are consider most annoying. Those below 500 Hz or above 10000 Hz are consider less annoying. A good lyrical songs may be liked by us and hence is not a noise. However, the same song can be unwanted during examination study time. What we measure with this instruments is the general total sound level in the area, and not noise. Noise is subjective concept.

V. LITURATURE REVIEW

As per definition of noise, any sound independent of loudness that can produce an undesired psychological effect in an individual and that may interfere with social ends of an individuals or group. These social ends include all of our activities like communication work, rest, recreation and sleep etc. It is known that noise of sufficient intensity and duration can induce temporary or permanents hearing loss, ranging from slight impartment to nearly total deafness.

J.K. Jain studied the impact of the constructions activities on existing highway SH-45 (now NH -58) by taking observations for volume, speed, noise level and suspended particulate matter[1]. Four stations were selected, two were on constructions sites, one away from constructions site and one at Roorkee. Noise level was found to be high at first and second construction sites.

Agrawal studied the environmental impacts of four lanes, such as noise and air pollution of the selected site on NH-2, out of which first was already four laned, second on the construction site where two lanes were blocked for the construction activities and the third on the two lane highway [2]. In all the three locations revealed that even the

minimum noise level was also higher than the maximum recommended limit of 65dBA .The maximum noise level was observed at the construction site due to operation of equipments.

Reddy studied traffic related environmental factors such as noise and air pollution at some selected locations in Delhi metropolitan city. At about 12 busy intersections on NH -2 [3], the noise level and the traffic volume was recorded. Result shows that even minimum noise level limit was higher than the maximum recommended limit of 65 Db.

Sheetal Agarwal and B.L. Swami [4] studied the annoyance among people created by motorized vehicles. Motorized road vehicles are the source of noise; always responsible for creating annoyance among people.

VI. VARIOUS SOURCES OF VEHICULAR NOISE+

Factors which are responsible for vehicular noise are:-

a) Engine noise

b) Noise because of friction on road surface

c) Noise from exhaust

d) Noise of horn

e) Chassis and other constructional noise

f) Propulsion and transmission noise

g) Noise due to acceleration

h) cooling fan noise

Decibels are logarithmic units. Sound levels cannot be added by ordinary arithmetic means. Therefore, two trucks producing 90 dB each will combine to produce 93 dB, not 180 dB. In other words, a doubling of the noise source produces only a 3 dB increase in the sound pressure level. Studies have shown that this increase is barely detectable by human ear.

Secondly, an increase or decrease of 10 dB in the sound pressure level will be perceived by an observer to be a doubling or halving of the sound. For example, a sound at 70 dB will sound twice as loud as a sound at 60 dB. Sound levels for a point source will decrease by 6 dB for each doubling of distance. Sound levels for a highway line source vary differently with distance, because sound pressure waves are propagated all along the line source and produces a 3 dB decrease in sound level for each doubling of distance.

For the purpose of highway traffic noise analysis, vehicles fall into three categories:-

1) Automobiles:-vehicles with two axles

and four wheels

2) Medium trucks:-vehicles with two

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3) Heavy trucks:-vehicles with three or

more axles

The level of highway traffic noise depends on three things:-

1) The volume of the traffic 2) The speed of the traffic

3) The number of trucks in the flow of the traffic

VII. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA

Several trips were made to choose the appropriate site for study. At first it was hoped that aerial photographs and GIS records could be used to identify sites, but when the first sites were investigated in person, it was found that they had undesirable characteristics which could not be filtered through either of these methods. So, the several trips were required to identify the appropriate site that would meet the criteria and suitable for measurements

The final criteria included:

 The dominant species must be coniferous (the dominant species is defined as the species that dominates the forest canopy)

 The site must be at least 20 m (65.6 ft) deep (tree depth)

 The site must be level in grade and even with the road

 The site must be accessible for measurements (researchers able to enter woods to take measurements; no posted private land; stay within VDOT right-of-way to the degree possible)

 The site must be safe for the roadside researcher to take noise measurements and traffic counts

 There must be a safe place to park the research vehicle

 If there are deciduous trees at the site, they must not yet be leafed out

As Referred we have taken 3 Spots for the purpose of project on Assessment of Road Traffic Noise Pollution at Express Highway. Spots are taken on Badnera Express Highway. By taking readings on spots we have measured Noise which have given us idea that where Noise Pollution is more and hence we have suggested the best suitable measures to reduced the Noise Pollution.

The 3 spots taken into consideration are:-

Fig.1. In front of PRMIT&R

Fig.2. Crossing at Kondeswar Square

Fig.3. Crossing at MIDC

VIII. NOISE LEVEL MESUREMENT

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501 nature of the equipment used and the economy aspects of the available techniques.

Sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 05.00 – 05.10 19 11 12 14 97..0 2 05.10 – 05.20 17 13 11 12 96.2 3 05.20 – 05.30 16 13 14 15 96.1 4 05.30 – 05.40 24 14 17 14 104.2

5 05.40 – 05.50 26 15 16 12 104.7

6 05.50 – 06.00 30 17 17 11 105.1

7 06.00 –06.10 27 14 14 14 98.9 8 06.10 – 06.20 26 11 13 11 98.7 9 06.20 – 06.30 24 10 12 10 97.1 10 06.30 – 06.40 20 10 12 15 98.2 11 06.40 – 06.50 19 09 13 15 99.4 12 06.50 – 07.00 19 09 11 17 100.1

IX. OBSERVATION

Date -09/02/2015 (Monday) (morning)

Place – In front of PRMIT&R

TABLE I. READING AT SPOT 1 ON 9/2/15 DURING MORNING

Date -09/02/2015 (Monday) (afternoon)

Place – In front of PRMIT&R

TABLE II. READING AT SPOT 1 ON 9/2/15 DURING AFTERNOON

Date -09/02/2015 (Monday) (evening)

Place – In front of PRMIT&R

TABLE III. READING AT SPOT 1 ON 9/2/15 DURING EVENING

Date -16/02/2015 (Monday) (morning)

Place – crossing at Kondeswar square

TABLE IV. READING AT SPOT 2 ON 16/2/15 DURING MORNING

Date -16/02/2015 (Monday) (afternoon)

Place – crossing at Kondeswar square

TABLE V. READING AT SPOT 2 ON 16/2/15 DURING AFTERNOON

Date -16/02/2015 (Monday) (evening)

Place – crossing at Kondeswar square

Sr. No.

Time (am) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 09.00 - 09.10 17 12 10 07 100.1 2 09.10 - 09.20 20 15 12 08 101.2 3 09.20 - 09.30 18 10 12 07 99.2 4 09.30 - 09.40 19 11 13 10 100.3 5 09.40 - 09.50 21 12 15 10 102.1 6 09.50 - 10.00 22 14 17 09 103.0 7 10.00 - 10.10 25 14 16 12 104.5 8 10.10 - 10.20 25 10 15 14 104.7 9 10.20 - 10.30 24 10 15 10 103.1 10 10.30 - 10.40 35 15 19 12 107.2 11 10.40 - 10.50 34 17 21 13 106.7 12 10.50 - 11.00 34 15 18 13 106.5

Sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 02.00 – 02.10 15 07 07 14 95.0 2 02.10 - 02.20 17 08 10 14 97.0 3 02.20 – 02.30 18 08 12 15 98.7 4 02.30 – 02.40 17 07 12 16 98.9 5 02.40 – 02.50 16 06 11 17 97.6 6 02.50 – 03.00 16 06 09 14 98.4 7 03.00 – 03.10 17 09 11 11 97.0 8 03.10 – 03.20 15 04 11 13 96.0 9 03.20 – 03.30 14 09 09 11 95.3 10 03.30 – 03.40 17 09 13 12 100.1 11 03.40 – 03.50 18 10 13 15 100.7 12 03.50 – 04.00 18 11 09 17 102.1

Sr. No.

Time (am) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 09.00 - 09.10 07 03 03 02 84.7 2 09.10 - 09.20 07 05 05 02 84.9 3 09.20 - 09.30 06 03 04 01 81.7 4 09.30 - 09.40 08 02 06 02 82.7 5 09.40 - 09.50 07 04 07 04 85.4 6 09.50 - 10.00 08 04 09 04 81.6

7 10.00 - 10.10 08 03 10 05 86.9

8 10.10 - 10.20 10 05 09 04 87.9

9 10.20 - 10.30 07 06 06 03 85.6 10 10.30 - 10.40 06 02 05 02 84.9 11 10.40 - 10.50 06 03 04 03 84.9 12 10.50 - 11.00 07 04 04 05 85.0

Sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 02.00 – 02.10 06 03 03 03 84.7 2 02.10 - 02.20 05 02 04 02 84.6 3 02.20 – 02.30 04 03 03 03 83.7 4 02.30 – 02.40 05 05 05 04 84.4 5 02.40 – 02.50 05 04 04 05 83.6 6 02.50 – 03.00 04 04 04 03 83.1 7 03.00 – 03.10 06 03 03 02 84.2 8 03.10 – 03.20 07 02 04 04 85.1 9 03.20 – 03.30 07 03 05 03 85.7 10 03.30 – 03.40 08 05 05 05 86.9

11 03.40 – 03.50 07 03 06 04 86.4

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502 TABLE VI. READING AT SPOT 2 ON 16/2/15 DURING

EVENING

Date -23/02/2015 (Monday) (morning)

