Fundamentals of Vapor Recovery

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(1)

Fundamentals of Vapor

Recovery

“Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT

And LOST REVENUE

Presented by:

Larry S. Richards

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VAPOR RECOVERY

VAPOR RECOVERY

SYSTEMS

SYSTEMS

What is Vapor

Recovery?…

A little history...

(5)

HISTORY

(6)

OIL STORAGE FROM THE

OIL STORAGE FROM THE

PAST

(7)

OPEN PIT OIL STORAGE

(8)

EARLY TANKS

(9)

EARLY TANKS

(10)

VAPOR RECOVERY

VAPOR RECOVERY

SYSTEMS

(11)

TANK OPERATIONS

TANK OPERATIONS

As the oil

As the oil

resides in

resides in

the tanks, it

the tanks, it

gives off

gives off

vapors,

vapors,

thereby

thereby

increasing

increasing

the pressure

the pressure

inside the

inside the

tank.

tank.

(12)

Sources of Methane Losses

Sources of Methane Losses

Approximately 26.6

Approximately 26.6

Bcf

Bcf

/yr of Methane

/yr of Methane

are lost from storage tanks

are lost from storage tanks

„

„

Flash losses

Flash losses

occur when crude is transferred from

occur when crude is transferred from

containment at a high pressure to containment

containment at a high pressure to containment

at a lower pressure

at a lower pressure

„

„

Working losses

Working losses

occur when crude levels change and when

occur when crude levels change and when

crude in the tank is agitated

crude in the tank is agitated

„

„

Standing losses

Standing losses

occur with daily and seasonal temperature and

occur with daily and seasonal temperature and

pressure changes

pressure changes

Source: Natural Gas STAR Partners

(13)

PURPOSE

• Vapor Recovery units are designed to comply with EPA

standards, provide additional profits to the oil producer

and eliminate the emission of stock tank vapors to the

atmosphere.

• Most vapors contain varying amounts of methane,

ethane, isopentane, propane, and butane and contribute

to the gravity of lease crude.

• Dissipation of these products to the atmosphere on a

conventional tank battery means a reduction in gravity of

the liquid in the tank, thereby decreasing its value.

VAPOR RECOVERY

VAPOR RECOVERY

SYSTEMS

(14)

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

This flare was

This flare was

causing a variety

causing a variety

of health and

of health and

environmental

environmental

concerns

concerns

a gas

a gas

stream now

stream now

generating over

generating over

$150,000 per

$150,000 per

month in

month in

additional

additional

revenue. Methane

revenue. Methane

gas has 23 times

gas has 23 times

the impact as a

the impact as a

greenhouse gas as

greenhouse gas as

CO2

CO2

although

although

almost 100% of

almost 100% of

industry focus is

industry focus is

currently on CO2.

currently on CO2.

(15)

WHY LET $ ESCAPE INTO

WHY LET $ ESCAPE INTO

THE AIR?

THE AIR?

Besides being an

Besides being an

environmental

environmental

hazard, escaping

hazard, escaping

vapors actually

vapors actually

cost the operator

cost the operator

money. What

money. What

money?

money?

Uncaptured

Uncaptured

profits!! An

profits!! An

average tank

average tank

battery can emit

battery can emit

from $15,000 to

from $15,000 to

$50,000 in

$50,000 in

natural gas per

natural gas per

month!

month!

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

(16)

VAPOR RECOVERY

VAPOR RECOVERY

SYSTEMS

(17)

Standard Vapor Recovery Unit

Standard Vapor Recovery Unit

Crude Oil Stock Tank(s) Control Pilot Vent Line Back Pressure Valve Suction Scrubber Suction Line Condensate Return Bypass Valve Electric Control Panel Electric Driven Rotary Compressor Gas Sales Meter Run Gas Liquid Transfer Pump Check Valve Sales

(18)

Automated bypass allows

precise pressure control and

extends driver / compressor

life dramatically.

VRU’s cannot operate

effectively without this

element in their design

(19)

Automated liquid transfer

systems are imperative

due to the amount of

condensate derived from

this wet gas stream.

(20)

VAPOR RECOVERY

VAPOR RECOVERY

Typical stock

Typical stock

tank vapor

tank vapor

recovery unit in

recovery unit in

operation. This

operation. This

unit is

unit is

configured to

configured to

capture 90

capture 90

mcfd of gas

mcfd of gas

and discharge

and discharge

into a 40 psig

into a 40 psig

sales line.

sales line.

(21)

VRU Evaluation

VRU Evaluation

Checklist

(22)

Is the unit on location a vapor

Is the unit on location a vapor

recovery unit ?

recovery unit ?

