PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GRADE 5. All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions.

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PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GRADE 5

BACKGROUND

In order for students to understand life science they must understand the most basic form of life, which is the cell. They must understand what it is made of and how it functions in order for there to be life at all. Cells are the building blocks for various organisms’ systems (organs, structural walls, skin, leaves,….) This lesson is designed to introduce the plant and animal cell along with all of its parts that allow it to function. They will identify the parts of the cell and describe each part’s job.

All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions.

Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Bacterial and yeast cells have different structures to animal and plant cells.

Animal and Plant Cells Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common

Part Function

Nucleus Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell Cytoplasm Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes Cell membrane Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell Mitochondria Most energy is released by respiration here

Ribosomes Protein synthesis happens here Plant cells also have extra parts:

Part Function

Cell wall Strengthens the cell

Chloroplasts Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Permanent vacuole Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell full of material

Discovery of the Cell

The story of cells begins with a Dutch naturalist named Anton van Leeuwenhoek (Lay-ven-hook) over 300 years ago. Using a magnifying glass and the primitive, custom made microscopes, Leeuwenhoek was the first to see single-celled life forms swimming around in blood, sperm, and pond-water. He called these organisms “animalcules.” Five years later, an Englishman named Robert Hooke sliced a piece of cork and examined it under the microscope. He saw small empty spaced which he dubbed cells, meaning small rooms. But I was not until 1839 that two German scientists – Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann – deduced that the cells that Robert Hooke and Leeuwenhoek described were the basic unit of virtually all life forms. (Plant Cell Model Background)

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Mitochondria and vacuoles are found in both.

BASIC LESSON Objective(s) Students will be able to…

 Identify the various parts of a plant and animal cell and describe their functions.  Make a model of a animal and/or plant cell.

State Science Content Standard(s)

3.1 Compare the structure and function of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and eukaryotic cells (plant, animals, etc.) including levels of organization of the structure and function, particularly with humans.

a. Describe the basic structure and function of a cell. b. Observe cells using a microscope.

c. Compare plant and animal cells.

d. Create model/diagram of an animal and/or plant cells.

Materials Safety

From the Kit Provided by Teacher  Do not let students take their

cells since the baggies can pop or open and make a terrible mess to clean up.

 Throw the cells away when done with the lesson.

 PowerPoint – Cells found on our website or contact Jamie.  Handout - Cell Structures and

Functions

 Answer Key – Cell structures and Functions

 Handouts – Plant and Animal Diagrams

 Plant cell Model – small  Animal Cell Model – small  Plant Cell Model - large

 Small sandwich size Ziploc bag – one per two students

 Beads, buttons, pasta, pipe cleaners – anything to represent the different parts of the cell

 Karo syrup, Oil, dishwashing

detergent to represent the inside of the cell

 Materials students have brought in to represent different cell parts  Measuring cup

 Materials for the Edible Cell found at the end of the lesson in ExPlore More.

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 Cell membrane  Cell wall  Nucleus  Vacuoles  Cytoplasm  Chloroplasts  Mitochondria   See Lesson Detailed Plan Engage

Brainstorm what students know about cells. Write their contributions on the whiteboard or a piece of poster paper. Ask them what they would like to learn about cells. Write these down. Keep these in view during the lesson. Talk about the importance of knowing and understanding cells, their parts, and the function of the different parts.

Explanation

Hand out the graphic organizer Cell Structures and Functions. Show students the Cell PowerPoint found on our website. Answer questions and discuss the various cell parts and their functions. As you go through the PowerPoint have the students fill in the graphic organizer. Explain what an analogy is. After the PowerPoint is complete, as a class, fill out the last column where the structures and functions are compared to a factory. See answer key.

Using the plant and animal cell models, show the students the various parts of the cells. Through discussion reinforce their function. The large plant cell model can be used to also help illustrate the different plant parts. (See Extension for more suggestion for using the large Plant Cell Model)

Hand out the Plant and Animal Diagrams and instruct the students to color in the appropriate parts as instructed on the handout. They may use their graphic organizers to help fill out the diagrams. You may want students to define the function of the cell part on the handout for reinforcement/review.

