STUDIA BOTANICA HUNGARICA (Antea: Fragmenta Botanica)

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S T U D I A B O T A N I C A H U N G A R I C A

(Antea: Fragmenta Botanica)

X V . 1981 p. 31-44

Mycological examination of sawdust depots i n H u n g a r y

B y

M . BABOS

( R e c e i v e d N o v e m b e r 28, 1980)

A b s t r a c t : The fungus c o m m u n i t i e s o f s a w d u s t depots o f H u n g a r y have been e x a m i n e d . I n s a w d u s t s of deciduous t r e e s and i n t h o s e obtained f r o m deciduous t r e e s m i x e d w i t h p i n e , the c o m p o s i t i o n of fungi f l o r a does n o t depend on the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the t r e e s p e c i e s b u t f i r s t of a l l on the t h i c k n e s s of the s a w d u s t l a y e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o f l o r i s t i c a l data, o b s e r ­ v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the e c o l o g y of c e r t a i n s p e c i e s w e r e a l s o m a d e .

I n t r o d u c t i o n

B y - p r o d u c t s ( b a r k , sawdust, s h a v i n g s , e t c . ) y i e l d e d on d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and i n d i f f e r e n t phases of c o n v e r s i o n of t i m b e r m u s t be r e m o v e d f r o m the w o r k s h o p s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e l e v a n t r e g ­ u l a t i o n s . Sawdust i s o c c a s i o n a l l y used as l i t t e r i n l i v e - s t o c k f a r m i n g , i t i s h o w e v e r m o s t l y not u t i l i z e d and the s t o r a g e of i t causes p r o b l e m s . F r e q u e n t l y , I t is used t o f i l l up m a r s h y d i p s , o r c a r r i e d i n t o m i n i n g p i t s , o r r u b b i s h p i t s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of s e t t l e m e n t s .

A c c o r d i n g to data p u b l i s h e d by the I n s t i t u t e f o r W o o d - I n d u s t r y R e s e a r c h ( S Z A L A Y , O R T U T A Y & OROSZ 1975), the f o r e s e e a b l e q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r b y - p r o d u c t s i n H u n g a r y w i l l be 2 . 7 7 3 . 0 0 0 m3

f o r 1980, and 2 . 8 2 8 . 0 0 0 m3 f o r 1990 ( 3 5 . 6 % r e s p . 34.2% o f g r o s s f e l l ) .

I n c o u n t r i e s r i c h i n w o o d , the q u a n t i t y o f b y - p r o d u c t s y i e l d e d c o n v e r s i o n o f t i m b e r i s s e v e r a l t i m e s m o r e than that o f H u n g a r y . An e s p e c i a l l y g r e a t n u m b e r o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l w o r r i e s a r e caused by the g r e a t q u a n t i t y o f b a r k b y p r o d u c t i n c e l l u l o s e c o m b i n e s . I n the huge waste s t o c k p i l e s , " b a r k -m o u n t a i n s " , t h e r e a r e p r o d u c e d o r g a n i c d e c o -m p o s i t i o n p r o d u c t s w i t h p o i s o n i n g effect d u r i n g the s l o w p r o c e s s of d e c a y i n g and r o t t i n g . T h e s e p r o d u c t s , a c c o m p a n y i n g the p r e c i p i t a t i o n w a t e r , lead i n t o the s o i l and cause damage t o the f r e s h w a t e r (PONGO 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e have been s e v e r a l m e t h o d s e l a b o r a t e d and a p p l i e d a l l o v e r the w o r l d f o r the m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l use o f the b y - p r o d u c t wood m a t e ­ r i a l , and f o r u s i n g i t as b i o l o g i c a l e n e r g y i n b i o m a s s p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h i s c o u n t r y h o w e v e r , the b i o ­ l o g i c a l u t i l i z a t i o n of wood b y - p r o d u c t o c c u r s at m o s t i n the c o u r s e o f c o m p o s t p r e p a r a t i o n , but not in a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y ( T A K Á T S 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e T e a m of F o r e s t M i c r o b i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h o f the H u n g a r i a n A c a d e m y of Sciences ( U n i v e r s i t y of F o r e s t r y and Wood I n d u s t r y , Sopron) c a r r i e s on e x ­ p e r i m e n t s to d r a w x y l o p h a g o u s fungus s p e c i e s i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i . e . i n b r i n g i n g about the m y c e l i u m m a s s of xylophagous f u n g i . One of the i m p o r t a n t tasks of r e s e a r c h e r s i s t o s e l e c t the fungus s p e ­ c i e s s u i t a b l e f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s so that i n a d d i t i o n to the w e l l - k n o w n fungi that can be g r o w n i n wood and wood m a t e r i a l a l s o o t h e r fungi c o u l d be u t i l i z e d .

The r e s u l t s of the o b s e r v a t i o n s , the data p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p a p e r m a y p r o m o t e the a c c o m p l i s h ­ m e n t o f p r a c t i c a l t a r g e t s , s i n c e I n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m m u n i t y g r o w i n g on s a w d u s t such e d i b l e fungus s p e c i e s can be found that often p r o d u c e m a s s g r o w t h and a l s o t h e i r m y c e l i u m m a s s w h i c h i n t e r l a c e the s a w d u s t i s o f a r e m a r k a b l e q u a n t i t y .

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M a t e r i a l and m e t h o d s

The p u r p o s e o f m y e x a m i n a t i o n s w a s the f l o r i s t i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n of fungi - above a l l B a s i d i o m y c e t e s - o c c u r r i n g i n s a w d u s t depots i n H u n g a r y .

I n the c o u r s e o f o b s e r v a t i o n s at s i t e , s a m p l e s w e r e taken o f a l l the s p e c i e s ; m o r e o v e r the type of g r o w t h , and the q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f the s p e c i m e n s w e r e r e c o r d e d . The r a r e , o r p r o b l e m a t i c fungus s p e c i e s w e r e g r e a t e r e d and p r e s e r v e d i n a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of s p e c i m e n s . The h e r b a r i u m s p e c i m e n s of the m a t e r i a l d e a l t w i t h i n o u r p a p e r a r e d e p o s i t e d i n the m y c o l o g i c a l h e r ­ b a r i u m of the B o t a n i c a l D e p a r t m e n t of the H u n g a r i a n N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m ( B P ) .

F o r d e t e r m i n i n g the heat r e q u i r e m e n t and heat e n d u r a n c e c a p a c i t y of c e r t a i n species, the t e m p e r a t u r e o f the s a w d u s t was m e a s u r e d at 10 and 20 c m depths u n d e r the f r u i t b o d y .

A f t e r t h a t s p o r a d i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s had been made i n e a r l i e r y e a r s (1966, 1974, e t c . ) , the fungus f l o r a of the f o l l o w i n g sawdust depots was e x a m i n e d f r o m 1976 to 1980 i n the SW and N E b o u n d a r i e s of the c o u n t r y (Map 1 . ) .

I n the e x a m i n e d w o o d - d e p o t s , above a l l frondose t r e e s ( m a i n l y Q u e r c u s p e t r a e a . Q u e r c u s r o b u r , Q u e r c u s c e r r i s , Fagus s i l v a t i c a , i n c e r t a i n shops R o b l n i a p s e u d o a c a c i a and P o p u l u s s p e c i e s , too) a r e p r o c e s s e d . C o n i f e r o u s t r e e s ( P i n u s n i g r a , P i n u s s i l v e s t r i s , P i c e a abies) got i n t o the waste o n l y t o a s m a l l e x t e n t o r only i n a q u i t e i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t y . E x c e p t i o n s a r e those wood-depots w h e r e i m p o r t c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s a r e r e c e i v e d ( e . g . T u z s é r , Mátészalka) and w h e r e t h e r e f o r e the waste m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s o f a l m o s t 100% o f p i n u s b a r k and p i n u s s a w d u s t .

