Week 3 - Sentence Types (2)

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Basic sentence types (2)

Basic sentence types (2)

Maria Petrescu

Maria Petrescu

LIN205

LIN205

University

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Usage note: Adjective or adverb?

Usage note: Adjective or adverb?

In formal usage in Standard English, Types I and III a

In formal usage in Standard English, Types I and III are distinct:

re distinct:

You sang well.

You sang well.

(Type I)

(Type I)

I really f

I rea

lly feel

eel bad

bad for

for him

him.

.

(Type

(Type III)

III)

However, in

However

, in informal English, certain ad

informal English, certain adjectives and

jectives and adverbs

adverbs

have merged: e.g

have merged: e.g., good/well

., good/well

  

good, quick/quickly

good, quick/quickly

  

quick ,,

quick 

quiet/quietly

quiet/quietly

  

quiet 

quiet , yielding sentences such as

, yielding sentences such as

• You sing good.You sing good. •

• She did it quick.She did it quick. •

• He said it quiet.He said it quiet.

Also, you can hear hypercorrections such as

Also, you can hear hypercorrections such as

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Type IV: Copula + Nominal

Type IV: Copula + Nominal

T

Th

ho

osse

e

g

gu

uyyss

a

arre

e

ssttu

ud

de

en

nttss..

T

Th

he

e a

au

uccttiio

on

n

wa

w

as

s a

a ssu

ucccce

essss..

O

Ou

ur

r o

offffiicce

e

iis

s b

be

ecco

om

miin

ng

g a

a jju

un

ng

glle

e..

T

Th

he

e tth

hrre

ee

e ssu

urrvviivvo

orrss

rre

em

ma

aiin

ne

ed

d ffrriie

en

nd

dss a

afftte

errw

wa

arrd

dss..

T

Th

ha

att

w

wa

as

s

tth

ha

att..

The subject complement is a

The subject complement is a

nominal

nominal

(it functions as a noun).

(it functions as a noun).

The subject complement can also be a

The subject complement can also be a

noun clause

noun clause

::

II

cca

an

n

b

be

e

wh

w

ha

at

t

I

I

w

wa

an

nt

t

tto

o

b

be

e..

VP

VP

IVIV 

MVP

MVP

be/other copulabe/other copula

+ NP/Noun Clause

+ NP/Noun Clause

The subject complement has the same

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Type IV: Copula + Nominal

Type IV: Copula + Nominal

• Recognizing a Type IV Recognizing a Type IV sentence:sentence: •

• Is the main verbIs the main verb bebe or another copula (most oftenor another copula (most often becomebecome oror remainremain)?)? •

• Is the verb followed by a noun phrase or noun Is the verb followed by a noun phrase or noun clause that referclause that refers to thes to the

same entity as the subject? same entity as the subject?

• Often, the sentence can be paraphrased withOften, the sentence can be paraphrased with can be classified as/can becan be classified as/can be

considered  considered 

• We can number the NPs in a sentence to indicate whether they refer to theWe can number the NPs in a sentence to indicate whether they refer to the

same thing same thing

• Those guysThose guys11 are studentsare students11 .. vvss. . ThThoosse e gguuyyss11 saw a bearsaw a bear22.. •

• TASK: Identify the Type IV sentences. Then draw a phrase marker for each.TASK: Identify the Type IV sentences. Then draw a phrase marker for each.

1.

1. CrCroaoatitia is a a is a fafavovoururititee totoururisist det deststininatatioion in in En Eururopope.e. 2.

2. It iIt is a s a beabeautiutiful ful cocoununtry try witwith a h a lonlong, g, jagjagged ged cocoasastlitline.ne. 3.

3. ItIts ts tepepid id wawateters rs arare e reremamarkrkabably ly clcleaean.n. 4.

4. ItIts beas beaututififulully ply prereserserveved old old cid citities ares are a reae a real trel treasasurure.e. 5.

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Usage:

Usage:

It is I

It is I

or

or

It is me

It is me

?

?

In many languages, such as Latin, the subject complement is

In many languages, such as Latin, the subject complement is

in the

in the

nominative

nominative

(subject) case:

(subject) case:

• IsIs victorvictor est est . =. = He is theHe is the winner winner (not she)(not she).. nnoommiinnaattiivvee •

• PaulusPaulus victoremvictoremvīdit vīdit . = Paul saw the. = Paul saw the winner winner .. accusativeaccusative

Language purists have often argued that English should

Language purists have often argued that English should also

also

follow this model and that we should

follow this model and that we should say

say It is I

It is I rather than

rather than It is

It is

me

me

Historically, this

Historically

, this was certainly the

was certainly the case: Old English

case: Old English IIcc e

eo

om

m iicc

(“I am I”), not

(“I am I”), not

*

*IIcc e

eo

om

m

However, Fren

However

, French

ch

disjunctive pronouns

disjunctive pronouns

behave the same way:

behave the same way:

C’est 

C’est 

moi 

moi , not

, not *

*

C’est 

C’est 

 je

 je

Today, the subject case of pronouns is used as the subject

Today, the subject case of pronouns is used as the subject

complement only in the

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Type V: Transitive verbs

Type V: Transitive verbs

•  John John hit Bill.hit Bill. •

• TThhe e ddoogg bbiit t tthhe e mmaann.. •

• II hhaad d bbrroouugghht t a a ccaakke e tto o tthhe e ppaarrttyy.. •

• AnAn intransitiveintransitive verb can stand on its ownverb can stand on its own

• She’s talking.She’s talking. •

• My heart stopped.My heart stopped. •

• The roof collapsed.The roof collapsed.

• AA transitivetransitive verb requires a complementverb requires a complement

• I saw you.I saw you. •

• Sally sold vegetables.Sally sold vegetables. •

• His father bought a new suit.His father bought a new suit.

• The complement is typically a NP and typically refers to somethingThe complement is typically a NP and typically refers to something

other than the subject. We can indicate the latter with subscript other than the subject. We can indicate the latter with subscript numbering

numbering

•  John John11 hit Bill hit Bill 22..

• Note that the following sentence is Type I, asNote that the following sentence is Type I, as fall  fall is intransitive!is intransitive!

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Task

Task

Identify the verb phrase in each of the following sentences. Is

Identify the verb phrase in each of the following sentences. Is

the verb transitive or intransitive? How do you

the verb transitive or intransitive? How do you know?

know?

 –

 – The bell rings at The bell rings at 5:00 p.m. every day.5:00 p.m. every day.  –

 – Those children play all afternoon.Those children play all afternoon.  –

 – Cats catch mice by instinct.Cats catch mice by instinct.  –

 – The cynic snickered.The cynic snickered.  –

 – His answers surprised us.His answers surprised us.  –

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Type V: Transitive verbs

Type V: Transitive verbs

•   Monotransitive  Monotransitive (“one(“one--transitive”) verbs take atransitive”) verbs take a direct objectdirect object •

• I lost the keysI lost the keys (direct object)(direct object).. •

•   Ditransitive  Ditransitive (“two(“two--transitive”) verbs take antransitive”) verbs take an indirect objectindirect object and aand a

direct object direct object

• I brought youI brought you (indirect object)(indirect object) the keysthe keys (direct object)(direct object).. •

• Often, the same verb can be used in different ways. ConsiderOften, the same verb can be used in different ways. Consider grow grow :: •

• Tomatoes grew well there.Tomatoes grew well there.  ?????? •

• I grew restless.I grew restless.  ?????? •

• I grew some tomatoes.I grew some tomatoes.  ?????? •

• She grew meShe grew me some gorsome gorgeougeous tomats tomatoes.oes.  ?????? •

• Recognizing a Type V sentence:Recognizing a Type V sentence: •

• The verb requires a nominal complementThe verb requires a nominal complement •

• The complement does not usually refer to the same entity as theThe complement does not usually refer to the same entity as the

subject subject

• The verb is not a The verb is not a copula (i.e., it does not mean copula (i.e., it does not mean ““equals” orequals” or

“becomes”) “becomes”)

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Task

Task

Identify the type of sentences and verb:

Identify the type of sentences and verb:

 –

 –

He goes to Paris in June.

He goes to Paris in June.

 –

 –

He goes crazy in July.

He goes crazy in July.

 –

 –

He goes, “I don’t think so”.

He goes, “I don’t think so”.

 –

 –

The ball rolled slowly away.

The ball rolled slowly away.

 –

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TASK

TASK

Consider each of the underlined verbs and see if you can

Consider each of the

underlined verbs and see if you can

create another sentence in which the

create another sentence in which the verb is either

verb is either transitive

transitive

or intransitive, not linking:

or intransitive, not linking:

 –

 – Mary feels tired.Mary feels tired.  –

 – The soup tastes funny.The soup tastes funny.  –

 – The beer smells sour.The beer smells sour.  –

 – He became angry.He became angry.  –

 – The paper looks messy.The paper looks messy.  –

 – The music sounds terrible.The music sounds terrible.  –

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Usage note:

Usage note:

Rise

Rise

or

or

raise

raise

?

?

Lie

Lie

or

or

lay 

lay 

?

?