Does it have a pressure sensing device on the

Does it have a pressure sensing device on the

tanks or on the skid?

tanks or on the skid?

Does it have a bypass system to circulate gas

Does it have a bypass system to circulate gas

between the compressor and the inlet or suction

between the compressor and the inlet or suction

vessel?

vessel?

Is the correct type of compressor being utilized?

Is the correct type of compressor being utilized?

(Rotary vane compressors, rotary screw

(Rotary vane compressors, rotary screw

compressors or

compressors or

venturi

venturi

jet design recommended

jet design recommended

vs. reciprocating compressors)

(23)

Is the production system properly

Is the production system properly

configured to capture the vent gas?

configured to capture the vent gas?

Is the piping from the tanks to the compressor

Is the piping from the tanks to the compressor

sloped downward with no visible liquid traps

sloped downward with no visible liquid traps

(U in the piping)?

(U in the piping)?

Are the tanks

Are the tanks

manifolded

manifolded

together properly?

together properly?

Is a gas blanket being used?

Is a gas blanket being used?

Is the pressure sensing device sensing pressure

Is the pressure sensing device sensing pressure

off the top of the tanks?

(24)

Benefits of Vapor Recovery

Benefits of Vapor Recovery

Units

Units

Capture up to 95 percent of

Capture up to 95 percent of

hydrocarbon vapors that accumulate

hydrocarbon vapors that accumulate

in tanks

in tanks

Recovered vapors have much higher Btu

Recovered vapors have much higher Btu

content than pipeline quality natural gas

content than pipeline quality natural gas

Recovered vapors can be more valuable

Recovered vapors can be more valuable

than methane alone

than methane alone

Reduce regulatory & liability exposure

(25)

Criteria for VRU Locations

Criteria for VRU Locations

Steady source and sufficient quantity

Steady source and sufficient quantity

of losses

of losses

„

„

Available gathering system

Available gathering system

Outlet for recovered gas

Outlet for recovered gas

„

„

Access to pipeline or on

Access to pipeline or on

-

-

site fuel use

site fuel use

Tank batteries that are subject to

Tank batteries that are subject to

state/federal air regulations

(26)

VRU Decision Process

VRU Decision Process

Identify possible locations for VRUs

Quantify the volume of losses

Quantify the volume of losses

Determine the value of recoverable losses

Determine the cost of a VRU project

(27)

Quantify Volume of Losses

Quantify Volume of Losses

Estimate losses from chart based on oil

Estimate losses from chart based on oil

characteristics, pressure, and temperature

characteristics, pressure, and temperature

at each location

at each location

Estimate emissions using the

Estimate emissions using the

E&P Tank

E&P Tank

Model

Model

Measure losses using orifice well

Measure losses using orifice well

tester and recording manometer

(28)

Estimated Volume of Tank

Estimated Volume of Tank

Vapors

Vapors

Pressure of Vessel Dumping to Tank (Psig)

Pressure of Vessel Dumping to Tank (Psig)

Vapor Vented fr

om Tanks

Vapor Vented fr

om Tanks

--SCF/BBL --SCF/BBL

--GORGOR

110 110 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 10 10 20 20 10 10 2020 3030 4040 5050 6060 7070 8080 Under 30 Under 30°° API API 30 30°°AP I to 39 API to 39°°AP I API 40 40°°AP I and Ove r API a nd O ver 43 43

(29)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 1:

Example 1:

Pressure of the Vessel dumping to the

Pressure of the Vessel dumping to the

tanks:

tanks:

40 PSIG

40 PSIG

API Gravity of the Oil:

API Gravity of the Oil:

40

40

Barrels of Oil through the battery per day:

Barrels of Oil through the battery per day:

1,000

(30)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 1:

Example 1:

60 SCF per bbl X 1000

60 SCF per bbl X 1000

bbls

bbls

per day =

per day =

60,000 SCFD or 60 mcfd of gas

60,000 SCFD or 60 mcfd of gas

60 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $360 per day

60 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $360 per day

or $10,800 per month

(31)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 2:

Example 2:

Pressure of the Vessel dumping to the

Pressure of the Vessel dumping to the

tanks:

tanks:

70 PSIG

70 PSIG

API Gravity of the Oil:

API Gravity of the Oil:

35

35

Barrels of Oil through the battery per day:

Barrels of Oil through the battery per day:

500

(32)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 2:

Example 2:

67 SCF per bbl X 500

67 SCF per bbl X 500

bbls

bbls

per day =

per day =

33,500 SCFD or 33.5 mcfd of gas

33,500 SCFD or 33.5 mcfd of gas

33.5 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $201 per day

33.5 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $201 per day

or $6,030 per month

(33)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Chart method is a quick and easy way to get