I n the c o l l e c t i n g w o r k , m y r e g u l a r c o l l a b o r a t o r s w e r e M r . L . B A B O S , M r . A . F R I E S Z , M r . E . VÉSSEY, M r s . M . V I R Á G , M r . I . Z I R K E L B A C H , M r . K . O T T O , M r . L . A L B E R T and M r . Z . S A R K A D I . I e x p r e s s m y thanks f o r t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e a l s o i n t h i s w a y .

P r o b l e m s : N o a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be obtained about the p r o p o r t i o n of the s p e c i e s c o m ­ p o s i t i o n of the sawdust o c c u r r i n g i n s a w m i l l s .

C o e n o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s and s p e c i e s p r o d u c t i v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s c o u l d not be c a r r i e d out because c o n d i t i o n s at s a w m i l l s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by p r o d u c t i o n c i r c u m s t a n c e s and b y the v o l u m e of p r o d u c t i o n , by people l i v i n g i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and by o t h e r f a c t o r s , so t h a t the m a r k i n g of s t a n d a r d p l o t s was i m p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s even m o r e r e g r e t t a b l e because s o m e t i m e s s u c h good c o n ­ d i t i o n s could be o b s e r v e d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m m u n i t y g r e w at once i n an a r e a of 1-3 m2. Some of the f a c t o r s t h a t a r e o b s t a c l e s i n the e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e w o r t h t o m e n t i o n . I n c e r ­

t a i n shops, the d a i l y q u a n t i t y of w a s t e i s g r e a t , and t h a t o f t h e f r e s h d i s c h a r g e d e p o s i t e d on t h e m i s a l s o g r e a t , t h e r e f o r e , the depot i s r e g u l a r l y bulldózered; the o l d e r sawdust w h i c h was a l r e a d y a p r o d u c i n g l a y e r w i l l be c o v e r e d w i t h a new s a w d u s t - s h a v i n g s l a y e r . I n o t h e r depots, a g r e a t q u a n t i t y o f s l a t and p l a n k a r e p l a c e d o u t s i d e and these e i t h e r c o v e r the sawdust, o r w h e r e they get i n t o the sawdust p i l e s loosen the sawdust too m u c h . A s a r e s u l t , the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the fungi b e c o m e m o r e u n f a v o u r a b l e , the n u t r i e n t m e d i a d r i e s out e a s i l y , cannot w a r m u p . F o r the wood b y ­ p r o d u c t b e c o m i n g dense, f o r the r e - a p p e a r a n c e o f the f r u i t b o d i e s a l o n g e r p e r i o d i s needed. I n ­ t e n t i o n a l and spontaneous b u r n i n g , r e g u l a r l y change the c o n d i t i o n s o f h a b i t a t as w e l l . I n a r e a s w h e r e the sawdust i s d e l i v e r e d to a r u b b i s h p i t the o b j e c t s t h r o w n out i n t o the p i t c o v e r the s u r ­ face o r the c h e m i c a l m a t e r i a l s pouTed out t h e r e cause damage t o f u n g i . B e s i d e s , i n m o s t o f the d e p o t s , the w o r k e r s o r the people l i v i n g i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e g u l a r l y p i c k up the fungi f o r food. I t o c c u r r e d not o n l y once t h a t we found o n l y the s t e m s o f the g r e a t q u a n t i t y of fungi c u t by people g a t h e r i n g f u n g i .

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Map 1 . T h e l o c a l i t i e s of the e x a m i n e d s a w d u s t depots . „ 1 1 . B u d a k e s z i i c GöHrilto* Tncső 1 . I « « 6- Bakonyszentlászló: " V i n y e - m a j o r " ^ ^ ^ J J . GodoUo. 2 . Zalahaláp 7. Pusztavám Kén gtreet J6' 3 U z s a 8 . Szárliget „ , 1 ' ' MlsKOlc / w t x « Q n «nRo HároS 1 8 . N y í r m e g g y e s (Mátészalka) 4 . Monostorapáti 9 . D o m o s 13 C8évharaszt T u z s é r 5. Franciavágás 1 0 . V i s e g r á d : " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " P u s z t a v a c s

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T a b l e 1 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c fungus c o m m u n i t y o f s o m e s a w d u s t depots, on t h e b a s i s o f e x a m i n a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t i n 1 9 7 9 - 1 9 8 0 . x = i n v e r y d r y w e a t h e r S p e c i e s rölgy" rölgy" m

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R e s u l t s

T h e sawdust depots p r o v e d t o be v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out t a x o n o m i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the f l o r i s t i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d . R a r e s p e c i e s w h i c h have u n d e r g o n e h a r d l y any e x a m i n a ­ t i o n s so f a r c o u l d be found r e g u l a r l y and i n a g r e a t n u m b e r o f s p e c i m e n s .

C e r t a i n s p e c i e s showed f u l l m o r p h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y on the o c c a s i o n s o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e m e i t h e r f r o m d i f f e r e n t sawdust depots o r even f r o m s a w d u s t s of d i f f e r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n ( V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a . V . b o m b y c i n a , e t c . ) . On the o t h e r hand, s o m e s p e c i e s p o s s e s a g r e a t m o r p h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y ;

P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s ; L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e and v a r . b i o r n a t u s ( B A B O S , 1979); L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e ­ a g r l s ( B A B O S , 1980); P l u t e u s v a r i a b i l i c o l o r ( B A B O S . 1978). i n a d d i t i o n to the p a p e r s c i t e d i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h the data p r o c e s s i n g , I s h a l l deal w i t h c e r t a i n questions and w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of t w o new t a x a .

O f the s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g t o the A g a r i c a l e s o r d e r , t h e r e a r e 10 t a x a (8 s p e c i e s + 2 v a r i e t i e s ) w h i c h a r e the m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the m y c o c o e n o s e s t o be found i n sawdust depots i n H u n g a r y . T h e 10 t a x a m e n t i o n e d b e l o n g t a x o n o m i c a l l y i n t o t w o f a m i l i e s - w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f H o h e n b u e h e l i a g e o g e n i a - v i z . P l u t e a c e a e ( P l u t e u s . V o l v a r i e l l a ) . and A g a r i c a c e a e ( L e u c o a g a r i c u s , L e u c o c o p r l n u s ) . T h e i r o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y i s as f o l l o w s : P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a P l u t e u s v a r i a b i l i c o l o r L e u c o c o p r l n u s c e p a e s t i p e s L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e ( i n c l . v a r . r o r u l e n t u s ) ( i n c l . v a r . b i o r n a t u s ) H o h e n b u e h e l i a geogenia L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r l s P l u t e u s a t r i c a p i l l u s T h i s fungus c o m m u n i t y i s v e r y s t a b l e . T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o u l d be r e g u l a r l y found i n the s a m e p e r i o d s of t i m e at s e v e r a l depots, o r i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e at the s a m e depots, and e v e n these s p e c i e s not once f r u c t i f i e d e x c l u s i v e l y (see T a b l e 1 . ) ,

F r u c t i f i c a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e not independent o f f a c t o r s of the s u r r o u n d i n g s , b u t i t i s m o r e b a l ­ anced h e r e than i n o t h e r h a b i t a t s . T h e m a x i m u m o r n e a r - m a x i m u m s p e c i e s n u m b e r o f the c h a r a c ­ t e r i s t i c m y c o c o e n o s i s c o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d f r o m June t o S e p t e m b e r . I n A p r i l and M a y m a i n l y P l u ­ teus s p e c i e s g r o w o n l y on s a w d u s t . I t can be m e n t i o n e d as a c u r i o s i t y t h a t the t h e r m o p h i l o u s V o l ­ v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a a p p e a r s i n M a y . The f r u c t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s p e c i e s i n o u r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s at s u c h an e a r l y date was p o s s i b l e o n l y because the w a r m up s a w d u s t k e p t the t e m p e r a t u r e at the r e q u i r e d d e g r e e . F a c t o r s r e l a t e d to t e m p e r a t u r e r e g u l a t e t h e d e c r e a s e i n species n u m b e r i n O c t o ­ b e r , t o o (See T a b l e 2 . ) .

