International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007

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International Students in

Higher Education in Ireland



IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 1 -

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Charts 2

Abbreviations 3

1 Introduction and Approach

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Approach 6

2 International Students in Irish Higher Education Institutions ~ 2006-2007

2.1 International Student Numbers – Overview 8

2.2 Gender of International Students 10

2.3 Income Generated by International Students 11

2.4 Programme Levels 12 2.5 Subject Details 14 2.6 Country of Origin 16 2.6.1 USA 17 2.6.2 China 19 2.6.3 Malaysia 21 2.6.4 India 21 2.6.5 Canada 23 2.6.6 Pakistan 24 2.6.7 Nigeria 24

2.6.8 Other Priority Countries 25 Norway 25 Mexico 26 Japan 26 Korea 27 Thailand 27 Vietnam 27 Saudi Arabia 27

A1 Appendix 1 Participating HEIs 30

A2 Appendix 2 Survey Form 32


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List of Tables and Charts

Table 1: International students by sector 9

Table 2: International students by duration/mode of study 10

Table 3: Gender of international 10

Table 4: Programme choices of EU and non EU students 13

Table 5: Top 20 countries of origin by sector 16

Table 6: Chinese students by level (full-time) 20

Table 7: Chinese students by subject (full-time) 20

Table 8: Indian students by sector 23

Table 9: Canadian students by sector 23

Table 10: Pakistani students by sector 24

Table 11: Nigerian students by sector 25

Table 12: Main countries of origin for selected receiving countries 29

Chart 1: Global destinations for international students at the tertiary level, 2006 4 Chart 2: International students in higher education in Ireland 2002-2007 8

Chart 3: Tuition fee by sector 12

Chart 4: International students in higher education, programme levels/mode 13

Chart 5: Subject choices, full-time international students 14

Chart 6: American students in Ireland: IEBI and IIE figures 2002/2003 – 2006/2007 18


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 3 -


DES Department of Education and Science HEA Higher Education Authority

HE Higher Education

HEI Higher Education Institution

HETAC Higher Education Training Awards Council ICT Information & Communications Technology IEBI International Education Board Ireland IIE Institute for International Education (USA) IoT Institute of Technology


1 Introduction and Approach

1.1 Introduction

Demand for education beyond national boundaries has increased by 40% over the last decade. The growth is a reflection of a general increase in tertiary enrolment worldwide, which during the same period grew by an identical percentage, underscoring the important point that students are not simply studying abroad in greater numbers, but rather are increasingly pursuing education in general. Nonetheless, although delivery methods and favoured regions are changing there is no reduction in the numbers wishing to pursue some or all of their education experience in another country and it is anticipated that internationally mobile students will rise to at least 6 million by 20201.

Chart 1: Global Destinations for International Students at the Tertiary Level, 2006

Germany 10% France 10% UK 14% US 22% All other Countries 23% Canada 3% Japan 5% China 6% Australia 7%

Sources: UNESCO UIS database, 2006 and Open Doors 2006: Report on International Educational Exchange.

1 Global Education Digest 2006: Comparing Education Statistics across the World. UNESCO Institute for Statistics.


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At present two thirds of international students are located in seven major countries (USA, UK, Germany, France, Australia, China and Japan (see above and table 12, page 29). We are witnessing a gravitational shift which is geo-political in origin and is characterised by an increased demand for study places within Asia (with particularly strong growth in China) and a drop in demand for places within the main English-speaking destination countries, especially for full-time programmes. Almost one third of today’s international students come from Asia (notably China which is the single most important country of origin, India, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore). The next most important region of origin is Western Europe, although numbers here are dropping and European students are increasingly more likely to opt to study closer to home, and for shorter durations.

Although prominent for many years as a destination for English language students2, Ireland is not considered an

internationally important location for higher education due to our relatively low numbers of international students. Nonetheless, Ireland’s Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have experienced percentage growth rates in international student numbers which, since 2002, have been similar to, or in some cases higher, than those experienced by the main destination countries. For the last three years annual growth rates have levelled out from highs of almost 20% to around 8% for 2006/20073.

As international student demand swells, Ireland, an English-speaking European country with a reputation for quality education in a safe and friendly environment, is presented with an opportunity to become an important and respected receiving country. As argued through this annual statistical report since 2002, while the potential for growth remains significant, the key challenges - which require investment and a coherent response from a number of government departments, agencies and providers - remain unmet. Despite the announcement of a new government policy on international education four years ago, the requisite enabling polices and fresh thinking have not been forthcoming. As Ireland procrastinates, our European neighbours are actively reducing barriers to international education, constantly devising innovative policies and incentives to attract (and keep) international students – important at multiple levels – in their institutions and countries. The lack of coherence and clear lack of progress around these issues in Ireland is having, and will continue to have, a negative impact on our reputation internationally as a quality destination for education.

2 Fáilte Ireland’s most recent study on recognised English Language schools estimates that there were between 130,000 and 140,000 EFL

students in this sector in Ireland in 2007. Fáilte Ireland, Ipsos/MORI, English Language Schools Survey. December 2007.

3 Compares with a 6% increase among EU students and a 7% rise in non-EU students in UK (Higher Education Statistics Agency-


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1.2 Approach

The International Education Board Ireland (IEBI) has been collecting figures on international students in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Ireland since 2002. Up until this year IEBI collected the data directly from higher education providers recognised by the Department of Education and Science4.

Working closely with the statistics division of the Higher Education Authority (HEA), we took the decision to alter our data collection system for the 2006/2007 academic year for the following reasons:

‰ The HEA have always collected about 80% of the data which IEBI also requests from the same colleges

(domicile, gender, subject and level)5. In the past, HEA data was released about two years after collection,

whereas IEBI released data during the current academic year. HEA’s newly designed data collection system operating for the first time in 2007 aims to collect and release data for the current academic year, thus matching IEBI’s requirements in this regard.

‰ As HEA-Colleges are legally obliged to return their annual student statistics to the HEA (signed by the college

President or Registrar) IEBI felt that by utilising HEA returns we would be both saving the colleges a duplication of effort and benefiting from very reliable figures.

The HEA surveyed their colleges in March 2007 on a census basis and as that was ongoing, IEBI surveyed the non-HEA colleges using a similarly designed survey instrument6.