Chart method is a quick and easy way to get

a fast ballpark estimate

a fast ballpark estimate

Notice the impact of higher gravity oil, as well

Notice the impact of higher gravity oil, as well

as higher separator pressures

as higher separator pressures

This method is VERY CONSERVATIVE and

This method is VERY CONSERVATIVE and

generally underestimates actual emission

generally underestimates actual emission

levels

(34)

Quantify Volume of Losses

Quantify Volume of Losses

E&P Tank

E&P Tank

Model

Model

„

„

Computer software developed by API

Computer software developed by API

and GRI

and GRI

„

„

Estimates flash, working, and standing losses

Estimates flash, working, and standing losses

„

„

Calculates losses using specific operating

Calculates losses using specific operating

conditions for each tank

conditions for each tank

„

(35)

E&P TANK INPUT SCREEN

(36)
(37)

E&P TANK OUTPUT

E&P TANK OUTPUT

SCREEN

(38)
(39)

E&P TANK EXAMPLE

E&P TANK EXAMPLE

OUTPUT

(40)

-- Emission Composition

---Component Uncontrolled Uncontrolled Controlled Controlled [ton/yr] [lb/hr] [ton/yr] [lb/hr] H2S 12.137 2.771 0.607 0.139 O2 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 85.667 19.559 85.667 19.559 N2 2.284 0.521 2.284 0.521 C1 122.391 27.943 6.120 1.397 C2 159.072 36.318 7.954 1.816 C3 415.158 94.785 20.758 4.739 i-C4 96.442 22.019 4.822 1.101 n-C4 261.360 59.671 13.068 2.984 i-C5 82.901 18.927 4.145 0.946 n-C5 97.357 22.228 4.868 1.111 C6 28.130 6.422 1.407 0.321 C7 26.984 6.161 1.349 0.308 C8 10.294 2.350 0.515 0.118 C9 2.081 0.475 0.104 0.024 C10+ 0.544 0.124 0.027 0.006 Benzene 2.029 0.463 0.101 0.023 Toluene 0.250 0.057 0.013 0.003 E-Benzene 0.032 0.007 0.002 0.000 Xylenes 0.264 0.060 0.013 0.003 n-C6 19.202 4.384 0.960 0.219 224Trimethylp 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Total 1424.579 325.246 71.229 16.262

(41)

-- Emission Summary

---Item Uncontrolled Uncontrolled Controlled Controlled

[ton/yr] [lb/hr] [ton/yr] [lb/hr]

Total HAPs 21.780 4.973 1.089 0.249

Total HC 1324.491 302.395 66.225 15.120

VOCs, C2+ 1202.100 274.452 60.105 13.723

VOCs, C3+ 1043.029 238.134 52.151 11.907

Uncontrolled Recovery Info.

Vapor

71.3400 [MSCFD]

HC Vapor 66.3900 [MSCFD]

GOR

35.67 [SCF/bbl]

(42)

-- Emission Composition

---Component Uncontrolled

Concontrolled

Controlled

Controlled

[ton/yr]

[lb/hr]

[ton/yr]

[lb/hr]

H2S

12.137

2.771

0.607

0.139

O2

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

CO2

85.667

19.559

85.667

19.559

N2

2.284

0.521

2.284

0.521

C1

122.391

27.943

6.120

1.397

C2

159.072

36.318

7.954

1.816

C3

415.158

94.785

20.758

4.739

i-C4

96.442

22.019

4.822

1.101

n-C4

261.360

59.671

13.068

2.984

i-C5

82.901

18.927

4.145

0.946

n-C5

97.357

22.228

4.868

1.111

C6

28.130

6.422

1.407

0.321

C7

26.984

6.161

1.349

0.308

C8

10.294

2.350

0.515

0.118

C9

2.081

0.475

0.104

0.024

C10+

0.544

0.124

0.027

0.006

Benzene

2.029

0.463

0.101

0.023

Toluene

0.250

0.057

0.013

0.003

E-Benzene

0.032

0.007

0.002

0.000

Xylenes

0.264

0.060

0.013

0.003

n-C6

19.202

4.384

0.960

0.219

224Trimethylp

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Total

1424.579

325.246

71.229

16.262

(43)

-- Stream Data

---No. Component MW LP Oil Flash Oil Sale Oil Flash Gas W&S Gas Total Emissions mol % mol % mol % mol % mol % mol %