Place – crossing at MIDC

TABLE VII. READING AT SPOT 3 ON 23/2/15 DURING MORNING

Date -23/02/2015 (Monday) (afternoon)

Place – crossing at MIDC

TABLE VIII. READING AT SPOT 3 ON 23/2/15 DURING AFTERNOON

Date -23/02/2015 (Monday) (evening)

Place – crossing at MIDC

TABLE IX. READING AT SPOT 3 ON 23/2/15 DURING EVENING

X. PROBABLE IMPLICATIONS

A. Noise barriers

1) Technical considerations and barrier effectiveness

Barriers are solid obstructions built between the homes along the side of highway and highway. Effective noise barriers can reduce the noise level upto 10 to 15 dB. Noise walls can be built out of wood, stucco, concrete, masonry, metal, and other materials. Individual can select the material for barrier based on number of factors such as cost, durability and maintenance, availability, etc. The selected material should be able to provide transmission loss of 10 dB.

2) Public perception

Overall public reaction for noise pollution appears to be positive. Nearby residents stated that communication within the house is easier, windows can be kept open, they get privacy and environment is healthy. Some negative reactions include loss of air circulation, feeling of confinement.

3) Design considerations

A successful design approach for noise barriers should be multidisciplinary and should include architects/planners, landscape architects, roadway engineers, acoustical engineers, and structural engineers. Noise reduction goals influence acoustical considerations and in conjunction with non-acoustical considerations, such as maintenance, safety, aesthetics, physical construction, cost, and community participation, determine various barrier design options.A major consideration in the design of a noise barrier is the visual impact on the adjoining land use.

4) Flexibility in decision making

The Federal-aid highway program has always been based on a strong State-Federal partnership. At the core of that partnership is a philosophy of trust and flexibility, and a belief that the States are in the best position to make investment decisions that are based on the needs and priorities of their citizens. The FHWA noise regulations give each flexibility in determining the reasonableness and feasibility of noise abatement and, thus, in balancing the benefits of noise abatement against the overall adverse

Sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 05.00 – 05.10 09 07 07 05 93.4

2 05.10 – 05.20 10 06 05 03 92.7

3 05.20 – 05.30 09 06 05 03 92.5

4 05.30 – 05.40 08 04 04 02 90.6 5 05.40 – 05.50 08 05 05 02 90.9 6 05.50 – 06.00 07 04 06 01 89.7 7 06.00 –06.10 06 05 07 04 89.9 8 06.10 – 06.20 06 05 06 04 89.7 9 06.20 – 06.30 04 04 06 04 88.7 10 06.30 – 06.40 05 04 04 03 89.9 11 06.40 – 06.50 05 03 04 03 89.4 12 06.50 – 07.00 07 02 02 04 89.9

Sr. No.

Time (am) No. Of Vehicles Noise

density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 09.00 - 09.10 12 07 07 05 98.6 2 09.10 - 09.20 14 06 08 02 98.7 3 09.20 - 09.30 14 07 07 03 98.9 4 09.30 - 09.40 10 06 07 03 98.9 5 09.40 - 09.50 10 06 05 04 99.1 6 09.50 - 10.00 13 05 04 05 100.1 7 10.00 - 10.10 13 06 04 03 99.9 8 10.10 - 10.20 14 07 08 02 99.7 9 10.20 - 10.30 11 08 09 01 98.1 10 10.30 - 10.40 15 08 09 02 99.9 11 10.40 - 10.50 15 07 10 04 100.1

12 10.50 - 11.00 15 09 10 05 100.9

Sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 02.00 – 02.10 10 05 09 05 96.0 2 02.10 - 02.20 11 07 05 03 95.7 3 02.20 – 02.30 10 06 07 03 95.7 4 02.30 – 02.40 09 05 06 05 96.5 5 02.40 – 02.50 09 07 07 06 96.7 6 02.50 – 03.00 09 06 09 03 96.3 7 03.00 – 03.10 07 04 05 06 97.7 8 03.10 – 03.20 11 04 07 04 96.9 9 03.20 – 03.30 11 05 06 02 96.7 10 03.30 – 03.40 12 07 09 06 98.4

11 03.40 – 03.50 12 05 08 05 99.5

12 03.50 – 04.00 12 07 09 05 99.7

sr. No.

Time (pm) No. Of Vehicles Noise density in db (max.)

