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ONLINE EXAMINATION SYSTEM

III B.Sc. V Semester

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING REPORT

Submitted By

R VENKATA KRISHNA

163117109301

Under the Esteemed Guidance of

B NARESH

Department of Computer Science

B.V. Raju College

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B.V.RAJU COLLEGE

VISHNUPUR::BHIMAVARAM

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr/Ms. R.VENKATA KRISHNA bearing Regd. No: 163117109301 of III B.Sc.(M.E.Cs) V Semester has done the

“Software

Engineering Lab”

during the Academic Year 2017-2018 and submitted this bonafied record.

Internal Guide External Examiner

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Table of Contents

Chapter No

Description

Page No

1

Introduction

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Objective and scope of the project

2

System Analysis

2.1

Existing System

2.2

Proposed System

2.3

Software Requirement Specification

2.3.1 Functional Requirements

2.4 Software and Hardware Requirements

3

Database Design

4

System Design

4.1

ER Diagram

4.2

UML Design

5

Software Environment

6

Implementation

7

Screens

8

Testing

9

Conclusion

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Software Environment

HTML

What is HTML?

1. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages.

2. HTML provides it means to create a structured document such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes, and other so many items.

3. Support images and objects (audio and video) to be embedded and create a interactive Web Pages.

4. Scripts languages such as JavaScript, VB script which are allow to load that affect to create a dynamic user interactive WebPages.

What is the need to create HTML?

1. You don’t need to use any special software to develop .Only you have need a text editor or HTML editor application are need.

2. If you want to use best HTML Editor is What Your Get (WYSIWUG) like Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 or latest.

3. In this two software are good coding an web programming.

4. Text base editor is a Simple syntax highlighter editor that helps to tags opening closing simple limited help give like UltraEdit, Notepad++, TextPad etc.

HTML Tags

1. HTML tags keywords are surrounding in opening tag <html> and Closing Tag </ html>.

2. HTML tags is pairs like <body> and </body>.It’s container tags.

3. Some HTML tags is not pairs in Opening and Closing like <br/>, <hr/>. It’s empty tags.

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CSS

What is CSS?

1. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet. 2. CSS is a plain text file to store properties.

3. CSS describing look and formatting properties for how content should be display on Webpage.

4. CSS give you control to make global change and apply all webpage.

CSS use for how to display HTML elements look and formatting are set using CSS properties. Using CSS properties you can change every single elements style can change as you like.CSS Style Sheet updates webpage formatting and maintain consistency across multiple WebPages.

CSS properties define either individually or group of element and best way to done while webpage is being created. Style Sheets like a ‘blueprints’ because its hold a group of style related properties and values.

Advantage of CSS

Easy Manage: CSS with you can better manage whole webpage.CSS allow to manage entire site elements looks and formatting in single style sheet file.

Global Change: CSS Style Sheet changes apply to global change for all webpage. When Style Apply to global change for all Webpage. When style sheet appear with webpage it‘s known as cascading style sheet.

Save time: When we create HTML document we define separate set attributes value in each element. But it is limited use. But , CSS give a lot of flexibility to set properties and values either group of element or single element. So it’s benefit to avoid same code write again and again.

Easy maintain/update: CSS Style sheet maintain easier and anytime you can edit elements properties and values.

3 ways to write CSS: You can write CSS styles 3ways

 Inline element line (scope is only that element) ,

 Internal style write in header section(scope is only that Webpage),or

 External Style Sheets write in external. Css extension files.

 External Style Sheets enable you to change the elements and layout style of all the pages in a web site, just by editing one single file.

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JAVA SCRIPT

Java script introduction

1. Java script, also known as ECMA Script is a client-side powerful web programming language used to add java script functionality to a web page and create rich web applications.

2. There is no need for an external program to run java script. All you need is your web browser to interpret java script code and display the results.

3. The most significant advantages of java script is its ability to produce the same result on all modern browsers.

4. HTML is a great tool for displaying content. Java script is a great way of adding interactions.

5. JavaScript is used to manipulate, automate and dynamically customize the webpage data

6. JavaScript is case-sensitive language. Var data= 10; and var data=10; are different variables. So be careful when you write java script.

7. JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language. JavaScript has dynamic data types, operators, objects, and methods. Its syntax comes from C and Java languages. Java script use semicolon to terminate its statement

JavaScript Limitations

The following are a few things you cannot do with Javascript 1. JavaScript can’t access data bases

2. Java Script can’t write anything to a server without using a server side script. 3. If you do not open a browser window using JavaScript you can’t close that

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MySQL

MySQL is a Relational DataBase Management System (RDBMS). RDBMS means R--DB--MS.

- DB stands for Database, a repository for the information store.

i. The data in a database is organized into tables, and each table is organized into rows and columns.

ii. Each row in a table is called a record. A record may contains several pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table is known as a field.

-MS stands for Management System, the software that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, or delete records.