Because of teething difficulties associated with the new system, delivery of the HEA figures to IEBI took some months longer than originally anticipated and figures from a number of colleges were not included. IEBI re-surveyed these colleges, but given the limited time available, not all colleges were able to provide full student details, although all did provide broad figures, for which we are very grateful.

In order to have a clear understanding of Exchange and Study Abroad student numbers, IEBI has always tried to capture the total number of international students in a HEI over the academic year. We are cognisant that this approach will not produce completely accurate figures, but we have been able to extrapolate very meaningful data

4 Please see appendix 1 for a full list of the higher education providers surveyed.

5 HEA-Colleges include the universities and their recognised colleges (including the colleges of education). From 2007/2008 the DIT and other

Institutes of technology will come under the remit of the HEA.


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each year and confirm our figures against international out-going figures7. We were mindful therefore that the HEA

figures (collected on a census basis on March 31st) would not give us complete short-term international student

figures and we would have to revert to the colleges on this and other issues such as tuition income, summer school numbers and offshore students.

Test runs on 2005/2006 data had shown a 100% match between the HEA and IEBI data sets for full-time students and we were confident therefore that the full-time student numbers would not present any difficulties. However for reasons which we have not been able to fully resolve at this point, the 2006/2007 figures from more than half of the HEIs did not correlate with the figures received by IEBI from the same institutions over previous years. Detailed (and on-going) discussion with the HEA and the colleges concerned resolved the differences in most of these cases. But in the case of four of the most significant receiving institutions, the anomalies could not be clarified by the institutions, and these colleges requested IEBI to use their 2005/2006 figures which they felt they could stand-over (with small adjustments in some cases as instructed by the colleges).

IEBI has worked hard to produce reliable figures within the difficult parameters described. Looking at trends over time and closely analysing data from the non HEA colleges which we collected using the same approach as in previous years, we have confidence in the trends outlined below. The uneven data generated in some cases, which was beyond the control of IEBI, the HEA and the colleges, does mean that we can not provide detailed analysis of countries of origin, subject choices and other variables which are normally included in these annual reports.

IEBI is continuing to work closely with the HEA on these issues and both organisations will be assessing the suitability of initial 2007/2008 HEA returns on international students before finalising our approach to the next data gathering exercise.



International Students in Irish Higher Education

Institutions, 2006~2007


It is essential that the caveats introduced in the “Approach” section above are understood when considering the data presented below.

Numbers presented in blue italics are the corresponding figures for the previous academic year.


International Student Numbers - Overview

The survey records a total of 27,275 (25,319) non-Irish students as registered in 50 participating HEIs8 during the

2006-2007 academic year from 142 countries9, the numbers reflect an increase of just below 8% over 2005/2006.

This amounts to an increase of 1,956 students, compared to 2,372 students last year and 4,000 in 2004/2005 – which, while positive, indicates that the slowdown in growth recorded over the last two years appears to be continuing. Chart 2 below illustrates growth as observed by this survey since 2002.

Chart 2: International students in higher education in Ireland 2002-2007

International Students in Higher Eduction 2002-2007

25319 22957 18836 15500 11000 27275 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: IEBI 2008

8 Please see appendix 1 for a full list of the higher education providers surveyed.

9 Please see appendix 3 for a full list of the countries of origin of international students.


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As table 1 below illustrates 58% (15,600 / 15,196) of international students are from outside Europe, 40% are from EU countries (11,033 / 10,123), and 2% from other European countries (642 / 785)10. These breakdowns are similar

to those found in other years, although the growth of EU students appears to have slowed. The absence of new data from some of the major receiving institutions will have affected these figures.

Table 1: International students by sector

Sector Non-European11 EU Other

Europe Total

Universities & Rec. Colleges12 9,967 7479 460 17,906 (65%)

Independent Colleges 3,993 964 116 5,073 (19%)

Institutes of Technology 1,501 2,489 57 4,047 (15%)

Other13 139 101 9 249 (1%)

Total 15,600 (58%) 11,033 (40%) 642 (2%) 27,275

Source: IEBI 2008

The majority of international students in Ireland (65%) are studying in universities and university recognised colleges11. As table 1 highlights the independent sector are next in importance at 19%. The institutes of technology (IoTs) continue to present a strong challenge to the dominant positions of the university and independent sectors within international education. The IoTs’ slice of the market has grown from less than 5% in 2003 to 15% in 2006/2007.

Fifty-seven percent (56%) of international students are studying in Ireland on full-time programmes14 with the

numbers increasing by 1,501 from 2005/2006 to 15,674 as table 2 shows.

10 This includes Albania (1), Armenia (1), Andorra (1), Belarus (12), Bosnia & Herzegovina (14), Croatia (17), Georgia (2), Iceland (7), Kosovo

(1), Liechtenstein (2), Macedonia (3), Moldova (17), Norway (214), Switzerland (74), Turkey (51) Ukraine (19), Former Yugoslavia, not specified (35), Non EU European not specified (171). Last year Romania and Bulgaria (then pre-accession countries) were included here which may explain why numbers are down in this category.

11 Includes 291 not specified/unknown non-European students.

12 For the purposes of this survey the “University Sector” refers to the seven ROI universities and university recognised education and other

colleges: All Hallows College (DCU), RCSI (NUI), IPA (NUI), NCAD (NUI), Milltown Institute (NUI), Shannon College of Hotel Management (NUI), Froebal College of Education (TCD), Marino Institute of Education (TCD), Mary Immaculate College (UL), Mater Dei Institute of Education (DCU) and St Patrick's College of Education (DCU).

13 Included under “Other” are: Kimmage Manor Development Studies Centre, National College of Ireland, Pontifical College Maynooth, St

Patrick's Carlow College, and Tipperary Institute.

14 Includes non exchange students on pre-degree programmes (including some access and foundation programmes), a small number of English


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 10 - Table 2: International students by duration/mode of study

Sector Full-time Short-term Part-time15 Off-shore Total Universities & Rec. Colleges12 9,725 (55%) 7,201 (40%) Not provided 980 (5%) 17,906 (100%) Independent Colleges 3,557 (70%) 1,452 (29%) 64 (1%) - 5,073 (100%) Institutes of Technology 2,218 (54%) 1,640 (41%) 189 (5%) - 4,047 (100%)

Other13 174 (70%) 75 (30%) Not provided - 249 (100%)

Total 15,674 (57%) 10,368 (38%) 253 (1%) 980 (4%) 27,275

Source: IEBI 2008


Gender of International Students

Because of the data collection difficulties described above, figures on the gender of international students are not complete for this year. While overall figures show a reasonable gender balance, in some countries there are clear differences, for example 92% of students from Pakistan are male and 72% of students from Japan are female.