1 H2S 34.80 0.0508 0.0358 0.0065 0.6793 1.4580 1.0368 2 O2 32.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3 CO2 44.01 0.2437 0.0950 0.0002 6.4933 4.6923 5.6664 4 N2 28.01 0.0102 0.0005 0.0000 0.4189 0.0235 0.2374 5 C1 16.04 0.9543 0.1553 0.0000 34.5319 7.6894 22.2079 6 C2 30.07 0.6701 0.3661 0.0087 13.4456 17.7009 15.3993 7 C3 44.10 2.1827 1.7950 1.0502 18.4760 37.9263 27.4061 8 i-C4 58.12 1.1269 1.0530 0.9606 4.2332 5.5332 4.8301 9 n-C4 58.12 4.6091 4.4328 4.2283 12.0182 14.3518 13.0896 10 i-C5 72.15 3.1066 3.1043 3.0959 3.2018 3.5131 3.3447 11 n-C5 72.15 5.0558 5.0864 5.1064 3.7713 4.1125 3.9280 12 C6 86.16 4.1726 4.2496 4.3162 0.9366 1.0199 0.9748 13 C7 100.20 10.3655 10.5937 10.7945 0.7742 0.8517 0.8098 14 C8 114.23 10.8426 11.0945 11.3173 0.2563 0.2861 0.2700 15 C9 128.28 5.5127 5.6428 5.7580 0.0450 0.0543 0.0492 16 C10+ 166.00 45.9695 47.0631 48.0331 0.0087 0.0106 0.0095 17 Benzene 78.11 0.5685 0.5803 0.5906 0.0723 0.0795 0.0756 18 Toluene 92.13 0.2132 0.2181 0.2224 0.0075 0.0084 0.0079 19 E-Benzene 106.17 0.0711 0.0728 0.0743 0.0008 0.0009 0.0009 20 Xylenes 106.17 0.6802 0.6962 0.7104 0.0068 0.0077 0.0072 21 n-C6 86.18 3.5939 3.6646 3.7261 0.6222 0.6798 0.6486 22 224Trimethylp 114.24 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 MW 123.89 125.93 127.59 37.91 45.66 41.47 Stream Mole Ratio 1.0000 0.9768 0.9570 0.0232 0.0197 0.0430 Heating Value [BTU/SCF] 2001.39 2458.73 2211.37

Gas Gravity [Gas/Air] 1.31 1.58 1.43

Bubble Pt. @ 100F [psia] 56.28 20.19 8.70 RVP @ 100F [psia] 18.38 11.68 7.71 Spec. Gravity @ 100F 0.800 0.803 0.806

(44)

TANK TEST

TANK TEST

A chart recorder is set

up on the tank battery

for a 24-hour pressure

test. The resultant

chart is brought into the

office for evaluation.

Information such as

ambient temperature,

test apparatus size and

orifice size is recorded

and used in the

calculation of volume of

tank vapors.

(45)

TANK TEST

TANK TEST

Ultrasonic meters and Mass flow meters

are also highly effective

The key is DURATION – a minimum of

24 hours of emissions must be charted

for accurate results

(46)

What is the Recovered Gas

What is the Recovered Gas

Worth?

Worth?

Value depends on BTU content of gas

Value depends on BTU content of gas

Value depends on how gas is used

Value depends on how gas is used

„

„

On

On

-

-

site fuel

site fuel

-

-

measured in terms of fuel that

measured in terms of fuel that

no longer must be purchased

no longer must be purchased

„

„

Natural gas pipeline

Natural gas pipeline

-

-

measured by the higher

measured by the higher

price for rich (higher Btu) gas (=2.5 X)

price for rich (higher Btu) gas (=2.5 X)

„

„

Gas processing plant

Gas processing plant

-

-

measured by sale of

measured by sale of

NGLs and methane, which can be separated

(47)

Value of Recovered Gas

Value of Recovered Gas

Gross revenue per year = (Q x P x 365 x

Gross revenue per year = (Q x P x 365 x

B) + NGL

B) + NGL

Q = Rate of vapor recovery (Mcfd)

Q = Rate of vapor recovery (Mcfd)

P = Price of natural gas

P = Price of natural gas

B = Btu adjustment (typically 2.5)

B = Btu adjustment (typically 2.5)

NGL = Value of natural gas liquids

(48)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 1:

Example 1:

60 SCF per bbl X 1000

60 SCF per bbl X 1000

bbls

bbls

per day =

per day =

60,000 SCFD or 60 mcfd of gas

60,000 SCFD or 60 mcfd of gas

60 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $360 per day

60 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $360 per day

or $10,800 per month

or $10,800 per month

60 mcfd X $6 X 2.5 + 2

60 mcfd X $6 X 2.5 + 2

bbls

bbls

/thousand ($100) =

/thousand ($100) =

$1,000 per day or $30,000 per month

(49)