-R stands for Relational, indicates a particular kind of DBMS that is good at relating information stored in one table to information stored in another table by looking for elements common to each of them. Relational DBMS has the advantage of efficient storage, and retrieval mechanisms for data, and uses normalization process during design of RDBMS. Database normalization process is beyond the scope of this article, and several references are available.

MySQL operates using client/server architecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databases and clients connect to the server over a network.

Features of MySQL

1. Speed: Ofcourse, the speed at which a server side program runs depends primarily on the server hardware. Given that the server hardware is optimal, MySQL runs very fast. It supports clustered servers for demanding applications.

2. Ease of use: MySQL is a high-performance, relatively simple database system. From the beginning, MySQL has typically been configured, monitored, and managed from the command line. However, several MySQL graphical interfaces are available as described below:

i. MySQL Administrator: This tool makes it possible for administrators to set up, evaluate, and tune their MySQL database server. This is intended as a replacement for mysqladmin.

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iii. Configuration Wizard: Administrators can choose from a predefined list of optimal settings, or create their own.

iv. MySQL System Tray: Provides Windows-based administrators a single view of their MySQL instance, including the ability to start and stop their database servers.

3. Cost: MySQL is available free of cost. MySQL is a "Open Source" database. MySQL is part of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP / Perl / Python) environemtn, a fast growing open source enterprise software stack. More and more companies are using LAMP as an alternative to expensive proprietary software stacks because of its lower cost, reliability, and documentation.

4. Query Language Support: MySQL understands standards based SQL (Structured Query Language).

5. Capability : Many clients can connect to the server at the same time. Clients can use multiple databases simultaneously. You can access MySQL using several interfaces such as command-line clients, Web browsers.

6. Connectivity and security: MySQL is fully networked, and database can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet, so you can share your data with anyone, anywhere. The connectivity could be achieved with Windows programs by using ODBC drivers. By using the ODBC connector to MySQL, any ODBC-aware client application (for example, Microsoft Office, report writers, Visual Basic) can connect to MySQL.

7. Portability: MySQL runs on many varieties of UNIX, as well as on other non-UNIX systems, such as Windows and OS/2. MySQL runs on hardware from home PCs to high-end server. MySQL can be installed on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, and others.

MySQL Tools

1. A SQL server: This is an engine which provides access to your databases.

2. Client programs for accessing the server: A program allows you to enter queries directly and view results.

3. A client library for writing your own programs: You can write your own programs into the client library using C.

Recommended Hardware Requirements For Mysql Installation

1. Pentium V processor

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PHP

Php Introduction:

PHP scripts are executed on the web server and the result is sent to the browser.

What is PHP

PHP stands for Hypertext preprocessor.PHP is a powerful and widely-used open source server-side scripting language to write dynamically generated web pages. PHP scripts are executed on the server and the result is sent to the browser as plain HTML.

PHP can be integrated with the number of popular database, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle,Sybase, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server.

Common uses of PHP

1. PHP performs system functions, i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read, write, and close them.

2. PHP can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save the data to a file, through email you can send data, return data to the user.

3. You add, delete, and modify elements within your database through PHP. 4. Access cookies variables and set cookies.

5. Using PHP, you can restrict users to access some pages of your website. 6. It can encrypt data.

Characteristics of PHP

Five important characteristics make PHP’s practical nature possible 1. Simplicity

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Software testing

Software Testing: Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding error.

Software Testing are contains two types: 1) Manual Testing and,

2) Automation Testing

Manual Testing

Manual testing is the process of manually testing software for defects. It requires a tester to play the role of an end user, and use most of all features of the application to ensure correct behavior.

To ensure completeness of testing, the tester often follows a written test plan that leads them through a set of important test cases

Automation testing

Automation testing is an Automatic technique where the tester writes scripts by own and uses suitable software to test the software.

In other word, Automation testing uses automation tools to write and execute test cases, no manual involvement is required while executing an automated test suite.

Basics of software testing

There are two basics of software testing: blackbox testing and whitebox testing.

Black box testing

Black box testing is the s/w testing method which is used to test the s/w without knowing the internal structure of code or program.

White box testing

White box testing is the s/w testing method which is used to test the s/w with knowing the internal structure of code or program is known to tester.

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Types of testing

There are many types of testing like

 Unit Testing

 Integration Testing

 Functional Testing

 System Testing

 Stress Testing

 Performance Testing

 Usability Testing

 Acceptance Testing

 Regression Testing

 Beta Testing

Unit Testing

Unit testing is the testing of an individual unit or group of related units. It falls under the class of white box testing. It is often done by the programmer to test that the unit he/she has implemented is producing expected output against given input.

Integration Testing

Integration testing is testing in which a group of components are combined to produce output. Also, the interaction between software and hardware is tested in integration testing if software and hardware components have any relation. It may fall under both white box testing and black box testing.

Functional Testing

Functional testing is the testing to ensure that the specified functionality required in the system requirements works. It falls under the class of black box testing.

System Testing

System testing is the testing to ensure that by putting the software in different environments (e.g., Operating Systems) it still works. System testing is done with full system implementation and environment. It falls under the class of black box testing.