Some gender differences are apparent when looking at the type of programmes and subjects chosen:

‰ There are higher numbers of male students on foundation/access, non degree programmes and postgraduate

programmes and higher numbers of female students on exchange/study abroad programmes, language centres and in professional programmes.

‰ Similar numbers of male and female students study science and hospitality subjects, more female students take

humanities, creative arts and medicine, and more male students are found in business & administration and engineering.

With respect to duration and mode of study, 53% of full-time students are male and 47% female. Short-terms students are more likely to be female (57%).

Table 3: Gender of international students

Gender Male Female Not Specified

41% (11,246) 52% (11,508) 17% (4,521)

Source: IEBI 2008

15 As a new and complex category, part-time numbers are considered to be under-reported in this survey. It is hoped that more robust figures on


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Income Generated by International Students

Collecting information on the income generated by international students is recognised as problematic and most receiving countries do not attempt to collect this sensitive information from source. IEBI has been fortunate to receive detailed tuition fee income from participating colleges over that last six years. However the lack of new data from some colleges this year means that the figures presented are at best an approximation and are likely to reflect an under-estimation of the tuition income generated by international students. Several colleges provided only a “bottom line” figure for international student income this year and it is therefore not possible to provide detailed breakdowns of income earned by category of student, subject, or programme type.

Reported figures indicate that just under €164 million (€154 million) was generated by the participating HEIs in tuition fees from international students for the 2006/2007 academic year - an increase of almost €10 million (€15 million) from 2005/2006. IEBI estimates conservatively that each international student spends an average of €10,200 (€9,715) per year in Ireland on accommodation and other living expenses16. This adds a further €208 million (€181

million) – generating a total income for 2006/2007 of €372 million (€335 million)17.

It is clear from the chart below that the university sector earns considerably more from international students than any other sector and that although 65% of international students are in this sector, it generates 78% of the income. Fees tend to be higher in the university sector, but this difference is almost exclusively attributable to tuition income from medical programmes.

16 For purposes of consistency we have taken last year’s estimate and multiplied by 5% to represent inflation. IEBI believes that this may well be

an under-representation of student expenditure. This figure does not take into account the revenue generated by travel to and from Ireland, or the revenue generated by visitors to students whilst they are studying in Ireland. Countries such as Australia and New Zealand seriously consider these additional income streams and are finding that the income generated from these related sources are significant.

17 This is calculated on the basis of 15,674 full-time students, 10,368 short-term/exchange students here for an average of 4 months and 253


Chart 3: Tuition fee by sector (€ millions) Other Colleges , €1, 1% IoTs, €7, 4% Independent Colleges, €28, 17%

Universities & Rec. Colleges, €128, 78%

Source: IEBI 2008


Programme Levels

This section looks briefly at the types of programmes and subjects attractive to international students in Ireland in 2006/200718. Chart 4 demonstrates that honours degree undergraduate programmes are the most popular choice for

international students in Ireland with over 30% studying at this level and a further 4% studying at general degree level. Over two thirds of these students are from outside the EU.

‰ Postgraduate programmes have been growing in popularity over the last few years and 16% of international

students are taking masters (15%) or PhD (1%) programmes. Almost two thirds of postgraduate students are from non-EU countries.

‰ Short-term exchange and Study Abroad programmes together account for 26% of students with 95% of

exchange students coming from EU countries and 97% of Study Abroad students coming from the USA.

‰ Language students which account for 7% of international students are split between the universities and the

independent colleges. In future years we intend to exclude this group out of the survey as Fáilte Ireland are now undertaking an annual survey of language students and we wish to avoid any possibility of double counting.

18 Again, the lack of detailed breakdown from a number of colleges means that we are unable to provide the normal level of detail here.


‰ Access/foundation and non-degree programmes remain popular. Over 83% of these students originate from

outside the EU and are found mostly in independent colleges and institutes of technology.

Chart 4: International students in higher education, programme levels/mode

9052 4211 4038 2878 1986 1314 1059 980 708 462 253 185 120 29 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Honours degree Short-term/Exchange Masters Study Abroad Language Non-degree General degree Of f -shore Summer programmes Access/Foundation Part-time PhD Prof essional Not-specif ied Source: IEBI 2008

Table 4 provides a breakdown of the programme choices highlighted above by EU and non-EU students. Table 4: Programme choices of EU and non EU Students

Source: IEBI 2008. * Includes non-EU European Students as listed in footnote 10, page 9.

EU Students Non EU Students*

N % N % Short-term 5781 53% 4580 28% Full-time 5112 46% 10669 65% Part-time 140 1% 113 1% Offshore 0 0% 980 6% Access/foundation 6 1% 456 3% Non-Degree 405 4% 1184 7% General Degree 582 5% 477 3% Honours Degree 3094 28% 5958 37% Masters Degree 1472 13% 2566 16% Exchange 4011 36% 225 1% PhD 95 1% 90 1% Study Abroad 0 0% 2853 18% English Language 1299 12% 687 4% Professional 69 <1% 51 <1% Summer programmes 0 0% 708 4% Offshore 0 0% 980 6%


As the table indicates, non EU students are more likely to be on full-time programmes, while EU students are more likely to be here on short-term exchange programmes.

2.5 Subject


It is the accepted norm that international students’ choices cluster around disciplines most in demand in the global economy such as business, medicine, computing, science and engineering. Chart 5 confirms that these subjects are also important choices for full-time international students in Ireland, where students of both genders are attracted to six key areas: business, medicine and related subjects (where percentages are higher than in other countries), arts & humanities, science ICT and engineering, with a particularly strong dependence on the first three areas. Each of these categories is relatively broad and encompasses a large range of subjects.

Chart 5: Subject choices, full-time international students

Business & related, 27% Medicine & related, 19% Humanities, 19% ICT, 8% Engineering, 6% Law , 2% Not specified, 8% Hospitality/ tourism, 4% Science, 8% Source: IEBI 2008

There are slight shifts within the ranking of subject areas from previous years but from the students whose subjects were recorded this year it appears that the important fields remain business, medicine and humanities. Business and related subjects attract 27% (24%) of full-time international students; this is followed by arts & humanities - including


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 15 -

social science, journalism, education and creative arts 19% (18%) and medicine and related subjects 19% (22%). Some more detail on the six most important subject groupings follow19, .20

‰ Overall, 5,398 international students from 107 countries are taking business and related subjects with 80% of

these students on full-time programmes. Of the full-time students, 60% are in the independent sector, 22% in the universities, 17% in the IoTS and 1% in other colleges. Over half (53%) of full-time business students are taking honours degrees, 23% master’s programmes and 20% non-degree programmes.