T a b l e 2 . G r o w t h p e r i o d o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c A g a r i c a l e s s p e c i e s i n t w o sawdust depots e x a m i n e d r e g ­ u l a r l y on the b a s i s o f a s u m m a t i o n o f data (Szárliget 1976-1978 and B u d a k e s z i 1978-1980)

S p e c i e s M o n t h A p r i l M a y June J u l y A u g . Sept. O c t . F S p e c i e s A p r i l M a y P l u t e u s a t r i c a p i l l u s + + + + 4 P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s + + + + + + + 7 P l u t e u s v a r i a b i l i c o l o r + + + + + + + 7 H o h e n b u e h e l i a geogenia + + + 3 L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e + + + + + 5 ( i n c l . v a r . b i o r n a t u s ) L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r l s + + + + 4 L e u c o c o p r i n u s c e p a e s t i p e s + + + + 5 ( i n c l . v a r . r o r u l e n t u s ) V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a + + + + + 5 N u m b e r o f s p e c i e s 2 3 7 8 7 8 5

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A B can be aeen f r o m T a b l e 1 , 5-6 t a x a o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m m u n i t y can be found: at s a w m i l l s w h i c h w e r e e x a m i n a t e d o n l y one o r t w o t i m e s ( e . g . i n M i s k o l c , L e n t i , Franciavágás, e t c . ) . I n case of r e p e a t e d e x a m i n a t i o n s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the t o t a l o r a l m o s t t o t a l n u m b e r o f c h a r ­ a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o u l d have been o b s e r v e d i n these s a w m i l l s as w e l l (as e . g . I n B u d a k e s z i , S z á r l i g e t , " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " ) . Such a g r e a t a g r e e m e n t i n the s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , and the r e g u l a r l y , y e a r a f t e r y e a r , r e p e a t e d a p p e a r a n c e o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s , l a s t i n g f r o m s p r i n g t o a u t u m n , c o u l d n o t be e x p e r i e n c e d i n the c o u r s e o f m y c o c o e n o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t e r r i c o l o i •, T . a c r o s c o p i c f u n g i .

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g f r o m an e c o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t t h a t o n l y a r a t h e r s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the n e c r o -p a r a s i t i c - s a -p r o -p h y t i c s -p e c i e s l i v i n g on wood o r w o o d - m a t e r i a l i n H u n g a r y , c o u l d be found i n h a b ­

i t a t s p r o v i d i n g a m p l e q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r and n u t r i e n t m a t e r i a l . On the o t h e r hand, s u c h s a p r o p h y t i c fungi a l s o l i v e on s a w d u s t t h a t a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as l i v i n g on s a w d u s t and wood s h a v i n g , t o o .

I n c o m p a r i s o n between the s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f fungi l i v i n g on s a w d u s t and the r e s u l t s of s u c c e s s i o n e x a m i n a t i o n s c a r r i e d out on t r u n k s of frondose t r e e s ( K R E I S E L 1 9 6 1 ; R U N G E 1969, 1975), the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s can be made: i n the d e c o m p o s i t i o n of t r u n k s P o r i a l e s and P o l y p o r a l e s s p e c i e s take p a r t p r i m a r i l y i n . N o t i n d e r fungi c o u l d be found on sawdust; the s p e ­ c i e s that o c c u r i n the s p e c i e s l i s t s i n a s m a l l n u m b e r ( T r a m e t e s , S c h i z o p h y l l u m , e t c . ) g r e w on p l a n k s d e c a y i n g i n s a w d u s t . Of the A g a r i c a l e s s p e c i e s g r o w i n g a l s o on s a w d u s t , i t was o n l y the P l u t e u s a t r i c a p i l l u s , P . r o m e l l l i (= P . l u t e s c e n s ) , H y p h o l o m a f a s c i c u l a r e and H . s u b l a t e r l t l u m s p e c i e s t h a t w e r e o b s e r v e d by R U N G E (1975) and K R E I S E L (1961) on t r u n k s o f Q u e r c u s r o b u r and F a g u s B i l v a t i c a . The p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i o u s f r o n d o s e t r e e s and c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s i n m i x e d s a w d u s t changes c o n t i n u a l l y b e c a u s e c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s a r e p r o c e s s e d r a r e l y and i n a s m a l l e r q u a n t i t y . H o w ­ e v e r t h i s fact has n o i n f l u e n c e on the o c c u r e n c e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s . M y c o c o e n o s l s changed i n c e r t a i n depots o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t s o m e f u n g i , l i v i n g on p i n e s and p i n e p u n k s a l s o a p p e a r e d ( e . g . P a x i l l u s p a n u o i d e s , C o l l y b i a e x s c u l p t a , C o l l y b i a i m p u d i c a , e t c . ) . I n punks c o n ­ s i s t i n g o n l y o f pine s a w d u s t and p i n e b a r k ( N y i r m e g g y e s , T u z s é r ) the o n l y s p e c i e s was P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s f r o m the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m m u n i t y of m i x e d s a w d u s t s , t h a t c o u l d be f o u n d . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n s h o u l d h o w e v e r be c o n t i n u e d , s i n c e i t was o n l y on one o c c a s i o n that I c o u l d e x a m i n e depots c o n t a i n i n g p i n e - w o o d w a s t e o n l y .

The a p p e a r a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t fungi was d e t e r m i n e d m u c h r a t h e r b y t h e " s i z e " o f the w a s t e than b y the p r o p o r t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f wood i n the w a s t e . Sawdust p r o v e d t o be the b e s t m e d i u m . The v e r y fine wood f l o u r , t h e l o o s e w o o d - s h a v i n g s , p l a n k p i e c e s , and b a r k t h e m s e l v e s a r e l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y ; h o w e v e r , i n the c o u r s e o f t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s m i x i n g w i t h s a w d u s t , by t h e i r s p l i t t i n g i n t o p i e c e s and t h e i r b e c o m i n g c o m p a c t , the m i x t u r e can be u t i l i s e d as w e l l .

The c o m p o s i t i o n o f m y c o c o e n o s e s i s m o s t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the t h i c k n e s s o f the s a w d u s t l a y e r , and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s . Such t h e r m o p h i l o u s s p e c i e s as e . g . V o l v a ­ r i e l l a v o l v a c e a and L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s ( l i v i n g i n hotbeds o r g r e e n h o u s e s ) , c o u l d be p i c k e d up i n m a s s f r o m s a w d u s t w h i c h was s t o r e d i n t h i c k l a y e r s ( 2 - 3 . 5 m ) , f r o m e a r l y s u m m e r t i l l a u t u m n . T h e heat and v a p o u r o f the d e c a y i n g sawdust can p r o v i d e e v e n i n the open a i r t h e c o n d i ­ t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r these s p e c i e s t o p r o d u c e f r u i t b o d i e s . D a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d ( T a b l e 3 . ) on the heat r e q u i r e m e n t and heat endurance c a p a c i t i e s o f the m y c e l i u m i n c e r t a i n s p e c i e s .