Stress Testing

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Performance Testing

Performance testing is the testing to assess the speed and effectiveness of the system and to make sure it is generating results within a specified time as in performance requirements. It falls under the class of black box testing.

Usability Testing

Usability testing is performed to the perspective of the client, to evaluate how the GUI is user-friendly? How easily can the client learn? After learning how to use, how proficiently can the client perform? How pleasing is it to use its design? This falls under the class of black box testing.

Acceptance Testing

Acceptance testing is often done by the customer to ensure that the delivered product meets the requirements and works as the customer expected. It falls under the class of black box testing.

Regression Testing

Regression testing is the testing after modification of a system, component, or a group of related units to ensure that the modification is working correctly and is not damaging or imposing other modules to produce unexpected results. It falls under the class of black box testing.

Beta Testing

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UML DIAGRAMS

UML Use Case Diagram Symbols

Pre-drawn UML use case diagram symbols represent actor, use case, package, object, interface, constraint and note, etc. These symbols help create accurate diagrams and documentation.

UML use case diagram software offers you many useful shapes. UML use case diagram symbols like actor, usecase, package, object, system boundary, interface, constraint, note and more are available.

UML Use Case Diagram Symbols

Actor specifies a role played by a user or any other system that interacts with the subject.

Use case is a list of steps, typically defining interactions between an actor and a system, to achieve a goal.

Package is used to group elements, and to provide a namespace for the grouped elements.

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Interfaces are model elements that define sets of operations that other model elements, such as classes, or components must implement.

Constraint is an extension mechanism that enables you to refine the semantics of a UML model element.

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UML Class Diagram Symbols

Pre-drawn UML class diagram symbols represent class, template class, object, item, package, interface, dependency, composition and association, etc. These symbols help create accurate diagrams and documentation.

UML class diagram templates offer you many useful shapes. UML class diagram symbols like class, template class, object, item, package, interface, dependency, composition, association and more are available.

UML Class Diagram Symbols

Classes and interfaces in UML show architecture and features of the designed system.

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Dependency relationship is a relationship in which one element, the client, uses or depends on another element, the supplier.

Composition represents whole-part relationships and is a form of aggregation.

Generalization is a relationship in which one model element (the child) is based on another model element (the parent).

Association is a relationship between two classifiers, such as classes or use cases, that describes the reasons for the relationship and the rules that govern the relationship.

Constraint is an extension mechanism that enables you to refine the semantics of a UML model element.

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UML Sequence Diagram Symbols

Pre-drawn UML sequence diagram symbols represent object lifeline, lifeline, activate, object, class, message, transition and note, etc. These symbols help create accurate diagrams and documentation.

UML sequence diagram templates offer you many useful shapes. UML sequence diagram symbols like object lifeline, lifeline, activate, object, class, message, transition, note and more are available.

UML Sequence Diagram Symbols

Lifeline represents each instance in an interaction.

Activate is used to denote participant activation. Once a participant is activated, its lifeline appears.

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Classes in UML show architecture and features of the designed system.

Message is an element that defines a specific kind of communication between instances in an interaction.

Actor specifies a role played by a user or any other system that interacts with the subject.

Note contains comments or textual information.

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UML State Chart Diagram Symbols

Pre-drawn UML statechart diagram symbols represent state, submachine state, start state, end state and transition, etc. These symbols help create accurate diagrams and documentation.

UML statechart diagram templates offer you many useful shapes. UML statechart diagram symbols like state, submachine state, start state, end state, transition and more are available.

UML Statechart Diagram Symbols

State defines current condition of an event or activity. State diagram is ofen used to describe state changes triggered by events.

Start state symbol signals the first step of a process.

End state symbol stands for the result of a process.

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Decision were introduced in UML to support conditionals in activities.

History refers to the development of object-oriented methods and notation.

Constraint is an extension mechanism that enables you to refine the semantics of a UML model element.

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UML Activity Diagram Symbols

Pre-drawn UML activity diagram symbols represent activity, state, object in state, decision activity, control flow, object flow, etc. These symbols help create accurate diagrams and documentation.

UML activity diagram templates offer you many useful shapes. UML activity diagram symbols like activity, state, object in state, decision activity, control flow, object flow and more are available.

UML Activity Diagram Symbols

Activity in Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a major task that must take place in order to fulfill an operation contract.

State defines current condition of an event or activity. State diagram is often used to describe state changes triggered by events.

Decision activity is introduced in UML to support conditionals in activities. A decision activity is modeled as a diamond on a UML Activity diagram. Decision activity should reflect the previous activity.

Control flow in computer science refers to the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative or a declarative program are executed or evaluated. Object flow is a path along which objects or data can pass.

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Bars represent the start (split) or end (join) of concurrent activities.

Initial state shows the initial state of the workflow, meanwhile, final state displays the final state of the workflow.

Constraint is an extension mechanism that enables you to refine the semantics of a UML model element.

Figure

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References

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Related subjects : UML activity diagram