Estimating Tank Emissions

Estimating Tank Emissions

Example 2:

Example 2:

67 SCF per bbl X 500

67 SCF per bbl X 500

bbls

bbls

per day =

per day =

33,500 SCFD or 33.5 mcfd of gas

33,500 SCFD or 33.5 mcfd of gas

33.5 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $201 per day

33.5 mcfd of gas X $6 per mcf = $201 per day

or $6,030 per month

or $6,030 per month

33.5 mcfd X $6 X 2.5 + 1 bbl ($50) =

33.5 mcfd X $6 X 2.5 + 1 bbl ($50) =

$552.50 per day OR $16,575 per month

$552.50 per day OR $16,575 per month

(50)

Cost of a VRU (cont

Cost of a VRU (cont

d)

d)

Vapor Recovery Units Sizes and Costs

Capacity

(Mcfd)

Compressor

Horsepower

Median

Capital

Costs ($)

Installation

Costs ($)

O&M Costs

($/year)

25

5 – 10

15,125

7,560 – 15,125

5,250

50

10 – 15

19,500

9,750 – 19,500

6,000

100

15 – 25

23,500

11,750 – 23,500

7,200

200

30 – 50

31,500

15,750 – 31,500

8,400

500

60 – 80

44,000

22,000 – 44,000

12,000

Note: Cost information provided by Partners and VRU

manufacturers.

(51)

What Is the Payback?

What Is the Payback?

Financial Analysis for VRU Projects

Peak

Capacity

(Mcfd)

Installation &

Capital Costs

1

($)

O&M

Costs

($/year)

Value of

Gas

2

($/year)

Payback

3

Return on

Investment

4

(%)

25

26,470

5,250

25,869

1 yrs, 4 mos

73

50 34,125

6,000

51,738

9

mos 132

100 41,125 7,200

103,477

7

mos 234

200 55,125 8,400

206,955

3

mos 360

500 77,000

12,000

465,648

2

mos 589

1

Unit cost plus estimated installation cost of 75% of unit cost. 2

$5.67 per Mcf x ½ capacity x 365. Assumed price includes value of Btu-enriched gas (1,285 Btu/scf). 3

Based on 10% discount rate for future savings. Excludes value of recovered gas liquids. 4

Calculated for 5 years.

(52)

To evaluate this practice for your situation, fill in the values below and click "Calculate Results".

NATURAL GAS & CRUDE OIL

TANK VALUES

Pressure of the vessel dumping to the tank (PSIG)

API gravity (degrees)

Amount of crude oil cycled through the tank (bbl/d)

Number of days per year the Vapor Recovery Unit will be operated (days/yr)

CALCULATE CAPITAL AND O&M COST

ESTIMATES

Click to calculate estimates for capital equipment costs and O&M costs.

23 psi

42 api gravity

2,000 bbl/day

351 days

Calculate

(53)

EPA Website – PRO Tools

CAPITAL

EQUIPMENT AND O&M COSTS

Enter your own values for the capital equipment listed below or accept the estimates.

Vapor Recovery Unit cost ($)

$30,068

Vapor Recovery Unit installation cost ($)

$22,551

Depreciable life of equipment (Years)

10

Vapor Recovery Unit O&M cost ($/year)

$8,649

(54)

GENERAL ECONOMIC

VALUES

Natural gas cost ($/Mcf)

Natural gas cost escalator (%) O&M cost escalator (%)

Discount rate (%)

Marginal tax rate* (%) Investment tax credit (%)

Working interest for capital costs (%)

Working interest for O&M costs (%) Working interest for gas savings (%)

EPA Website – PRO Tools

Each variable can

be added based on

your companies

specific conditions

and contract terms

(55)

Gas emission reduction

5 Year gas savings

141,453

(mcf)

First Year gas savings

28,291

Without-tax effect

5 Year NPV

$504,434

Payback (Years)

0.36

DCFIRR

279%

Simple ROI

279%

With-tax effect

5 Year NPV (AT)

$350,477

Payback (AT) (Years)

0.47

DCFIRR (AT)

208%

Simple ROI (AT)

201%

Analysis results for:

INSTALLING VAPOR RECOVERY UNITS ON CRUDE OIL STORAGE

TANKS

To save this specific case for viewing in the Results Summary page, provide a name and click "Save"

(56)
(57)

Other Costs to Consider

Other Costs to Consider

Regulatory Liability Exposure

Regulatory Liability Exposure

Public Relations Exposure

Public Relations Exposure

„

„

Positive or Negative

Positive or Negative

Litigation Exposure

Litigation Exposure

„

„

BP and Shell lawsuits

BP and Shell lawsuits

Producing a clean energy source (natural gas)

Producing a clean energy source (natural gas)

and simultaneously improving air quality in the

and simultaneously improving air quality in the

community

community

with an economic payback of

with an economic payback of

usually less than 3 months

(58)

HY

HY

-

-

BON ENGINEERING

BON ENGINEERING

COMPANY, INC.