• riserise – – roserose – – risenrisen “go up”“go up” •

• raiseraise – – raisedraised – – raisedraised “cause to go up”“cause to go up” •

• lielie – – laylay – – lainlain “rest in a “rest in a horizonthorizontal position”al position” •

• laylay – – laidlaid – – laid laid  “cause to rest in a horizontal position”“cause to rest in a horizontal position” •

• There’s alsoThere’s also lielie – – liedlied – – liedlied “not tell the truth” “not tell the truth”  •

• TASK: Choose the standard usageTASK: Choose the standard usage

1

1.. HHee rises/rose/has risenrises/rose/has risen.. HHee raises/raised/hraises/raised/has as raised raised .. 2

2.. HHee rises/rose/has risenrises/rose/has risen hhiis s hahanndd.. HHee raises/raised/has raisedraises/raised/has raised his hand.his hand. 3

3.. HHee lies/lay/has lainlies/lay/has lain iin n hhiis s bbeedd.. HHee lays/laid/has laid lays/laid/has laid in his bed.in his bed. 4

4.. HHee lies/lay/has lainlies/lay/has lain ththe be booookks os on tn the he ttabablele.. HeHe lays/laid/has laidlays/laid/has laid the books on the table.the books on the table.

• Which of the verbs is encroaching on the territory of another one in colloquial (spoken)Which of the verbs is encroaching on the territory of another one in colloquial (spoken)

usage? usage?

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Type V: Transitive verbs

Type V: Transitive verbs

•   Reflexive  Reflexive direct objectsdirect objects

Compare Compare

• I cut the apple with a plastic knifeI cut the apple with a plastic knife. . (S (S and and DO DO are are different different entities)entities) •

• I cut myI cut myselfself with a plawith a plastistic knifc knifee. . (S (S and and DO DO are are the the same same entity)entity) •

• Reflexive Reflexive pronounspronouns:: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,

yourselves, themselves yourselves, themselves

•   Purpose  Purpose •

• 1) Keith likes him. /Keith likes himself.1) Keith likes him. /Keith likes himself. •

• 2) My whole family is a Republican, but I myself am a Democrat.2) My whole family is a Republican, but I myself am a Democrat. •

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Type V: Transitive verbs

Type V: Transitive verbs

•   Reciprocal  Reciprocal direct odirect objectsbjects •

• The students respected each other.The students respected each other. •

• We We all call all call one anotherone another frequentlyfrequently.. •

• Reciprocal Reciprocal pronounspronouns:: each other, one another each other, one another  •

• The lawyers rThe lawyers respect themselves. (reflexive)espect themselves. (reflexive) •

• The lawyers respect each The lawyers respect each other (reciprocal)other (reciprocal) •

• Historically, different meaning but modern English no differenceHistorically, different meaning but modern English no difference •

• The The houses houses are are close close to to each each otherother. . (only (only two)two) •

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Type V: Transitive verbs

Type V: Transitive verbs

• Object complementsObject complements •

• AdjectivalAdjectival •

• They leftThey left the roomthe room messy. (Adjectival Object Complement)messy. (Adjectival Object Complement) •

• The maplThe maple jam in the cre jam in the cronutonut burgeburger mader made themthem violently sick.violently sick. •

• NominalNominal •

• They leftThey left the roomthe room a complete mess. (Nominal Object Complement)a complete mess. (Nominal Object Complement) •

• They electedThey elected Peter Peter  president of the cl president of the club.ub. •

• Task: Draw a tree diagram for the first sentence in each set ofTask: Draw a tree diagram for the first sentence in each set of

examples. examples.

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Usage: Comma Splice

Usage: Comma Splice

Say the following out loud

Say the following out loud

::

 –

 –

Yes is not a suitable answer.

Yes is not a suitable answer.

 –

 –

Yes, the ground is dry.

Yes, the ground is dry.

Rule

Rule

1)

1) Ne

Neve

ver i

r ins

nser

ert a s

t a spl

plic

ice c

e com

omma b

ma bet

etwe

ween t

en the s

he subj

ubjec

ect an

t and

d

 predicate or between the main verb and its

 predicate or between the main verb and its

complement(s).

complement(s).

2)

2) Us

Use tw

e two c

o com

omma

mas to

s to se

set of

t off an

f anyth

ythin

ing tha

g that in

t inte

terr

rrupt

upts t

s the

he

subject and predicate or the verb and its complement(s).

subject and predicate or the verb and its complement(s).

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For Week 4 tutorial:

For Week 4 tutorial:

Exercise 8.8 (the first sentence starts with “Homemade

Exercise 8.8 (the first sentence starts with “Homemade

pizza…”)

pizza…”)

Exercise 8.12 (the first sentence starts

Exercise 8.12 (the first sentence starts with “

with “A heavy rain…”)

A heavy rain…”)

Figure

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References

Related subjects :