On u n w a r m e d , f l a t l y s t o r e d s a w d u s t - even i f the s a w d u s t depot w a s f a r t h e r away f r o m the f o r e s t ( e . g . at Zalahaláp) - s p e c i e s g r o w i n g on t r u n k s and on t h e i r d e c a y i n g r o o t s ( H y p h o l o m a f a s c i c u l a r e , H . s u b l a t e r i t i u m ) w e r e found i n m a s s . Species w i t h l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e d e m a n d , c h a r a c ­ t e r i s t i c of sawdust ( e . g . P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s , P . a t r i c a p i l l u s , L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e v a r , b i o r n a t u s ) a l s o r e g u l a r l y p r o d u c e d f r u i t b o d i e s . The s p e c i e s , h o w e v e r , the heat r e q u i r e m e n t of w h i c h c o u l d n o t be s a t i s f i e d by the t e m p e r a t u r e o f the s a w d u s t s t o r e d i n t h i n l a y e r ( V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a , L e u ­ c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s ) w e r e m i s s i n g .

On the d e c a y i n g m a t t e r of b a r k heaps w h i c h i s c o v e r e d w i t h l i t t e r i n the f o r e s t y e a r by y e a r (Uzsa, S z á r l i g e t ) , l l t t e r c o l o u s s a p r o p h y t i c fungi develop i n g r e a t q u a n t i t y ( L e p i o t a a s p e r a , L . c r i s - t a t a . C o l l y b i a d r y o p h i l a , C . d l B t o r t a v a r . ? . L e p i s t a n e b u l a r i s , A g r o c y b e p r a e c o x , L y c o p e r d o n p e r l a t u m , e t c . ) . These c o u l d be g a t h e r e d - o b v i o u s l y because o f the advantagous w a t e r - s t o r i n g c a p a c i t y o f the b a r k - even on such o c c a s i o n s when o w i n g t o d r y w e a t h e r n o fungi c o u l d be found i n the n e i g h b o u r i n g f o r e s t . On the b a r k heaps the s a p r o p h y t i c f o r e s t fungi l i v i n g on d e c a y i n g wood a l s o a p p e a r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , L y c o p e r d o n p y r i f o r m e and X y l a r i a d i g i t a t a g r e w i n m a s s (see the s p e c i e s l i s t on p . 4 1 - 4 4 ) .

Tp.e appearance o f the f o r e s t s p e c i e s c o u l d a l s o be seen on the edges o f s a w d u s t depots b e i n g i n f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t ( e . g . " V i n y e - m a j o r " , " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " ) . The i n f l u e n c e of e n v i r o n m e n t o f the

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d e v e l o p i n g m y c o c o e n o s i s c o u l d be b e s t o b s e r v e d at P u s z t a v a c s . H e r e , on the r u b b i s h - c o v e r e d t h i n l a y e r e d s a w d u s t , t h e r e g r e w P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s , P . a t r i c a p i l l u s . L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e . C o p r l -nus l a g o p u s , Cyathus s t e r c o r e u s and P e z i z a m i c r o p u s . B e s i d e s , t h e r e o c c u r r e d a l s o s o m e o f M a c r o l e p i o t a r h a c o d e s v a r , h o r t e n s i s l i v i n g on c o m p o s t . On the p a r t of the c o m p o s t l y i n g t o w a r d s the g r a s s l a n d M a c r o l e p i o t a e x c o r i a t a was found on the s a w d u s t , w h i l e on the p a r t edging t o w a r d the f o r e s t , t h e r e g r e w L e p i o t a e r i s t a t a and C o l l y b i a d r y o p h i l a .

T a b l e 3. SawduBt t e m p e r a t u r e I n the v i c i n i t y of f r u i t b o d i e s o f 3 frequent fungus s p e c i e s

L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s L o c a l i t y P e r i o d A i r t e m p . ° C at a h e i g h t o f 1 m Sawdust t e m p e r a t u r e 10 c m ° C at a depth o f 20 c m+ B u d a k e s z i 20 J u n e 1979 1 9 - 2 0 33 3 1 . 4 29 A u g . 1979 20 26 37 4 1 . 5 2 7 . 5 39 44 L e n t i 14 S e p t . 1979 22 3 0 . 5 35 35 37 38 39 4 1 . 5 32 37 38 40 42 42 4 3 . 5 Pusztavám 24 J u l y 1980 22 33 38 V i s e g r á d : " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " 28 A u g . 1980 27 3 2 . 5 3 4 . 5 3 8 . 5 34 4 0 . 5 40 a v e r a g e v a l u e s x = 3 5 . 2 3 8 . 4 t e m p e r a t u r e l i m i t s = 2 6 - 4 1 . 5 2 7 . 5 - 4 3 . 5 = Since t h e r e w e r e d e c a y i n g p l a n k s and p i e c e s o f wood i n the s a w d u s t , the t e m p e r a t u r e o f the

sawdust c o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d as deep as 20 c m h e r e and t h e r e .

V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a L o c a l i t y P e r i o d A i r t e m p . ° C a t a h e i g h t o f 1 m Sawdust t e m p e r a t u r e 10 c m ° C at a depth o f 20 c m B u d a k e s z i 20 J u n e 1979 1 9 - 2 0 29 3 0 . 5 3 0 . 5 31 V i s e g r á d : 7 J u l y 1979 1 6 - 2 0 28 32 " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " 28 A u g . 1980 27 3 8 . 5 39 40 4 2 . 5 4 4 . 5 42 a v e r a g e v a l u e s x = 3 3 . 3 4 0 . 3 t e m p e r a t u r e l i m i t s = 2 8 - 4 0 3 2 - 4 4 . 5

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( C o n t i n u a t i o n o f t a b l e 3) P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s L o c a l i t y P e r i o d A i r t e m p . ° C at a Sawdust t e m p e r a t u r e ° C at a depth ol L o c a l i t y h e i g h t of 1 m 10 c m 20 c m L e n t i 14 Sept. 1979 22 34 36 3 7 . 4 4 2 . 2 Z a l a h a l áp 16 Sept. 1979 1 5 . 5 18 21 1 8 . 5 20 Franciavágás 28 Sept. 1979 22 16 20 22 24 28 32 Pusztavám 24 J u l y 1980 22 18 22 V i s e g r á d : 7 J u l y 1979 1 6 - 2 0 20 22 " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " 25 30 2 9 . 5 36 30 34 31 37 31 37 34 37 28 A u g . 1980 2 7 - 2 9 3 8 . 5 ^ + 4 2 . 5 + + 2 1 20 21 22 31 33 Bakonyszentlá8zló: 7 Sept. 1980 23 23 24 " V l n y e - m a j o r " 24 25 27 30 27 31 3 3+ + 35"H" average v a l u e s x = 2 6 . 6 2 8 . 2 t e m p e r a t u r e l i m i t s = 1 6 - 3 8 . 5 2 0 - 4 2 . 2 = G r e w t o g e t h e r w i t h V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a T h e f r e s h b a r k w a s t e o c c u r r i n g i n f o r e s t shops d u r i n g b a r k s h a v i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by e p h e -m e r o u s fungus c o -m -m u n i t i e s ( T a b l e 4 . ) . I n t w o a r e a s l y i n g f a r f r o -m each o t h e r (150 a i r k -m ) i d e n ­ t i c a l s p e c i e s c o u l d be found on F a g u s s i l v a t i c a b a r k i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . T a b l e 4 . E p h e m e r o u s fungus c o m m u n i t i e s o c c u r r i n g on f r e s h b e e c h - t r e e b a r k waste S p e c i e s M t . B ö r z s ö n y : K i r á l y r é t 31 J u l y 1979 M t . B a k o n y : between Bakony-bél and Fenyőfő 2 9 . Sept. 1979 S p e c i e s I n d r y , w a r m w e a t h e r I n w e t , c o o l w e a t h e r B o l b i t i u 8 v a r i i c o l o r