‰ Humanities (including social science, journalism, education and creative arts) attracted 4,687 international

students from 110 countries, 62% of whom are on full-time programmes. Of the full-time students, 80% are in the university sector, 9% in the independent colleges, 8% in the IoTS and 3% in other colleges. Overall 46% of full-time humanities students are taking honours degrees, 34% master’s programmes, 2% PhD programmes and 18% non-degree programmes.

‰ Medical students (n=2,878) are spread across the five medical colleges of the university sector. Although these

students come from 74 different countries, over 70% come from just 6 countries (Malaysia 36%, Canada 12%, USA 8%, Kuwait 8%, UAE 4% and Norway 3%). Almost all medical students (80%) are studying at undergraduate level. Over the years we have noted that tuition fees from medicine accounts for over 60% of the total university sector fee income, however we can not comment on this for the 2006/2007 academic year. The numbers of international students taking medicine has dropped by 231 students from 2005/2006, confirming a predicted decline brought about by the decrease in numbers from Norway and the Irish government’s policy of “buying back” places in medical schools for Irish students. We should be in a better position to comment on this trend next year.

‰ Science (including pharmacy and agriculture) subjects continue to be popular, attracting 1,337 international

students from 75 countries, 94% of whom are taking full-time programmes. Of these full-time students, 87% are in the university sector and 13% in the IoTS. Science students display a different profile with 55% taking masters or PhD programmes and 36% on undergraduate programmes.

‰ ICT subjects have attracted 1,337 international students from 72 countries, 87% of whom are taking full-time

programmes. ICT students are fairly equally distributed across the sectors with 35% in both the university and

19 Please note that in almost 8% of cases the subject was not specified so the data provided below refers to only 92% of the full-time students

captured under this study.


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independent sectors and 27% in the IoTS. Almost 45% of ICT students are taking postgraduate programmes while 42% are studying at undergraduate level.

‰ There are 1,263 students from 77 countries recorded as studying Engineering (including engineering trades,

architecture and building), 80% of whom are on full-time programmes. The majority of full-time engineering students (55%) are based in the university sector, with a further 43% in the IoTs and the remaining 2% in independent colleges. Just over 50% of engineering students are taking undergraduate programmes and 43% are studying at postgraduate level. There are 50 PhD students in engineering (accounting for 27% of all international PhD students).


Country of Origin

This section looks at the countries of international students in higher education in Ireland. Overall the survey lists students from 142 countries. In total the country of origin of 2,408 students was either not specified at all or was specified only within regional groupings. Details are presented below and in appendix 3.

Table 5: Top 20 countries of origin by sector

Country Total No. % University Sector Independent Colleges IoTs Colleges Other

USA 4408 16% 3776 554 71 7 China (+HK) 3573 13% 1299 1448 808 18 UK 1992 7% 1643 20 299 30 France 1536 6% 830 129 562 15 Germany 1431 5% 997 32 397 5 Spain 1395 5% 922 151 320 2 Malaysia 1289 5% 1165 113 10 1 Italy 1253 5% 788 381 82 2 India 1094 4% 283 699 103 9 Poland 539 2% 258 104 154 23 Canada 500 2% 491 6 2 1 Pakistan 497 2% 55 384 55 3 Nigeria 482 2% 205 104 149 24 Japan 354 1% 296 50 7 1 Singapore* 309 1% 309 0 0 0 Kuwait 291 1% 238 53 0 0 Norway 214 1% 135 70 8 1 Korea 212 1% 133 59 18 2 Bangladesh 211 1% 6 172 32 1 Netherlands 184 1% 118 11 55 0 Other countries 5512 20%


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As indicated by table 1 above, 42% of international students in Ireland are from Europe. Table 5 highlights the most important of these as being the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Italy and Poland. Just over half (53%) of EU students are on short-term programmes – generally Erasmus or through other exchange arrangements Full-time EU students (46%) are predominantly taking undergraduate programmes (65%), with 32% at postgraduate levels. Over half (51%) of all international PhD students are from EU countries (see table 4)21.

It is clear from the figures for 2006/2007 (and those from the last 5 years) that, although Irish colleges tend not to consider students from EU countries as “international”, these are our most important group of students numerically and our fastest growing group of students, with numbers increasing by 10% from 2005/2006. Whilst EU students may not generate very high levels of income for the institutions, they generate high value in terms of international linkages and profiles. EU students who come here on exchange programmes are also more likely to return for postgraduate studies.

There are some differences emerging with respect to the relative importance of non-EU countries of origin, but the four most important countries have remained the same for a number of years: USA, China, Malaysia and India. Together these countries account for 63% (75%) of all non-EU international students, demonstrating our continuing reliance (albeit weakening) on a small number of countries and programmes (Study Abroad in the case of the USA and medicine in the case of Malaysia). The following sections provide a little more detail on our most important non-EU countries of origin22.

2.6.1 USA

The USA remains the single most important country of origin for international students in HEIs in Ireland and numbers recorded have increased by almost 10% for 2006/2007, following a decline the previous year. These trends are corroborated by the Institute of International Education (IIE) in the US which noted an 8.5% increase in the numbers of students from the USA going to Ireland in 2006/2007 following a 2.5% decline in 2005/200623. The IIE has been

collecting international education data for 60 years from 2,800 accredited institutions and generally enjoys a 90-95% response rate. Chart 6 below compares IEBI and IIE data over the last five years, confirming a correlation between the data sets in terms of direction over the last three years, but indicating that IEBI is not receiving, or capturing, complete data on American Study Abroad students in Ireland. In addition to the particular difficulties associated with the data this year, there are two probable reasons for this:

21 Students from the UK prove the exception here with over 90% studying on full-time programmes.

22 Please bear in mind that the country of origin of 2,408 students (9%) was not fully specified (see appendix 3). 23 Open Doors, 2007. IIE.


1. some colleges are not providing comprehensive figures on the numbers of Study Abroad figures in their institution over the entire academic year, rather they are reporting only on the numbers present at the time of the survey and

2. a number of colleges which are not DES recognised providers receive Study Abroad students but are not included in this survey.