Exploration

Make a Model Cell What You Need

Cell Structure and Function Handout for reference (already completed) Materials

 2 sandwich size Ziploc® baggies per student pair to represent the cell membrane

 A variety of materials to represent cell parts, such as buttons, pasta of different colors, pipe cleaners, and beads  1 cup of Karo syrup for each student pair (or something similar, like oil or clear detergent)

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Purpose

To review and compare plant and animal cells, and then build a model of an animal cell.

Make a Model Cell, students will compare a plant and animal cell and then make a model of a cell. They will select items to represent various cell structures and justify their choices by describing how the items they have chosen represent the actual parts of a cell. Prior to this lesson, students should have at least been introduced to cells, including the basic differences between plant and animal cells.

Planning Ahead

Just before the lesson, gather the materials and place them on a large table so that students can select the items they will use for the cell model at the appropriate time. Note: You may want to have students bring in some materials from home.

Motivation (The animation part can be done if possible but if not just review the pictures and sheets the students have already completed. Ask the questions whether they use the animation or not. They may use the handouts when constructing their model.)

This activity is intended to review the basic structures of an animal and plant cell. Refer students to Eucaryotic Cell Interactive Animation, on the Cells Alive website, where they can look at the picture of an animal cell. Once students are to the main animation page, they should choose "Animal Cell."

Ask these questions:

 What are the parts inside the cell? (For example, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion.)  What part of a cell keeps it intact? (The cell membrane on the outside and the cytosol on inside.)  What do you think some of these cell parts do? (Answers will vary.)

Have students click on the organelles in the picture to see an enlarged view and description of each. Do not focus on the terms used so much as on the big idea that the cell has many parts and each has a job to do. Emphasize that this is a model of an animal cell and that it doesn't represent any cell in particular.

Next, have students go back to the Eucaryotic Cell Interactive Animation page of the Cells Alive website and choose "Plant Cell" to see an image of a plant cell. Again, have students click on the organelles in the picture to see descriptions and enlarged views. Remember, focus on big ideas here rather than specific terms.

Ask students:

 What structures indicate that this is a plant cell, rather than an animal cell? (The cell wall and chloroplast.)  What do these structures do? (The cell wall provides and maintains cell shape and serves as a protective barrier.

The chloroplast contains chlorophyll and provides a plant's green color.)

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When you are comfortable that students understand the basic differences between a plant and animal cell, let them know that they will work in pairs to build a model of an animal cell, choosing materials from a variety of items that you provide.

Development

Refer students to the handouts they have completed. After going through the different parts of a cell, student pairs should discuss briefly the types of items they could use to represent the animal cell structures listed on the student sheet. Then they should gather their materials (from the collection you prepared ahead of time) and make the animal cells.

Model Making Tips:

 Students should work in pairs, though each can make his/her own model cell depending on the amount of materials available. Working in pairs is important because the Karo syrup can be messy and students will need to work together to pour it into the plastic baggie.

 Students should put the items representing the various cell parts into the baggies before they pour in the syrup, so that they can promptly seal the bag once the syrup is poured.

 Once the "cell structures" are in the baggie, have students add the syrup. Have them pour the syrup into a measuring cup that has a spout for easy pouring. One student should carefully hold the baggie with both hands as the other pours in the syrup.

Students should record the material they chose to represent each cell structure, as well as the reason for doing so (i.e., indicate how the material is representative of the particular structure). Have them make a table with the following headings: Cell structure, Structure Function, Why Material was Chosen for the cell part.

After students have made their model cells, allow students to compare their models with other groups and discuss the similarities and differences.

Then, ask these questions:

 Why do we often depend on models? Why are models useful when discussing cells?  How is your model like a real cell?

 How is it different?

 What are some limitations of models in general?  What could we do to make this a model of a plant cell?

Evaluation

Students should understand the basic functions of the cell structures highlighted in this lesson, as well as have a better understanding of the usefulness and limitations of models. Assess students on their answers to the student sheet as well on their participation in class discussions.

Use the questions written from the Engage section to find out what the students learned and if their questions were answered.