+

+

B o l b i t i u s v i t e l l i n u s

+

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C o p r i n u s l a g o p u s

+

+

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I n one c a t t l e - p e n (Csévharaszt) i t was p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e s a w d u s t m i x e d w i t h c a t t l e - d u n g , o c c u r r i n g I n f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t . H e r e a maBS o f c o p r o p h i l o u s , l i t t e r c o l o u s and wood d e c a y i n g fungi c o u l d be found t o g e t h e r . The s i z e o f t h e f r u i t bodies was a l s o l a r g e , and a l s o those s p e c i e s g r e w i n g r o u p s - l a r g e g r o u p s - of w h i c h t h i s i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . G i g a n t i s m and i n c r e a s e d g r o u p i n g can r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y be e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h fungi l i v i n g on sawdust, b u t these t w o p h e n o m ­ ena w e r e even m o r e i n c r e a s e d i n the c a s e o f sawdust w i t h d u n g .

I n the c o u r s e of the e x a m i n a t i o n s the i m p o r t a n c e , i n r e l a t i o n of the d e c a y i n g of w o o d m a t t e r , o f the fungi s p e c i e s l i v i n g on sawdust c o u l d be d e m o n s t r a t e d v e r y w e l l . The m y c e l i u m m a s s of the f r e q u e n t and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species' i s v e r y g r e a t . T h e dense m y c e l i u m i n t e r l a c i n g can be seen n o t o n l y i n the a r e a s b e l o w the f r u i t b o d i e s b u t the m y c e l i u m m a s s a l s o a p p e a r s f r o m the sagging f o o t p r i n t s . The s a m e c a n be seen i f the p l a n k s a r e l i f t e d . The r a t e of m y c e l i u m g r o w t h of c e r ­ t a i n s p e c i e s can be a l s o e x t r e m e l y h i g h . T h i s can be the r e a s o n why the f r u i t b o d i e s a p p e a r v e r y s h o r t l y ( 2 - 4 weeks) a f t e r b u r n i n g of the s a w d u s t even i f b u r n i n g t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h a t h i c k l a y e r ( e . g . at N y í r m e g g y e s : P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s ; at B u d a k e s z i : V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a ) .

T h e h u m i f i c a t i o n o f m i x e d sawdust c o n s i s t i n g o f f r o n d o s e and c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s , i s q u i c k . I n c e r t a i n p l a c e s , the p e r i o d o f s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s was l i m i t e d b y t h a t the c a r t i n g out o f f r e s h s a w d u s t w a s stopped, and f o l l o w i n g t h i s , the w o o d w a s t e b e c a m e decayed d u r i n g 2 - 5 y e a r s t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t the p l a n t a g e g r o w i n g on i t c o u l d c o v e r i t . U s u a l l y , h o w e v e r , i t was n o t the o r i g i n a l p l a n t a g e t h a t appeared on i t again but n i t r o p h i l o u s weed p l a n t s o f h u m a n s i z e ( A r t e m i s i a v u l g a r i s . U r t i c a d i o i c a , L a c t u c a s e r r i o l a . e t c . ) c o v e r e d t h e decayed s a w d u s t heaps. A t d e p r e s s i o n s i n m o o r l a n d s , h o w e v e r , the r e e d ( P h r a g m i t e s c o m m u n i s ) can b e c o m e d o m i n a n t a g a i n . T h e t e r r a i n b e c o m i n g o v e r g r o w n w i t h g r a s s c o u l d be s e e n o n l y i n on s i t e . L i s t o f s p e c i e s c o n c e r n i n g the l o c a l i t i e s A s c o m y c e t e s P e z i z a e c h i n o s p o r a K a r s t . - B u d a k e s z i . 1 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 . P e z i z a m i c r o p u s P e r s . ex F r . - Z a l a h a l á p , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . P e z i z a p e t e r s l l B e r k . & C u r t . - N y i r m e g g y e s , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . P e z i z a p r o t e a n a ( B o u d . ) Seav. c f . f m . s p a r a s s i o i d e s ( B o u d . ) K o r f . - B u d a k e s z i , 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . P e z i z a r e p a n d a P e r s . - Z a l a h a l á p , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 17.05.1980-, 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . P e z i z a v e s i c u l o s a B u l l , ex S t . A m a n s - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 . X y l a r i a d i g i t a t a ( L . ) G r e y . - U z s a . 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . X y l a r i a p o l y m o r p h a ( P e r s . ) G r e v . - U z s a , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . X y l a r i a s p . - S z á r l i g e t , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . B a s i d i o m y c e t e s H y m e n o m y c e t i d a e P o r t a l e s C o r i o l o p s l s extenuata ( D u r . 8. M o n t . ) D o m . - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , d e t . : Z . Igmándy. G a n o d e r m a l u c i d u m ( C u r t , ex F r . ) K a r s t . - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . M e r i p i l u s giganteus ( P e r s . ex F r . ) K a r s t . - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . T r a m e t e s v e r s i c o l o r ( L . e x F r . ) P i l á t - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . P o l y p o r a l e s P a n u s t l g r i n u B ( B u l l , ex F r . ) S i n g . - M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . P l e u r o t u s p u l m o n a r l u s F r . - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y1; 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . S c h l z o p h y l l u m c o m m u n e F r . ex F r . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a ­ vám, 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 , 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 .

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B o l e t a l e s P a x i l l u s i n v o l u t u s (Batsch) F r . - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . P a x i l l u s panuoides F r . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 6 . 1 2 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 . P a x i l l u a panuoides F r . v a r , i o n i p u s Q u é l . - Z a l a h a l á p , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . A g a r i c a l e s A g a r i c u s b i s p o r u s ( L g e . ) S i n g . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . A g r o c y b e a r v a l i s ( F r . ) S i n g . - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . A g r o c y b e d u r a ( B o l t . ex F r . ) S i n g . - B u d a k e s z i , 2 9 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 . A g r o c y b e p r a e c o x ( P e r s . ex F r . ) F a y . - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 4 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 3 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 ; N y i r m e g g y e s , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 ; T u z s é r , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . B o l b i t i u s a l e u r i a t u s ( F r . ) S i n g . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . B o l b j t i u s r e t i c u l a t u s ( P e r s . ex F r . ) R i c k e n - S z á r l i g e t , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 .

B o l b i t i u s v a r i i c o l o r A t k . - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; between Bakonybél and Fenyőfő, 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Szárliget, 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Börzsöny M t s . : K i r á l y r é t , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 ; Csévha­ r a s z t , 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 .