Chart 6: American students in Ireland: IEBI and IIE figures 2002/2003 – 2006/2007

4408 4008 4436 3003 2521 5499 5198 4892 4375 5083 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007

IEBI Figures IIE Figures

Source: IEBI 2003-2007 and IIE Opendoors 2003-2007

In total, the IEBI survey recorded 4,408 American students. Of those whose gender was recorded 60% were female and 40% male. Almost 20% of American students are studying on full-time programmes - an important statistic as overall only 6% of American students study abroad for more than one year, so the percentage of full-time American students in Ireland is higher than for most other countries. Half of all full-time students are taking humanities programmes, 24% medicine and 8% for science, ICT and engineering. Almost half of these students (48%) are studying at postgraduate level. The university sector predominates here with 91% of full-time American students.

The remaining students from the USA are involved in short-term programmes with Study Abroad accounting for 80% of these students, and summer programmes, 20%. In 63% of cases the subjects being taken by Study Abroad


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students were not specified. In those that were, 74% were taking humanities, 20% business and administration, 3% science, 2% (each) law and engineering and 1% (each) law and hospitality.

Despite a sharp dip in the years following 9/11, the numbers of Americans studying abroad has increased by 150% over the last decade. As many top American universities are now moving towards making Study Abroad a mandatory aspect of undergraduate programmes, this growth is anticipated to continue and presents a great opportunity to Ireland, currently the 10th most important destination for these students.

2.6.2 China

Since opening up to international education in the late 1970’s, over one million Chinese students have studied abroad. It is estimated that about 160,000 Chinese students are currently overseas and this is expected to rise to 200,000 over the next few years24. This may well be an underestimation as recent figures indicate that the number of

students studying at university level in China has increased five fold in nine years to reach 25 million, 80% of whom, it is reported, want to study abroad25.

While the numbers of Chinese students overseas continue to swell, there are shifts in their choice of destination. Increasing numbers of Chinese students now choose to study in Asia, particularly Japan and Korea.

Ireland has always experienced some growth rate in Chinese numbers and this year we have seen a small increase (less than 5%)26. The number of Chinese students in Irish HEIs in 2006/2007 is reported as 3,573 (3,456). For those

whose gender was recorded 53% were male and 47% female.

Eighty Four percent (78%) of Chinese students are on full-time programmes. There are 432 Chinese students on offshore programmes, 131 on short-term programmes and 9 on part-time programmes. The level at which those of full-time programmes (3,001) are studying is illustrated by table 6.

Although there is some evidence of change, full-time Chinese students remain more likely than European or American students to take pre-degree or non-degree programmes with 15% falling under this category. The majority of full-time Chinese students are studying at bachelor level (65%) with 20% at postgraduate level.

24 Atlas Directory of International Education. (17th October 2007)


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Table 6: Chinese students by level (full-time)

Programme Level N % Access/Foundation 172 6 Non-degree 277 9 General degree 151 5 Honours degree 1785 60 Masters 601 20 PhD 13 <1 Professional 2 <1 3001 100 Source: IEBI 2008

In contrast to American and European students, as table 7 shows, Chinese students on full-time programmes are less interested in humanities with only 6% studying these subjects (an increase of 1% from last year), they are particularly interested in business (55%), ICT (12%), hospitality & tourism programmes (9%) and engineering (7%).

Table 7: Chinese students by subject (full-time)

Subject N %

Business and Administration 1683 55

Computer Science/IT 376 12

Hospitality/Tourism 279 9

Engineering 197 7

Humanities 170 6

Science 142 5

General basic programmes 80 3

Law 47 2

Medicine 26 1

Nursing 1 <1

Totals 3001 100

Source: IEBI 2008

Chinese students are studying in every sector, but have traditionally been of particular significance to independent colleges where 45% are currently recorded. The numbers in independent colleges dropped from 1,607 in 2005 to 1,415 in 2006 increasing again to 1,448 this year. The relative importance of Chinese students to this sector is also declining. In 2004, Chinese students accounted for 64% of all international students in independent colleges within the survey and, in 2006, 42%, this has dropped to 29% under the current survey. However 75% of Chinese students in the independent sector are taking business and administration programmes, indicating an increasing dependence on subjects in this field over the last few years, from 54% in 2004.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 21 -

While the importance of Chinese students studying in the independent colleges has declined, their importance is increasing within the university sector where full-time numbers have increased from 687 to 761 over the last year. The number of Chinese off-shore students recorded by the university sector has increased from 307 to 432 in the same period. Business subjects are again the most important, representing the subject choice of 33% of full-time Chinese students in universities. Next in popularity comes science (15%) followed by ICT, hospitality/tourism, engineering and humanities (all around 11%). Law accounts for 6% and medicine 3%.

The IoTs now host 808 (847) Chinese students (just under a quarter of the total) – a decrease from last year. Chinese students within this sector are predominantly on full-time programmes (97%). The most important subjects are business (41%), ICT (20%), engineering (15%) and hospitality/tourism (10%).

There are 18 Chinese students in the other state aided colleges all of whom are recorded as being on full-time business programmes.

2.6.3 Malaysia

This survey records 1,289 (1,223) Malaysian students in Ireland, 82% (1,051) of whom are studying medicine. For those whose gender was recorded 63% were female and 37% male. The number of students has increased by 5% (8%) from 2005/2006 ensuring that Malaysia remains an extremely important sending country for Ireland.

Malaysian students are particularly important to the university sector, where numbers have increased from 1,116 to 1,165 in the last year and where 90% of Malaysians are studying. The vast majority of these students (90%) are taking medicine at undergraduate level with the remainder spread across a wide array of subjects, the most important being science (n=26). There are very few Malaysians on postgraduate programmes.

The remaining Malaysian students are located primarily in the independent colleges (113 / 99), where 94% are studying business programmes at bachelor level. There are 10 Malaysian students in the IoT sector across a range of subjects.

2.6.4 India

The pattern of Indian student numbers in Ireland has shown some uneven development over the last six years as demonstrated by chart 7.