2w 3w 4w 4w+

1 05.00 – 05.10 09 07 05 03 97.9 2 05.10 – 05.20 07 06 04 02 97.9 3 05.20 – 05.30 12 06 05 03 98.9 4 05.30 – 05.40 09 06 07 05 98.7 5 05.40 – 05.50 09 05 08 06 98.1 6 05.50 – 06.00 07 03 07 03 97.9 7 06.00 –06.10 11 03 07 04 99.4 8 06.10 – 06.20 10 02 06 03 99.3 9 06.20 – 06.30 15 07 05 05 99.9 10 06.30 – 06.40 15 06 06 07 100.9

11 06.40 – 06.50 17 05 06 05 101.2

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503 social, economic, and environmental effects and costs of the noise abatement measures. The must base its determination on the interest of the overall public good, keeping in mind all the elements of the highway program. Congress affirmed and extended the philosophy of partnership, trust, and flexibility in the enactment of ISTEA.

5) Vegetation

Vegetation, if it is high enough, wide enough, and dense enough that it cannot be seen through, can decrease highway traffic noise. A 61-meter width of dense vegetation can reduce noise by 10 decibels, which cuts in half the loudness of traffic noise. It is usually impossible, however, to plant enough vegetation along a road to achieve such reductions. Roadside vegetation can be planted to create a psychological relief, if not an actual lessening of traffic noise levels.

6) Vegetation and noise reduction

Traffic Management controlling traffic can sometimes reduce noise problems. For example, trucks can be prohibited from certain streets and roads, or they can be permitted to use certain streets and roads only during daylight hours. Traffic lights can be changed to smooth out the flow of traffic and to eliminate the need for frequent stops and starts.

B. Building insulation

Insulation of buildings reduces traffic noise considerably, especially when windows are sealed and other openings are also filled. Noise absorbing materials can also be placed inside the walls of the building. In many parts of the country, highway agencies do not have the authority to insulate buildings; thus, in those States, insulation cannot be included as part of a highway project.

1) Buffer zones

Buffer zones are undeveloped, open spaces which border a highway. Buffer zones are created when a highway agency purchases land or development rights, in addition to the normal right-of-way, so that future dwellings cannot be constructed close to the highway. This prevents the possibility of constructing dwellings that would otherwise have an excessive noise level from nearby highway traffic. An additional benefit of buffer zones is that they often improve the roadside appearance. However, because of the tremendous amount of land that must be purchased and because in many cases dwellings already border existing roads, creating buffer zones is often not possible.

2) Pavement

Pavement is sometimes mentioned as a factor in traffic noise. While it is true that noise levels do vary with changes in pavements and tires, it is not clear that these variations are substantial when compared to the noise from exhausts and engines, especially when there are a large number of trucks on the highway. It is very difficult to forecast pavement

surface condition into the future. Unless definite knowledge is available on the pavement type and condition and its noise generating characteristics, no adjustments should be made for pavement type in the prediction of highway traffic noise levels.

XI. RESULT

In the present work, an attempt was made for comprehensive study of traffic noise on highway at and around the Amravati city during morning, afternoon, and evening during 2014 - 2015. The traffic noise was measured about 3 different Spots along the Express Highway. The minimum and maximum noises level observed were 52.9 dB and maximum 104.5 dB. The sources of noise pollution were motor vehicular traffic. It is noticed that none of the vehicle generated sound within the prescribed limits i.e. 70 dB during the study period. The control measures should be adopted to minimize the noise level; the government also has a great role to play in this regard.

XII. CONCLUSION

This study was carried out to evaluate the noise pollution at national highway near Amravati city. very high noise levels due to traffic of vehicles were observed during the study causing disturbance and even some health problems. Basing on the study findings it can be inferred that there is an urgent need to set up noise standards in the country to control the noise pollution. A focused study of examining hearing loss and health survey is needed.

References

[1] U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Office of Environment and Planning Noise and Air Quality, „Highway traffic noise analysis and abatement policy and guidance‟, Branch Washington, D.C., June 1995.

[2] Banerjee D. research on Road Traffic Noise and Human health in India: Review of Literature from 1991 to Current. Noise health 2012; 14: 113 – 8.

[3] J K Jain. 1991.“Study of Highway Noise of an Identified Highway Corridor.” ME Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, UOR, Roorkee.

[4] S Agrawal.1995. “Traffic Flow and Environmental Impact of Four Laning of Selected Major Traffic Corridor.” ME Thesis, Department of civil Engineering, UOR, Roorkee. [5] C Reddy and V Bhaskar. 1993.“Study of Traffic Flow and

Related Environmental Factors at Identified highway locations.” ME Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, UOR, Roorkee

[6] Sheetal Agarwal and B.L. Swami.2009. “ Noise annoyance under Interrupted Traffic Flow Condition for Jaipur City”, International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, pp 159-168.

[7] S M Sarin.1990. “Evaluation of Road Traffic Noise Problem at Scientist Apartment – a Report.” Environmental and Road Traffic safety Division, Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi.

[8] D. R. Gomez, „Traffic Pollution‟, Department of Transportation, Berkshire, England, 1990.

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504 [10] R.K. Shrivastava., „Analysis of noise levels and its health

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