B o l b i t i u s v i t e l l l n u s ( P e r s . ) F r . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 ; between Bakonybél and F e n y ő ­ fő, 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Börzsöny M t s . : K i r á l y r é t , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 ; Csévharaszt, 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . B o l b i t i u s v i t e l l l n u s ( P e r s . ) F r . v a r , f r a g i l i s ( L . ex F r . ) . - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . C o l l y b i a a c e r v a t a ( F r . ) K a r s t . - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . C o l l y b i a d i s t o r t a ( F r . ) Quél. v a r . ? - U z s a , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . C o l l y b i a d r y o p h i l a ( B u l l . ex F r . ) K u m m e r - P u s z t a v á m , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C o l l y b i a e x s c u l p t a ( F r . ) G i l l . - T u z s é r , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . C o l l y b i a i m p u d i c a ( F r . ) S i n g . - P u s z t a v á m , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; N y i r m e g g y e s , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 ; T u z s é r , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . Conocybe l a c t e a ( L g e . ) M é t r . - S z á r l i g e t , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 .

Conocybe c f . pubescens ( G i l l . ) Kühn. -Csévharaszt, 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 .

C o p r i n u s a t r a m e n t a r i u s ( B u l l . ex F r . ) F r . S z á r l i g e t , 2 7 . 0 4 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 .1980; I s a -s z e g , 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C o p r i n u s c i n e r e u s (Schff. ex F r . ) S . F . G r a y - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . C o p r i n u s c o m a t u s (Müll, i n F l . D a n . ex F r . ) S . F . G r a y - S z á r l i g e t , 2 7 . 0 4 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1978, 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C o p r i n u s f l o c c u l o s u s D C . ex F r . - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . C o p r i n u s lagopides K a r s t . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 .

C o p r i n u s lagopus F r . - Z a l a h a l á p , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; between Bakonybél and Fenyőfő, 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; S z á r ­ l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1980; Börzsöny M t s . : K i r á l y r é t , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő­ incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 ; M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . C o p r i n u s p l i c a t i l i s ( C u r t , ex F r . ) F r . - Z a l a h a l á p , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C o p r i n u s t r u n c o r u m (Schff.) F r . - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C r e p i d o t u s c a s p a r i V e i . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . C r e p i d o t u s m o l l i s (Schff. ex F r . ) K u m m e r - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . F l a m m u l a s t e r l i m u l a t a ( W e i n m . ex F r . ) W a t l . - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . G y m n o p i l u s s p e c t a b i l i s ( F r . ) S i n g . v a r , junonía ( F r . ) L g e . - Z a l a h a l á p , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . H e m i m y c e n a c u c u l l a t a ( P e r s . ex F r . ) S i n g . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . H o h e n b u e h e l i a geogenia ( D C . ex F r . ) S i n g . s s . K r e i s e l ( M i c h a e l , H e n n i n g & K r e i s e l , 1977) - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 , 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Franciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; S z á r ­ l i g e t , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 2 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1979; B u d a k e s z i , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1980, 2 2 . J . 0 . 1 9 8 0 ; I s a s z e g , 23*0,9.1967. H y p h o l o m a f a s c i c u l a r e ( H u d s . e x F r . ) K u m m e r - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1978, 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 , 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . H y p h o l o m a s u b l a t e r i t i u m ( F r . ) Q u é l . - Z a l a h a l á p , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1980.

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L e p t o t a a s p e r a ( P e r s . I n H o f m . ex F r . ) Q u é l . - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 2 0 . 0 8 . 1978, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . L e p i o t a e r i s t a t a ( A l b . & Schw. ex F r . ) K u m m e r - S z á r l i g e t , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 2 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . L e p i s t a g l a u c o c a n a ( B r e s . ) S i n g . - U z s a , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . L e p i s t a n e b u l a r i s ( F r . ) H a r m a j a . - U z s a , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . L e p i s t a nuda ( B u l l . e x F r . ) C k e . - U z s a , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; S z á r l i g e t , 2 7 . 0 4 . 1 9 8 0 . L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e ( S c h u l z . ) B o n , I n c l . v a r . b i o r n a t u s ( B e r k . & B r . ) B o n - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Monostorapáti, 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Franciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; S z á r l i g e t , 1 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 6 , 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 , 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 0 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 ; Dömös, 2 9 . 0 5 . 1 9 6 8 , 2 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 6 8 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 8 . 0 8 , 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 5 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1980; B u d a p e s t : HároB, 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 ; Budapest: T a h i S t r e e t , 5 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; I s a s z e g , 2 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 6 6 , 2 0 . 0 9 . 1 9 6 6 , 3 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 6 6 , 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; M i s ­ k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 ; Mátészalka, - 0 7 . 1 9 7 4 ; K o m o r ő - T u z s é r , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 6 9 . L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r l s (Sow, ex F r . ) B o n - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Franciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i ­ n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 8 , 5 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 4 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 ; M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . L e u c o c o p r l n u s c e p a e s t i p e s (Sow. ex F r . ) P a t . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 . L e u c o c o p r i n u s c e p a e s t i p e s (Sow. ex F r . ) P a t . v a r , r o r u l e n t u s ( P a n i z z i ) B a bos - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Monostorapáti, 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; S z á r l i g e t , 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1977, 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 2 5 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 7 , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 2 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 ; M i s k o l c , 1 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . L y o p h y l l u m f u m o s u m ( P e r s . ex F r . ) Kühn. & R o m a g n . - U z B a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . M a c r o l e p i o t a e x c o r l a t a (Schff. ex F r . ) M o s e r - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . M a c r o l e p i o t a p r o c e r a (Scop. ex F r . ) S i n g . - U z s a , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . M a c r o l e p i o t a r h a c o d e s ( V i t t . ) S i n g . v a r , h o r t e n s i s P i l â t - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . M e l a n o l e u c a c f . p o l i o l e u c a ( F r . ) Kühn. & M r e . - B u d a k e s z i , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . M e l a n o l e u c a s p . S z á r l i g e t . 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 . O u d e m a n s i e l l a p l a t y p h y l l a ( P e r s . ex F r . ) M o s e r - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 . O u d e m a n s i e l l a r a d i c a t a ( R e i h , e x F r . ) S i n g . - U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . P a n a e o l u s s p h i n c t r i n u s ( F r . ) Quél . - C s é v h a r a s z t . 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 . P h o l i o t a m u l t i f o l i a ( P k . ) S m i t h H e s l e r - Zalahaláp, 1 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; Monostorapáti, 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Franciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 6 9 . P h o l i o t i n a c y a n o p u B ( A t k . ) S i n g - N y i r m e g g y e s , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . P h o l i o t i n a s u b v e r r u c i s p o r a ( V e s . & W a t l . ) M o s e r - S z á r l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s a t r i c a p i l l u s ( S e c r . ) S i n g . - U z s a , - 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1978; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; S z á r l i g e t , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 4 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Csévharaszt, 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s a t r o m a r g i n a t u s ( K o n r . ) Kühn . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s h i s p i d u l u s ( F r . ex F r . ) G i l l . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s m i n u t i s s i m u s ' R . M r e . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . PluteuB n i g r o v i r i d i s (in h e r b . ) - U z s a , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s ( S c h u l z . ) B o u d . - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1979, 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Monostorapáti, 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 , 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 7 . 0 4 . 1980, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Dömös, 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e B z i , 1 6 . 0 4 1978, 2 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 2 . 0 5 . 1979, 2 7 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Solymár, 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 7 ; B u d a p e s t : Kén S t r e e t , 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; B u d a p e s t :