Chart 7: Indian Students in Higher Education 1094 672 475 621 690 857 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: IEBI 2008

This year we have seen a 20% increase to 1,094 students from 857 last year. Of those whose gender was recorded 75% were male and 25% female. India has been a priority target country for a number of years now, but is proving to be a capricious market for Ireland. Following several years of disappointing numbers, increases have been recorded for the last three years – almost entirely in the independent sector and the IoTs, with some increase in the universities this year. Statistically the increases are impressive, but the actual numbers are low when compared to our emphasis on the market and the numbers of Indian students who study abroad. There are a several reasons behind this slow development, particularly delays experienced by Indian students in obtaining visas. Also, in comparison to the UK (which hosts over 20,000 Indian students27), Australia (which hosts 63,00028) and the USA (which hosts 84,00029),

Ireland still has not developed a solid profile as a quality and affordable education destination, and critically does not offer attractive work opportunities to the Indian student who is primarily interested in postgraduate studies and related work experience30.

The survey has found that 58% (62%) of full-time Indian students are studying at postgraduate level. Full-time Indian students are particularly focussed on business (54%), ICT (24%) and engineering (8%) with lesser numbers studying

27 Higher Education Statistics Authority (HESA, 2008)

28 Australian Herald Sun. 22nd February 2008,21985,23253273-2862,00.html 29 Open Doors 2007. IIE

30 Initiatives such as “Fresh Talent” in Scotland which allows students to work for 2 years after completion of their students and the UK-India

Education and Research Initiative 2006 which provides £12m of government funding for 40 UK award programmes for Indian students and support for 70 UK-India collaborative research projects are proving extremely attractive to Indian students.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 23 -

science, medicine and humanities. Only 20 Indian students are on short-term/exchange programmes and 5 are recorded as part-time.

As table 8 shows, the independent sector remains the most important with 64% (59%) of Indian students based in these colleges. The numbers of Indian students within the university sector has increased by 18%, following a two year period when no growth was recorded. Indian student numbers in the IoT sector increased significantly up to last year but show almost no change from 2005/2006 when 101 students were recorded.

Table 8: Indian students by sector

Sector N %

Independent Colleges 699 64

Universities & Rec. Colleges12 283 26

Institutes of Technology 103 9

Other13 9 1

Total 1,094 100

Source: IEBI 2008

2.6.5 Canada

Canada is now the 5th most important non-EU country of origin with 500 Canadian students recorded by this survey,

up from 468 in 2005/2006 and from 376 the previous year. As table 9 illustrates, over 98% of these students are in the university sector with just over 1% spread across the other sectors. Canadian students in Ireland (whose gender was indicated) are 49% male and 51% female and are predominantly engaged in full-time programmes with only 7% on short-term exchanges (Study Abroad).

Table 9: Canadian students by sector

Sector N %

Universities & Rec. Colleges12 491 99

Independent Colleges 6 1

Institutes of Technology 2 <1

Other13 1 <1

Total 500 100

Source: IEBI 2008

Canadian students on full-time programmes are largely found on undergraduate programmes (85%) with 15% studying at postgraduate level. The most important subject is medicine, which attracts 75% of all Canadian students, followed by humanities (11%), business (4%) and science (3%). While Canadian numbers are increasing strongly, growth appears to be tied largely to medicine and related programmes, and humanities.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 24 -

2.6.6 Pakistan

This survey recorded 497 (479) Pakistani students in Irish HEIs. Of those whose gender was indicated 92% are male and 8% female. Following a 10% drop in numbers from Pakistan noted in our last survey, the numbers this year show an increase of about 4%. Growth in numbers is seen particularly within the IoTs and to a lesser extent, in the independent colleges. Numbers are dropping slightly in the universities and other colleges as table 10 highlights.

Table 10: Pakistani students by sector

Sector 2005/2006 2006/2007 Independent Colleges 373 (78%) 384 (77%) Universities & Rec. Colleges12 61 (13%) 55 (11%) Institutes of Technology 38 (8%) 55 (11%)

Other13 7 (1%) 3 (1%)

Total 479 (100%) 497 (100%)

Source: IEBI 2008

As mentioned in previous reports, students from Pakistan present a different profile in that they are spread across all levels of programmes, but are represented comparatively weakly at bachelor level (32%, 157) and have relatively high numbers at non-degree levels (51%). A further 16% are studying at postgraduate level. The three most important areas of study are business, ICT and hospitality/tourism programmes.

2.6.7 Nigeria

Over the last few years we have seen the numbers of students from sub-Saharan Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, increasing. This year we have been able to disaggregate almost all the countries in this region and it is clear that Nigeria is the most important country of origin, followed by Botswana (63) and Mauritius (53)31.

The survey shows that there are 482 (495) Nigerian students in Irish HEIs making Nigeria the 7th most important

non-EU country of origin. Of those whose gender was indicated 47% are female and 53% male. Nigerian students are studying mainly at bachelor level (56%) with 21% at postgraduate level, 17% at pre-degree and 6% on short-term programmes. Business is most important subject for Nigerian students at all levels with 29% of full-time students taking these programmes (140). Other important subjects include humanities (22%), engineering (14%), science (9%), medicine (7%) and nursing (5%).

31 Twenty-seven students were still categorised as being from sub-Saharan Africa. Please see Appendix 3 for a full listing of all countries of


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 25 - Table 11: Nigerian students by sector

Sector N %

Universities & Rec. Colleges12 205 42

Institutes of Technology 149 31

Independent Colleges 104 22

Other13 24 5

Total 482 100

Source: IEBI 2008

As table 11 shows, the university sector hosts the largest percentage of Nigerian students, 40% of whom are studying at postgraduate level, most notably in humanities. There are 149 Nigerian students in the IoTs, all of whom but one are studying at non-degree or undergraduate levels and the most popular subjects are business and engineering. Nigerian student numbers in the independent sector have declined from 134 in 2005/2006 to 104 under the current survey. Almost 80% of Nigerian students in independent colleges are taking programmes at all levels in business. In the “other” colleges there 24 Nigerian students – a decline from 42 in our previous survey. These students are mostly studying at undergraduate level in business and humanities (including development studies).

2.6.8 Other Priority Countries

In addition to the countries discussed above Education Ireland and Irish colleges have been promoting Higher Education in Norway for several years, and over the last few years have exhibited at fairs in Mexico, Japan, Korea32,

Thailand, Vietnam and Saudi Arabia (amongst others). For this reason a brief synopsis on the students from these countries is provided below33. Norway

Norway has traditionally been an important country for the Irish medical colleges and until 2005 was also growing in importance amongst other colleges and faculties. Ongoing confusion around how Norwegian (and other EEA and Swiss) students are classified for the purposes of tuition fees led to a withdrawal of colleges from this market over the last two to three years. However a small number of colleges have stayed with this market and numbers are now increasing in fields outside of medicine.