COMPANY, INC.

Setting a New Standard!!

(59)

Technical Solutions for

Capturing Vented Stock Tank

Gas

“Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT

And LOST REVENUE

Presented by:

Larry S. Richards

(60)

CASE STUDIES

(61)

1000 MSCFD 500 psi 1131 BTU/cu. ft 70 MSCFD 80 psi 1401 BTU/cu. ft 90 MSCFD 25 psi 1588 BTU/cu. ft 100 MSCFD 0 psi 2534 BTU/cu. ft Vented Vented Vented $5.00 x 1.13 x 1000 MSCFD = $5650 $5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0 $5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0 $5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0

TOTAL GAS SALES = $5650

(62)

THE SOLUTION

THE SOLUTION

A system was designed to allow the customer to

A system was designed to allow the customer to

capture the vented gas from all phases of his

capture the vented gas from all phases of his

separation process. A multi

separation process. A multi

-

-

stage unit was

stage unit was

designed and built that took the gas from the tank

designed and built that took the gas from the tank

vapors at atmospheric pressure, gathered the vent

vapors at atmospheric pressure, gathered the vent

gas from the other separators and delivered the

gas from the other separators and delivered the

stream to the sales line at 500 psig.

(63)

Crude Oil

Crude Oil

Analysis

Analysis

600 PSIG

600 PSIG

SEPARATION

SEPARATION

(64)

500 PSIG

500 PSIG

SEPARATION

SEPARATION

At 500 psig

At 500 psig

separation pressure

separation pressure

the gas has a BTU

the gas has a BTU

content of 1131

content of 1131

BTU/cu. ft.

(65)

80 PSIG

80 PSIG

SEPARATION

SEPARATION

At 80 psig separation

At 80 psig separation

pressure the gas has

pressure the gas has

reached a BTU value

reached a BTU value

of 1401 BTU/ cu. ft.

(66)

25 PSIG

25 PSIG

SEPARATION

SEPARATION

At 25 psig

At 25 psig

separation, the gas

separation, the gas

stream is at its

stream is at its

richest point yet,

richest point yet,

with a BTU value

with a BTU value

of 1588 BTU/cu. ft.

(67)

OIL TANK

OIL TANK

STORAGE

STORAGE

This gas stream

This gas stream

reaches its most

reaches its most

valuable point

valuable point

during storage in

during storage in

the oil tank. This

the oil tank. This

gas has a BTU value

gas has a BTU value

of 2514 BTU/ cu. Ft.

of 2514 BTU/ cu. Ft.

Obviously, this gas

Obviously, this gas

is worth capturing!

(68)

1000 MSCFD 500 psi 1131 BTU/cu. ft 70 MSCFD 80 psi 1401 BTU/cu. ft 90 MSCFD 25 psi 1588 BTU/cu. ft 100 MSCFD 0 psi 2534 BTU/cu. ft Recovered Recovered Recovered $5.00 x 1.13 x 1000 MSCFD = $5650 $5.00 x 1.40 x 70 MSCFD = $490 $5.00 x 1.59 x 90 MSCFD = $716 $5.00 x 2.53 x 100 MSCFD = $1267

TOTAL GAS SALES = $8123

Multi-Stage Gas Booster

VRU

MONTHLY GAS SALES INCREASE

= $74,190

(69)

Case Study 2

Case Study 2

Mid Size Independent in Hobbs, NM area March

Mid Size Independent in Hobbs, NM area March

04

04

Installation of 2

Installation of 2

VRU

VRU

s

s

on 2 stock tank batteries, each emitting

on 2 stock tank batteries, each emitting

approximately 90 MSCFD of 2500

approximately 90 MSCFD of 2500

btu

btu

tank vapors / 45 psig sales

tank vapors / 45 psig sales

line

line

Previous gas sales revenue: $0 (venting)

Previous gas sales revenue: $0 (venting)

Monthly gas revenue: $5 X 2.5 X 90 MSCFD X 30 days

Monthly gas revenue: $5 X 2.5 X 90 MSCFD X 30 days

x 2 tanks = $ 67,500

x 2 tanks = $ 67,500

Capital expense: $24,000 X 2 units = $48,000

Capital expense: $24,000 X 2 units = $48,000

Payback: 21 DAYS

(70)

Producing Well Heater 1000 MSCFD 800 psi 1000 BTU/cu.ft. Glycol Unit 60 MSCFD 100 psi 1200 BTU/cu.ft.