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T a h i S t r e e t , 1 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 9 ; Csévharaszt, 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; I s a -s z e g , 2 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 6 6 , 2 0 . 0 9 . 1 9 6 6 , 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Inc-ső, 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 6 9 , 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1980; M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 ; N y i r m e g g y e s , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s p e a r s o n i i P . D . O r t o n - S z á r l i g e t , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s p e t a s a t u s ( F r . ) G i l l . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 . P l u t e u s r o m e l l i i ( B r i t z . ) S a c c - C s é v h a r a s z t , 1 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 2 . P l u t e u s t h o m s o n i i ( B e r k . & B r . ) D e n n i s - S z á r l i g e t . 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . P l u t e u s v a r i a b i l i c o l o r B a b o s — L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Franciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 1 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 4 , 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 , 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 7 , 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Dömös,23.07.1968; Solymár, 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 7 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 8 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 . 0 4 . 1 9 7 9 , 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 3 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 8 . 0 5 . 1979, 2 9 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 2 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 . P s a t h y r e l l a b i p e l l l s Quél . - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . P s a t h y r e l l a c a n d o l l e a n a ( F r . ) M r e . - Z a l a h a l á p , 3 1 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1980; Szárliget, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . P s a t h y r e l l a c f . p s e u d o g r a c l l l s ( R o m a g n . ) M o s e r — P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . P s a t h y r e l l a s p i n t r i g e r a ( F r . ) K o n r . & M a u b l . - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . P s a t h y r e l l a v e l u t i n a ( P e r s . ex F r . ) Sing . - " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . T u b a r i a f u r f u r a c e a ( P e r s . ex F r . ) G i l l . - P u s z t a v a c s , 1 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 . T u b a r i a h i e m a l i s R o m , ex B o n - B u d a k e s z i , 1 . 0 1 . 1 9 7 9 . V o l v a r i e l l a b o m b y c i n a (Schff. ex F r . ) S i n g . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; S z á r l i g e t , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 0 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 8 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 9 , 8 . 0 9 . 1979, 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 . V o l v a r i e l l a p u b e s c e n t i p e s (Peck) Sing . - S z á r l i g e t , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 . V o l v a r i e l l a s p e c i o s a ( F r . ) S i n g . - B u d a k e s z i , 1 3 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 6 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 . V o l v a r i e l l a s p e c i o s a ( F r . ) S i n g . v a r , g l o i o c e p h a l a ( D C . ex F r . ) Sing . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 6 ; B u d a k e s z i , 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 . V o l v a r i e l l a t a y l o r i ( B e r k . ) S i n g . - S z á r l i g e t , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 7 , 3 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 . V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a ( B u l l , ex F r . ) S i n g . - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 6 , 1 1 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 6 , 2 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 , 1 6 . 0 7 . 1978, 2 0 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 5 , 1 9 8 0 , 2 8 . 0 8 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 , 1 9 8 0 ; B u d a ­ k e s z i , 3 0 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 8 , 0 7 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 4 . 0 8 . 1 9 7 8 , 2 0 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 2 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 7 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 5 . 1 9 7 9 , 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 2 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 9 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1980; M i s k o l c , 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 . G a s t e r o m y c e t l d a e C r u c i b u l u m laeve ( H u d s . t r a n s R e h l . ) K a m b l y - P u s z t a v á m , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . Cyathus o l l a B a t s c h t r a n s P e r s . - S z á r l i g e t . 9 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 ; B u d a k e s z i , 2 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . Cyathus s t e r c o r e u s (Schw.) de T o n i - F r a n c i a v á g á s , 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 2 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 7 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 2 . 1 0 . 1 9 8 0 . L y c o p e r d o n p e r l a t u m P e r s . p e r P e r s . - " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . L y c o p e r d o n p y r i f o r m e Schaeff. p e r P e r s . - U z s a , 2 1 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 . M y x o m y c è t e s F u l i g o s e p t i c a ( L . ) W i g g e r s L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; U z s a , 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; Zalahaláp, 1 6 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; F r a n -ciavágás, 2 8 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 9 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 , 1 9 8 0 ; Pusztavám, 2 4 . 0 7 . 1980, 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Szárliget, 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 7 4 ; " L e p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 , 2 4 . 0 5 . 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; P u s z t a v a c s , 1 3 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; I s a s z e g , 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; Gödöllő-Incső, 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 . L y c o g a l a e p i d e n d r u m ( L . ) F r . - L e n t i , 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 9 7 9 ; " V i n y e - m a j o r " , 2 4 . 0 7 . 1 9 8 0 , 7 . 0 9 . 1 9 8 0 ; " L e ­ p e n c e - v ö l g y " , 2 6 . 0 6 . 1 9 7 9 , 7 . 0 7 . 1 9 7 9 .

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S u m m a r y

A b o v e a l l A g a r i c a l e s s p e c i e s used f o r food p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e I n the q u i c k d e c o m p o s i t i o n of s a w d u s t and o t h e r wood w a s t e s , on the o t h e r h a n d , P o r i a l e s and P o l y p o r a l e s s p e c i e s w h i c h take p a r t i n the d e c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s of t r u n k s have no i m p o r t a n c e i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f s a w ­ d u s t .

On the b a s i s of s e v e r a l y e a r s ' o b s e r v a t i o n m a d e i n sawdust depots o f H u n g a r y i t c a n be stated t h a t on the sawdust and wood waste o f f r o n d o s e t r e e s ( Q u e r c u s , F a g u s , R o b i n i a , P o p u l u s , e t c . ) m i x e d i n a s m a l l e r p a r t w i t h c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s ( P i n u s , P i c e a ) - independently o f the r a t i o of m i x i n g o f t h e s e s p e c i e s - a s p e c i a l m y c o c o e n o s i s , f r u c t i f i c a t i n g r e g u l a r l y and often i n m a s s , can be found (Table 1 . ) . O f the w a r m up s u b s t r a t e s t o r e d i n a t h i c k l a y e r t h e f o l l o w i n g A g a r i c a l e s s p e c i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( a c c o r d i n g t o the o r d e r of t h e i r f r e q u e n c y ) : P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s , P . v a r i a ­ b i l i c o l o r , L e u c o a g a r i c u s b r e s a d o l a e ( i n c l . v a r . b i o r n a t u s ) , L . m e l e a g r i s , V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a , L e u c o c o p r l n u s cepaestipes ( i n c l . v a r . r o r u l e n t u s ) , Hohenbuehelia geogenia, P l u t e u s a t r i c a p i l l u s . On t h i n l a y e r e d sawdust - w h e r e the heat o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n i s n o t h i g h - t h e r m o p h i l o u s s p e c i e s ( L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s , V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a ) a r e m i s s i n g . I n f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t , on f l a t l y a r r a n g e d b a r k h e a p s , the m y c o c o e n o s i s c o n s i s t s o f o t h e r s p e c i e s : l i t t e r c o l o u s s p e c i e s and w o o d -d e c a y i n g fungi appear i n m a s s . On f r e s h b a r k w a s t e (Fagus s i l v a t i c a ) , e p h e m e r a l fungus c o m m u ­ n i t i e s o f s m a l l species n u m b e r (3) c o u l d be o b s e r v e d (Table 4 ) . On sawdust w i t h dung the w o o d - r o t fungi a p p e a r e d t o g e t h e r w i t h l i t t e r c o l o u s and c o p r o p h l l i c f u n g i .