32 Most of the Japanese and Korean students recorded under this survey are studying English. As mentioned above Fáilte Ireland now collect

annual figures on English Language students in Ireland and as a result, IEBI plans to exclude English language students from this survey in future in order to avoid the possibility of counting some students twice.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 26 -

Overall the number of Norwegian students is up from 193 in 2005/2006 to 214 in 2006/2007. Of those whose gender was reported, 32% were male and 68% female.

The number of Norwegian medical students has been dropping for four years due to the development of medical schools in Norway and the corresponding decline in Norwegian government funded scholarships to Irish medical schools. This year the numbers are down from 97 to 83. In 2002/2003 75% of Norwegian students in Ireland (178) were studying Medicine while today the percentage has dropped to 39% with a higher percentage of Norwegians currently studying humanities (89 / 41%).

The increase in non-medical Norwegian students is largely, but no longer exclusively located within one independent college in the area of art & design (32% of all Norwegian students). Numbers have now also increased in other colleges in both humanities and business. Only 7% of Norwegian students are studying at postgraduate level, this is much lower than corresponding figures for other European students in Ireland around 30% of whom would be studying at postgraduate level.


This is the first year that we have been in a position to provide information on Mexican students so are unable to comment on trends. The survey records 27 Mexican students (53% female and 47% male) in Irish HEIs, 48% (13) in independent colleges, 41% (11) in universities and 11% (3) in the IoTs. Almost 60% of Mexican students are on full-time programmes and over half of these students are taking postgraduate programmes. Almost 50% of full-full-time Mexican students are taking business programmes, with the balance split between engineering, science and humanities. With the exception of one exchange student based in a university, all Mexican students on short-term programmes are in the independent sector studying English language or on an exchange.


The number of Japanese students in Irish HEIs is recorded as 354, a decline from 359 in 2005/2006. Of those whose gender was reported, 72% were female and 28% male. Eighty percent (70%) of these students are short-term language students based in three universities and one independent college. Outside of this group, full-time Japanese students (67) are found mostly in the universities (76%) with almost 50% are taking humanities programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Medicine, business and science subjects are next in importance.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 27 -


The number of Korean students in Irish HEIs has increased from 169 in 2005/2006 to 212 in 2006/2007. Of those whose gender was reported, 44% were female and 56% male. Korean students demonstrate a similar pattern to Japanese students and are particularly interested in language programmes with 70% (63%) of these students on short-term language programmes based in a small number of colleges. Outside of this group, there are 64 (60) full-time Korean students found mostly in the universities (58%) and the IoTs (25%) where almost 30% are taking humanities programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Business, engineering, medicine and science subjects are roughly of equal importance.

The number of Korean students travelling overseas to study English is likely to change quite radically over the next year or two following a decision by the incoming government to make English the medium of instruction in Korean schools. The government plans to provide €3 billion to employ 23,000 teachers and increase resources. The measures, coupled with new tests and exit interviews for Koreans wishing to study abroad, are in part aimed at bringing Koreans already studying abroad home, and reducing the numbers travelling overseas34. Thailand

There are 19 Thai students recorded under the survey (67% male and 33% female). Sixty percent of these students are in the universities (11) with 5 in the IoTs and 3 in the independent colleges. These students are on full-time programmes (80%) and almost two thirds are taking masters programmes in science or engineering. Vietnam

There are only eight students from Vietnam recorded under the survey. With the exception of one short-term language student, these are all on full-time programmes. There is one postgraduate student and three bachelor degree students, with the remainder studying at non-degree level. Vietnamese students are mostly in the independent sector and are studying business, humanities and engineering. Saudi Arabia

As a number of Irish colleges have now been approved under the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme, interest in Saudi Arabia has increased and a number of delegations to the Kingdom have taken place over the last few years.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland 2006/2007. February 2008 - 28 -

According to the survey, there are currently 50 students from Saudi Arabia in Ireland of whom 88% are male and 12% female. Only 42% of these students are on full-time programmes (21), split largely between undergraduate medicine and non-degree business programmes. There is one master’s student in engineering and a PhD student in humanities. Short-term students are studying engineering at non-degree level (68%) or English language (32%).


For purposes of comparison, table 12 on the following page provides an indication of the top 10 sending countries for other “receiving” countries. The bottom line provides the latest total figures available from these countries.

Although the categorisations vary from country to country and the data is not fully compatible, this table does point to some important patterns. Of immediate note is the importance of China, which emerges as the first or second most important country of origin for four of the top five receiving countries.

In general, Asian students are hugely significant to all countries, while European students tend to be only important to European countries. Proximity is also important for obvious reasons such as family connections and knowledge of the education system. The importance of the UK to Ireland and Ireland to the UK is a prime example. The shift away from traditional (largely) English speaking countries as destinations for international students, alluded to elsewhere in this report is substantiated by the strong (and growing) numbers of students who are choosing to study in China and Japan (and increasingly Korea, Malaysia and Singapore), where a mix of Asian, European and North American nationalities is in evidence. The importance of regional centres is emphasised by the cases of Turkey and South Africa.


IEBI – International Students in Higher Education in Ireland. February 2008 29 Table 12 Main countries of origin for selected receiving countries

Rank Ireland USA UK Germany France Australia China Japan South Africa New Zealand Turkey

