Information Security Awareness Training

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Information Security

Awareness Training

Various Methods and their

effectiveness at New Paltz

SUNY Technology Conference

Lake Placid - June 2014

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Why the focus on training?

“Only amateurs attack machines; professionals

target people”

- Bruce Schneier

“There is only one way to keep your product plans

safe and that is by having a trained, aware, and

conscientious workforce. This involves training on

the policies and procedures, but also - and

probably even more important - an ongoing

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Why the focus on training?

Targeting individuals instead of systems, can

bypass some or all of your protection measures.

Dollar for dollar, will have a huge benefit for

security.

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Who needs security training?

Ideally, everyone - students, faculty, staff, and

contractors.

Realistically?

Review laws, contracts, etc. for who is required

to receive training (specifically PCI, GLBA,

HIPAA)

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What are the goals of the training?

Getting users to

understand and

recognize

the risks.

Training users to

change their

instinctual

responses.

Making users recognize that they

are at

risk

.

Educate users as to impact to the

college of a successful scam.

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What topics should be covered?

Password safety

Malware

Social Engineering

Physical Security

Security Policy

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Psychological Issues

Fast and Slow Thinking

Fast, quick judgements, relies on heuristics ➢ Slow, thoughtful, lazy

Availability Heuristic

➢ Representativeness

➢ Availability

Evaluation of risk

➢ Users exaggerate risks that are rare, sudden, are out of their control, or affect them personally.

Users downplay risks that are common, affect others, or

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Compliance motivation

One method is via Expectancy Theory

Expectancy ➢ Instrumentality

➢ Valence

Make sure employees know the

consequences to the college of security

lapses.

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Training methods

Email communications

Can be newsletters or specific advisories.

➢ Can easily be overwhelming when too frequent.

➢ Will be ignored by a large amount of people.

If they are too long or contain too much technical jargon,

they will be ignored by a larger amount of people.

Posters and flyers

Should be ‘catchy’ while still being informative ➢ Should change frequently

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Newsletter

Periodic communication about security

issues.

Meant to communicate specific issues

or to

keep security issues on people’

s minds.

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In-person training

Initially conducted by an external

security consulting firm.

Transitioned to internal training the

following year.

Conducted annually - employees with

sensitive data access such as Banner

are required to attend. All other

employees are strongly encouraged to

attend.

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Don’t just rely on IT

Take advantage of “Security

Evangelists” outside of IT.

Use their power and status to extend

the reach of security messaging.

Get administration support & buy-in.

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Online Training

Conducted via an external firm

(Wombat Security).

Training is

interactive

. Users cannot

just click ‘next, next, next’.

Users are scored on training.

Topics include Email Security, URL

Training, and Safer Web Browsing.

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Online Training

Required & Recommended groups.

Compliance Rates ~ 60%

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Online Training

Per-user reports

Can be used to review users who have fallen for (or are

suspected of falling for) phishing scams.

➢ Users who fall for phishing scams (and malware) are much more likely to have not taken the training.

Not taking the training changes our response

post-malware/phishing

Most missed report

➢ Shows questions users have problems with.

➢ Helps adjust messaging to emphasize certain issues for all users (not just those included in the training).

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Phishing Simulations

We phish our own users.

Done through an external service.

➢ Can use actual scam emails (with modified links to a site we control).

Can also use custom emails/spear phishing.

“Victims” who submit data are brought to a training

page.

When users fall for it, it breaks them out of the

“immunity fallacy”

.

Works through altering the Availability Heuristic. ➢ Some users will be confused.

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Phishing responses

Try to be patient with the users. Security is not

their job.

Don’t allow the training to be ignored

completely though.

When someone ignores the training and is a

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Training results

Significant

drop in number of phishing victims

Average phishing victims per month was 4-5. ➢ Number of victims year-to-date (2014) is now 4.

Large increase in users reporting suspicious

emails.

Significant decrease in submit rate for our

phishing simulations.

Generally positive reactions from faculty and

staff.

➢ Some negative/apathetic reactions.

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Remaining challenges

Keeping users vigilant and avoiding

complacency

Training needs to stay relevant and fresh

Reducing training costs

➢ Reducing per-user costs to include more users

➢ Creating in-house (or in-SUNY?) training

➢ Including students in active training methods

Including students in training

Secure programming/coding training

Effectiveness of more sophisticated methods

still is an issue (spear phishing, other social

engineering methods)

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Resources

Psychology & Information Security course at

Albany (Dr. Kevin Williams)

Bruce Schneier - Psychology of Security

protect.iu.edu (Indiana University)

Stop, Think, Connect (stopthinkconnect.org)

Internet 2 Cyber Security Awareness Resource

Library

(https://wiki.internet2.

edu/confluence/display/itsg2/Cybersecurity+Awareness+Re source+Library)

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Questions?

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Evaluation site:

Figure

Updating...

References