Flared

90 MSCFD 0 psi 2000 BTU/cu.ft.

Flared

Gas Sales Gross Sales Per Day $5.00 x 1000 MSCFD = $5000 $5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0 $5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0

TOTAL GAS SALES = $5000

Price Based upon $5.00/MMBTU

Case

Study 3

(71)

Heater Producing Well 1000 MSCFD 800 psi 1000 BTU/cu.ft. 60 MSCFD 100 psi 1200 BTU/cu.ft. 90 MSCFD 0 psi 2000 BTU/cu.ft.

Glycol Unit Gas

Sales Gross Sales Per Day $5.00 x 1000 MSCFD = $5000 $5.00 x 1.2 x 60 MSCFD = $360 $5.00 x 2.0 x 90 MSCFD = $900

TOTAL GAS SALES = $6260

Price Based upon $5.00/MMBTU

RECOVERED

RECOVERED

Gas Booster

VRU

MONTHLY GAS SALES

INCREASE = $37,800

Case

Study 3

(72)

Case Study 4

Case Study 4

Chevron

Chevron

Chevron installed eight VRUs at crude

Chevron installed eight VRUs at crude

oil stock tanks in 1996

oil stock tanks in 1996

Project Economics – Chevron

Methane Loss Reduction (Mcf/unit/yr) Approximate Savings per Unit1 Total Savings Total Capital and Installation Costs Payback 21,900 $43,800 $350,400 $240,000 <1 yr 1

Assumes a $2 per Mcf gas price; excludes value of recovered NGLs. Refer to the Lessons Learned for more information.

(73)

Case Study 5

Case Study 5

Large Independent in North Texas in June

Large Independent in North Texas in June

04

04

Installation of 1 VRU on a stock tank battery emitting approxima

Installation of 1 VRU on a stock tank battery emitting approxima

tely 190

tely 190

MSCFD of 2400

MSCFD of 2400

btu

btu

tank vapors / 50 psig sales line

tank vapors / 50 psig sales line

Previous gas sales revenue: $0 (venting)

Previous gas sales revenue: $0 (venting)

Monthly gas revenue: $5 X 2.4 X 190 MSCFD X 30 days

Monthly gas revenue: $5 X 2.4 X 190 MSCFD X 30 days

= $ 68,400

= $ 68,400

Capital expense: $32,000

Capital expense: $32,000

Payback: 14 DAYS

Payback: 14 DAYS

(74)

Other Emission Sources

Other Emission Sources

Gas can also be

Gas can also be

captured from

captured from

separators and

separators and

other field

other field

equipment.

equipment.

This unit is

This unit is

capturing natural

capturing natural

gas off several

gas off several

separators for

separators for

sale down a high

sale down a high

pressure line.

(75)

Other Emission Sources

Other Emission Sources

This unit captures

This unit captures

a 98% CO2 gas

a 98% CO2 gas

stream in a field

stream in a field

outside Snyder,

outside Snyder,

Texas. Flooded

Texas. Flooded

screw compressor

screw compressor

for volumes to 1.5

for volumes to 1.5

MMSCFD. The CO2

MMSCFD. The CO2

is captured and re

is captured and re

-

-injected into the

injected into the

formation,

formation,

dramatically

dramatically

reducing

reducing

operating costs.

operating costs.

(76)

COMPRESSOR

COMPRESSOR

SELECTION CRITERIA

SELECTION CRITERIA

HOW DO WE CHOOSE THE

HOW DO WE CHOOSE THE

APPROPRIATE COMPRESSOR?

(77)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Rotary Vane

Rotary Vane

Compressors

Compressors

Eccentrically mounted

Eccentrically mounted

rotor

rotor

Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force

causes vanes to slide in

causes vanes to slide in

or out

or out

Gas is forced into

Gas is forced into

decreasing space

decreasing space

thereby causing

thereby causing

compression

compression

Jacket water cooling

Jacket water cooling

system

system

RPM range 400 to 1600

(78)

ROTARY VANE OPERATING

ROTARY VANE OPERATING

PRINCIPLE

PRINCIPLE

Gas enters the suction flange

at low pressure. The rotor is

mounted eccentrically toward

the bottom of the

compressor. Centrifugal

force imparted as the rotor

turns forces the blades out

against the cylinder wall. The

gas is forced into a ever

decreasing space, thereby

compressing the gas which

then exits the discharge. The

rotor clearance at the bottom

(typically .005”) is sealed with

lubricating oil to create a

closed system within the

cylinder.