1 USA (16%) India (14%) China (15%) China (10%) Morocco (14%) China (27%) S. Korea (38%) China (63%) Zimbabwe (19%) China (60%) Asia (18%) 2 China (13%) (12%) China USA (6%) Bulgaria (5%) Algeria (9%) India (14%) Japan (13%) S. Korea (13%) Botswana (13%) USA (6%) Azerbaijan (9%) 3 UK (7%) S. Korea (11%) Greece (6%) Poland (5%) China (5%) Malaysia (9%) USA (7%) Taiwan (4%) Namibia (12%) Australia (5%) Turkmenistan (8%) 4 France (6%) Japan (6%) India (5%) Russia Fed. (4%) Tunisia (4.1%) HK (6%) Vietnam (4%) Malaysia (2%) Lesotho (7%) India (4%) Greece (7%) 5 Germany (5%) Taiwan (5%) Ireland (5%) Morocco (3%) Senegal (4%) Indonesia (6%) Indonesia (3%) Vietnam (2%) Swaziland (5%) S. Korea (3%) Bulgaria (7%) 6 Spain (5%) Canada (5%) France (5%) Turkey (3%) Germany (3%) Singapore (5%) Thailand (3%) Indonesia (1%) Mauritius (3%) Malaysia (3%) Kyrgyzstan (5%) 7 Malaysia (5%) Mexico (2%) Germany (5%) Ukraine (3%) Cameroon (2%) S. Korea (3%) Russia (2%) Bangladesh (1%) Zambia (2%) Japan (2%) Kazakhstan (5%) 8 Italy (5%) Turkey (2%) Malaysia (3%) France (2%) Italy (2%) Thailand (3%) India (2%) USA (1%) Angola (2%) Germany (2%) Russian Fed (4%) 9 India (4%) Thailand (2%) HK (3%) Greece (3%) Lebanon (2%) Taiwan (2%) France (2%) Mongolia (1%) Mozambique (2%) HK (1%) Iran (4%) 10 Poland (2%) Germany (2%) Spain (3%) Austria (3%) Romania (2%) Japan (2%) Germany (1%) Sri Lanka (1%) DRC (2%) Fiji (1%) Albania (4%)

No. 27,275 582,984 385,000 246,344 237,587 167,954 141,087 117,927 52,703 37,422 15,298


Appendix 1 – Participating Higher Education Institutions

Universities and Recognised Colleges 1. Dublin City University

2. NUI-Galway 3. NUI-Maynooth 4. Trinity College Dublin 5. University College Cork 6. University College Dublin 7. University of Limerick

8. Institute of Public Administration (NUI Recognised) 9. Milltown Institute (NUI Recognised)

10. National College of Art and Design (NUI Recognised) 11. Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (NUI Recognised) 12. Shannon College of Hotel Management (NUI Recognised) 13. All Hallows College (DCU)

Colleges of Education (University recognised) 14. Froebel College of Education (TCD) 15. Marino College of Education (TCD) 16. Mary Immaculate College (UL) 17. Mater-Dei Institute of Education (DCU) 18. St Patrick’s College of Education (DCU) Institutes of Technology

19. Athlone Institute of Technology 20. Blanchardstown Institute of Technology 21. Cork Institute of Technology

22. Dublin Institute of Technology 23. Dun Laoghaire Institute of Technology 24. Dundalk Institute of Technology 25. Galway, Mayo Institute of Technology 26. Institute of Technology, Carlow 27. Institute of Technology, Sligo 28. Institute of Technology, Tallaght 29. Institute of Technology, Tralee


30. Letterkenny Institute of Technology 31. Limerick Institute of Technology 32. Waterford Institute of Technology Independent Colleges

33. American College Dublin 34. Burren College of Art 35. Dublin Business School 36. Griffith College Cork 37. Griffith College Dublin 38. Griffith College Limerick 39. Hibernia College 40. HSI Limerick

41. Mid-West Business Institute 42. Newpark School of Music 43. Portobello College 44. St Nicholas Montessori 45. USIT

Other Colleges

46. Development Studies Centre, Kimmage 47. National College of Ireland

48. Pontifical College Maynooth 49. St. Patrick’s College Carlow 50. Tipperary Institute


Appendix 2 – Survey Form

Student Record No No. Mode of Study Level of Course Area of Study Country of Origin Gender Tuition fee


Appendix 3 – Country/Region of Origin of International Students

(in alphabetical order)

Afghanistan 4 Albania 1 Algeria 2 Andorra 1 Angola 6 Antigua 1 Argentina 8 Armenia 1 Australia 36 Austria 172 Azerbaijan 1 Bahrain 22 Bangladesh 211 Belarus 12 Belgium 177 Benin 1 Bermuda 1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 14

Botswana 63 Brazil 65 Brunei 2 Bulgaria 117 Burkina Faso 1 Burundi 3 Cameroon 13 Canada 500 Cayman Islands 1

Central African Republic 1

Chile 3 China 3456 Colombia 6 Congo, DRC 26 Costa Rica 2 Cote D'Ivoire 2 Croatia 17 Cuba 1 Cyprus 25 Czech Republic 152 Denmark 49 Egypt 15 Eritrea 1 Estonia 97 Ethiopia 35 Finland 134 France 1536 Gambia 1 Georgia 2 Germany 1431 Ghana 10 Greece 81 Guinea 1 Guyana 2 Haiti 1 HK 117 Hungary 41 Iceland 7 India 1094 Indonesia 8 Iran 60 Iraq 7 Israel 7 Italy 1253 Jamaica 8 Japan 354 Jordan 26 Kazakhstan 24 Kenya 19 Korea 212 Kosovo 1 Kuwait 291 Latvia 44 Lebanon 5 Lesotho 3 Liberia 5 Libya 9 Lichtenstein 2 Lithuania 80 Luxembourg 13 Macedonia 3 Malawi 4 Malaysia 1289 Maldives 1 Mali 1 Malta 23 Mauritius 53 Mexico 27 Moldova 17 Mongolia 10 Morocco 2 Myanmar 4 Nepal 34


Netherlands 184 Taiwan 8

New Zealand 13 Tanzania 16

Nicaragua 1 Thailand 19

Nigeria 482 Timor Leste 3

Norway 214 Togo 2

Oman 31 Trinidad and Tobago 23

Pakistan 497 Turkey 51

Palestine 2 UAE 154

Papua New Guinea 1 Uganda 17

Peru 1 UK 1992 Philippines 14 Ukraine 19 Poland 539 USA 4408 Portugal 51 Uzbekistan 1 Qatar 24 Venezuela 4 Reunion 1 Vietnam 8 Romania 66 Yemen 2

Russian Federation 143 Yugoslavia, Former 35

Rwanda 10 Zambia 25

Saudi Arabia 50 Zimbabwe 48

Sierra Leone 2 SSA 158

Singapore 309 Other Latin America 83

Slovakia 39 Other ME/NA 83

Slovenia 11 Other East Asia 11

Somalia 4 Other South Central Asia 262 South Africa 46 Other South East Asia 79

Spain 1395 Other Oceania 61

Sri Lanka 13 EU not specified 1205 Sudan 1 Other Europe (NON EU) 171 Swaziland 1 Non-EU, Not Specified 247 Sweden 126 Not Specified/Unknown 48

Switzerland 74 27275

Syria 6


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