Extension

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 The Cell can be used to reinforce or reteach the concepts covered in this lesson. In this activity, student groups investigate individual cell structures for both plant and animal cells. Each group is responsible for creating a model of a specific structure that will be used to create class models of plant and animal cells.

 Cell Project is a cooperative learning activity in which students also construct a giant cell model.  Cell Observation is a guided lab for students to examine cells under a microscope.

 Cell Organelles can be used as an alternate assessment. It requires students to collect electron micrographs of cells.

Use the Teacher Notes for the large plant cell model for more activities associated with plant cells.

Assessment See Lesson

At the end of the lesson there is an activity where the students make an edible plant or animal cell. This could be used as an assessment also.

Resources Website sources: (Hit ctrl + click to access each link)

Excellent pictures of cells and description of their functions Introduction to Cells

Good information on Cells with labeled PIcture! Plant Cell Pictures and Descriptions

Animal Cell Pictures and Descriptions Plant & Animal CellsVirtual Cell

ADVANCED LESSON Objective(s) Students will be able to…

 Observe plant and animal cells using a microscope.

State Science Content Standard(s)

3.1 Compare the structure and function of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and eukaryotic cells (plant, animals, etc.) including levels of organization of the structure and function, particularly with humans.

a. Describe the basic structure and function of a cell. b. Observe cells using a microscope.

c. Compare plant and animal cells.

d. Create model/diagram of an animal and/or plant cells.

Materials Safety

From the Kit Provided by Teacher  None

 Magiscope

 Digital Microscope Eyepiece  Slide Kit – Large variety  Blue slide kit

 Computer

 Projection camera

Key Vocabulary Mastery Questions

 Animal Cell  Plant Cell  Nucleus

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 Cell membrane  Cytoplasm  Cell wall  Vacuoles  Chloroplasts  Mitochondria  Detailed Plan

If you have multiple microscopes available for the students to use then go to

www.middleschoolscience.com/microscope.pdf to find a lesson that teaches how to use a microscope, prepare a slide, and compare animal cells and plant cells.

If you have only the microscope found in the kit, use the following lesson. Observing Cells Using a Microscope

Objectives:

To compare plant and animal cells. Materials:

Slide kit Magiscope

Digital microscope eyepiece Computer

Image Projector

Computer and Microscope setup

1. Hook the image projector to the computer. And make sure it works.

2. Remove the microscope eyepiece by sliding it out of the eyepiece tube. It will just slide out. Place it in the box. 3. Take off the black cap of the Digital Microscope Eyepiece and then place the digital eyepiece into the

microscope.

4. Connect the USB cable to the camera and to your PC. Allow the computer to recognize the new hardware. 5. Insert the CD into your disk drive. Once the new menu appears continue to click continue until the software is

installed.

6. Look at the Installation guide found in the digital eyepiece box if you need help. 7. Now you should be able to use the microscope to observe slides.

8. Practice ahead of use to be able to manipulate the microscope properly.

Procedure: Part 1 - Cheek Cell – Oral Smear (blue kit)  Students will draw the cheek cell in low power (4x) (half page).

 Draw the cheek cells in high power (10x).

 Label the nucleus, cell membrane, and cytoplasm. (half page) Analysis:

1. What structure in the cheek cell was stained the darkest? 2. Is your cheek cell an animal cell? (yes)

Procedure: Part 2 - The Elodea Leaf Cell – blue kit  Draw the Elodea cell in high power (10x) (half page)

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Analysis:

2. What structures were in the plant and animal cell? 3. What structures were only in the Elodea cell? Conclusion: 2-3 sentences on what you learned. Adapted from

www.middleschoolscience.com/microscope.pdf

The larger Slide kit contains many different kinds of cell slides that can be used to further explore with your class! Assessment

Use class discussions to assess student understanding.

Resources

The Science Spot http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classbio.html#micro - lots of lessons dealing with microscopes

EXPLORE MORE The Incredible Edible Cell!

Objectives:

 Students will be able to identify the different parts of an animal cell and plant cell.

 Students will be able to compare and contrast the different parts of a plant and animal cell.