O w i n g t o t h e i r c o n s t a n t l y and s t r o n g l y d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n s , the e x a m i n e d a r e a s a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r i n d i c a t i o n o f s a m p l i n g p l o t s and f o r r e g u l a r a n a l y s e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , even t h o u r g h t h e s e c o u l d have p r o v i d e d s u r p r i s i n g T e s u l t s on the b a s i s o f the f r e q u e n t l y found m a s s p r o d u c t i o n s . I t can be m e n t i o n e d as a p e c u l i a r i t y o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m m u n i t y t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f the c h a r a c t e r s p e c i e s c o u l d often be found even i n a s m a l l a r e a (1-3 m2) , and a l s o t h a t on s e v e r ­

a l o c c a s i o n s no o t h e r fungi than the c h a r a c t e r s p e c i e s could be found on the d e p o t s . F u n g u s g r o w t h i s m u c h m o r e r e g u l a r on sawdust - p r o b a b l y because o f the f a v o u r a b l e w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a ­ c i t y o f t h e s u b s t r a t e - t h a n i n the n e i g h b o u r i n g a r e a s .

T h e m a i n f r u i t p r o d u c i n g p e r i o d l a s t s f r o m J u n e t i l l S e p t e m b e r (Table 2 ) , b u t the w a r m up o f the s u b s t r a t e made i t p o s s i b l e f o r e x a m p l e f o r V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a t o g r o w i t s f r u i t body even as e a r l y as M a y .

T h e m e a s u r e m e n t data r e l a t e d to the heat r e q \ e n t and t o the heat e n d u r a n c e o f t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t s p e c i e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 3 . C o n c e r n i n g m e q u i c k g r o w t h o f the m y c e l i a of c e r t a i n s p e ­ c i e s , i n d i r e c t data have been obtained, t o o . F o r e x a m p l e , P l u t e u s patrícius and V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a ­ cea on d e e p l y - b u r n t t h r o u g h sawdust p r o d u c e d I t s f r u i t bodies as e a r l y as 2 - 4 weeks a f t e r b u r n i n g .

A h i g h d e g r e e of v a r i a b i l i t y c o u l d be o b s e r v e d on c e r t a i n fungi o f the c h a r a c t e r s p e c i e s : P l u ­ teus v a r i a b i l i c o l o r : ( B A B O S 1978); L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s : (BABOS 1980); P l u t e u s p a t r i c i u s ( t o be p u b l i s h e d l a t e r ) e t c . O t h e r s p e c i e s on the o t h e r hand a l w a y s showed m o r p h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y ( e . g . V o l v a r i e l l a v o l v a c e a , V o l v a r i e l l a b o m b y c i n a ) .

G i g a n t i s m i s a l s o f r e q u e n t , and g r o w t h i n g r o u p s w i t h s u c h s p e c i e s t h a t on o t h e r s u b s t r a t e s a r e n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i t . F o r the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of c e r t a i n t a x o n o m i c a l q u e s t i o n s , s a w d u s t p r o v e d t o be good h a b i t a t .

D a t a on e d i b i l i t y o f such fungi i n r e l a t i o n o f w h i c h e d i b i l i t y was n o t k n o w n o r w a B d o u b t f u l w e r e a l B O o b t a i n e d . W o r k e r s o f s a w m i l l s and the i n h a b i t a n t s of the n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s r e g u l a r l y c o n s u m e , i n a d d i t i o n to t h e P l u t e u s and V o l v a r i e l l a s p e c i e s , L e u c o a g a r i c u s m e l e a g r i s , L . b r e s a ­ dolae and v a r . b i o r n a t u s . I n c e r t a i n p l a c e s , f u n g i a r e c o l l e c t e d a l s o f o r a n i m a l f e e d i n g . I n c e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a s , the q u i c k h u m i f i c a t i o n of s a w d u s t c o u l d be e x p e r i e n c e d . I f the d e p o s i t i n g o f the f r e s h sawdust was s t o p p e d , a f t e r 2 - 5 y e a r s the sawdust depots b e c a m e c o v e r e d w i t h m o s t l y weedy, n i t r o p h i l o u s p l a n t a g e .

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R E F E R E N C E S

B A B O S , M . (1978): P l u t e u s S t u d i e s , I . ( B a s i d i o m y c e t e s , P l u t e a c e a e ) . - A r n . H l B t . - n a t . M u s . N a t . H u n g . , 70: 9 3 - 9 7 , 7 f i g s .

B A B O S , M . (1979): T h e s p e c i e s o f the " R u b e n t e s " g r o u p i n the genus L e u c o c o p r i n u s . - Sydowia, A n n . M y c o l . S e r . 2 , B e i h e f t 8: 3 3 - 5 3 , 6 f i g s .

B A B O S , M . (1980): Studies on H u n g a r i a n L e p i o t a s . l . s p e c i e s , V . - A n n . H i s t . - n a c . M u s . N a t . H u n g . , 72: 8 1 - 9 0 , 5 f i g s .

D E N N I S , R . W . G . , O R T O N , P . D . & H O R A , F . B . (1960): N e w check l i s t o f B r i t i s h A g a r i c s and B o l e t l , I - I I . - S u p p l . T r a n s . B r i t . m y c o l . S o c . , 225 p p .

K R E I S E L , H . (1961): D i e E n t w i c k l u n g d e r Mykozönose an F a g u s - S t u b b e n auf n o r d d e u t s c h e n K a h l ­ s c h l a g e n . - Feddés R e p e r t ó r i u m , B e i h e f t 139: 2 2 7 - 2 3 2 .

M I C H A E L , E . , H E N N I G , B . a K R E I S E L , H . (1977): H a n d b u c h für P i l z f r e u n d e , I I I . - Jena, 2 . A u f l . , 464 p p .

PONGÓ, L . (1979): Fahéj a Földnek. - D e l t a , (10): 1 1 - 1 3 .

R U N G E , A . (1969): P i l z s u k z e s s i o n a u f Eichenstümpfen. - Abhandlungen aus d e m L a n d e s m u s e u m für N a t u r k u n d e zu Münster i n W e s t f a l e n , ! U (2): 3 - 1 0 .

R U N G E , A . (1975): P U z s u k z e s s i o n a u f Laubholzstümpfen. - Z e i t s c h . f . P i l z k u n d e , 3 1 - 3 8 . S ZA L A Y , L . , O R T U T A Y , B . & OROSZ, J . (1975): Hulladékhasznosítás, a n y a g - és e n e r g i a t a k a r é ­ kosság. ( U t i l i z a t i o n o f wooden w a s t e , s a v i n g o f m a t e r i a l s and e n e r g y . ) - F a i p a r i Kutatások, 2 2 1 - 2 3 3 .

T A K Á T S , T . (1978): A hulladék faanyag közvetlen felhasználása b i o m a s s z a - t e r m e l é s b e n . ( D i r e c t u s i n g o f w a s t e wood f o r p r o d u c i n g b i o m a s s . ) - M i k o l . K ö z l e m . , ( 1 - 2 ) : 7 1 - 7 5 . A u t h o r ' s a d d r e s s : M . B A B O S B o t a n i c a l D e p a r t m e n t o f the H u n g a r i a n N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m B u d a p e s t P f : 222 H - 1 4 7 6 H U N G A R Y

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F i g . 2. "Lepence völgy" near Visegrád, 1980 Photo: L. Babos Fig. 1. "Vinye-major" near Bakonyszentlászló, 1980. Photo: L . Babos

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Fig. 4. Platcus patricius, farmstead Vinye Photo: L . Babos Fig. 3. Budakeszi, 1980 Photo: L . Babos

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Fig. 5. Pluteus variabilicolor, Budakeszi Photo: L . Babog

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Fig. 7. Leucoagaricus bresadolae, Isaszeg Photo: E. Véssey

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Fig. 9. Hohenbuehelia geogenia, Isaszeg Photo: E. Vêssey

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