Materials: (suggested)  Paper plates  Tongue Depressors  Napkins

 Sugar cookies

 Vanilla or White frosting (cytoplasm)  Twizzlers (cell membrane)

 Hershey's Kisses (nucleus)

 Mike and Ike candies (some will be mitochondria and others will be animal cell vacuoles)  Green Tic-Tacs (chloroplasts)

 Circus Peanuts (plant vacuoles) Content Overview:

This lesson is a fun and yummy way to teach or assess the students’ knowledge of cells. It teaches the different parts of cells, and it will help students to make a connection to the differences between a plant and an animal cell. For example, they will discover that animal cells are round, and plant cells are rectangular. They will also understand that animal cells do not have chloroplast and that they have different vacuoles. They will learn about the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and mitochondria.

Vocabulary:

 cytoplasm: basically what all the stuff inside the cell floats in.  cell membrane: a thin membrane around the cytoplasm.

 nucleus: Acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control some of the functions of the cell. It also holds the information of the cell.

 mitochondria: an organelle that helps digest food and make energy for the cell.

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may store poison or something that they don't want. Animal cells sometimes have vacuoles. Animal cells use them to get rid of garbage or access water

 chloroplast: an organelle that makes food for the plant cell Instructional Procedures:

Introduction:

Let's take a look at our bodies from a different perspective. What are our bodies made out of (organs)? Let's break it down a little further, what are our organs made out of (tissues)? If we break down tissue, what will you find? Cells! If you were to break down living things, you will eventually get to the cell form. Let's take a look at what kinds of cells there are, what they look like and how they function.

Procedure:

Who knew learning about cells could taste good? The students are going to make an edible cell, either animal or plant, using sugar cookies and different candies. If you would like to use this as an assessment, allow the students to chose what candies and cookie parts represent the different cell structures.

1. The cookies need to be prepared beforehand and the candies need to be sorted. (Great task for a volunteer room parent.)

2. Pass out the cookies.

3. Tell the students which ones will be making animal cells and which will be making plant cells.

4. The students who are making plant cells need to make their cookies look somewhat square. They can use their tongue depressors to help with this.

5. Introduce cytoplasm- basically what all the stuff inside the cell floats in.

6. Show the kids the materials and ask them what they think would be a good representation of cytoplasm. We will use frosting.

7. Introduce cell membrane- a thin membrane around the cytoplasm.

8. Ask the children what would be a good representation of the cell membrane. We will use Twizzlers (the kind that unravel). Une up the cell membrane around the cytoplasm.

9. Introduce nucleus- Acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control some of the functions of the cell. It also holds the information of the cell. It is usually somewhat round and found somewhere in the center of the cell.

10. Again, ask the students to think about what of our materials we could use as a nudeus. We will use the Hershey's Kisses.

11. Have them place the nucleus somewhere in the center of their cell.

12. Introduce mitochondria- an organelle that helps digest food and make energy for the cell.

13. Show the students on the picture what mitochondria look like and ask what we might use for the mitochondria. We will use a couple of the mike n ike's. Make sure to use the same color for the mitochondria.

14. Introduce vacuoles- all plant cells have vacuoles. Plants use vacuoles to store things. They may store food for later digestion, or they may store poison or something that they don't want. Animal cells sometimes have vacuoles. Animal cells use them to get rid of garbage or access water.

15. Ask them what they think they could use for the vacuoles. This may not be as obvious. The plant vacuoles will be the circus peanuts. The animal vacuoles will be mike n ike's. Make sure that the animal vacuole is a different color than the mitochondria.

16. Introduce chloroplast- an organelle that makes food for the plant cell. 17. Remind the students that only the plant cells use the chloroplast.

18. Ask the students what we could use for the chloroplast. We will use the green Tic-Tac's.

19. Once aU of these steps are done, ask the students to pair up with a student(s) that does not have the same cell as them, so animal cell pairs with a plant cell. Then they will discuss the differences in their cells.

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Evaluation/ Assessment Procedures:

Each student’s cell can be assessed for accuracy by the explanation they offer or the labels they add to their “cell”. The Many Lessons of Dr. Robert Everett

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References

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