(79)
(80)
(81)
(82)
(83)
(84)
(85)

Rotary Vane Compressor

Rotary Vane Compressor

Typical Operating Parameters

Typical Operating Parameters

Differential pressure

Differential pressure

equal to or less than

equal to or less than

60 psig (for single

60 psig (for single

-

-stage models).

stage models).

Volume from

Volume from

approximately 15

approximately 15

MSCFD to 2

MSCFD to 2

MMSCFD (for single

MMSCFD (for single

-

-compressor units).

compressor units).

Relatively low suction

Relatively low suction

temperatures

temperatures

(< 120

(86)

Rotary Vanes

Rotary Vanes

Advantages

Advantages

Excellent for relatively high volumes and relatively

Excellent for relatively high volumes and relatively

low differential pressures

low differential pressures

Efficient at low pressures

Efficient at low pressures

Can handle wet gas relatively easy

Can handle wet gas relatively easy

Comparatively low initial cost and ongoing

Comparatively low initial cost and ongoing

maintenance

maintenance

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

Limited as to discharge pressure

Limited as to discharge pressure

Limited as to suction temperature capabilities

Limited as to suction temperature capabilities

(87)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Flooded Screw

Flooded Screw

Compressors

Compressors

Twin helical rotors

Twin helical rotors

Oil is both the cooling

Oil is both the cooling

medium and the

medium and the

compression medium

compression medium

Various configurations of

Various configurations of

gears, internal porting and

gears, internal porting and

loader/

loader/

unloader

unloader

valves

valves

available

available

Gas mixed with oil. Must be

Gas mixed with oil. Must be

separated after

separated after

compression

(88)

Rotary Screw Packages

(89)

General Principle

(90)

General Principle - Rotary

Screws - Continued

(91)
(92)

3-D

MODEL

FINISHED

PRODUCT

(93)

FINISHED

PRODUCT

3-D

MODEL

(94)
(95)
(96)
(97)

Oil Flooded Screw Compressor

Oil Flooded Screw Compressor

Typical Operating Parameters

Typical Operating Parameters

Differential pressure

Differential pressure

equal to or less than

equal to or less than

300 psig (for single

300 psig (for single

-

-stage models).

stage models).

Volume from

Volume from

approximately 20

approximately 20

MSCFD to 2.5 MMSCFD

MSCFD to 2.5 MMSCFD

(for single

(for single

-

-

compressor

compressor

units).

units).

Virtually any

Virtually any

temperature (< 180

temperature (< 180

°

°

F)

F)

(98)

Oil Flooded Screws

Oil Flooded Screws

Advantages

Advantages

Excellent in a large volume/medium differential pressure

Excellent in a large volume/medium differential pressure

range

range

Can handle wet gas better than rotary vanes

Can handle wet gas better than rotary vanes

Excellent temperature control for controlling condensate

Excellent temperature control for controlling condensate

fallout

fallout

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

More sophisticated system w oil/gas separator

More sophisticated system w oil/gas separator

Higher maintenance

Higher maintenance

Higher operational expense (oil, filters, etc.)

(99)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Liquid Ring

Liquid Ring

Compressors

Compressors

Vacuum pump

Vacuum pump

technology

technology

Uses lobes rather than

Uses lobes rather than

vanes

vanes

Gas is mixed with non

Gas is mixed with non

-

-lubricating oil. Must be

lubricating oil. Must be

separated after

separated after

compression.

compression.

Good for extremely low

Good for extremely low

differential pressures.

differential pressures.

Compression oil must be

Compression oil must be

segregated from

segregated from

lubrication oil

(100)

Liquid Ring Compressor Typical

Liquid Ring Compressor Typical

Operating Parameters

Operating Parameters

Differential pressure

Differential pressure

equal to or less than 25

equal to or less than 25

psig (for single

psig (for single

-

-

stage

stage

models).

models).

Volume from

Volume from

approximately 15 MSCFD

approximately 15 MSCFD

to 2.5 MMSCFD (for

to 2.5 MMSCFD (for

single

single

-

-

compressor units).

compressor units).

Virtually any suction

Virtually any suction

temperature (< 180

(101)

Liquid Rings

Liquid Rings

Advantages

Advantages

High volumetric efficiency

High volumetric efficiency

Few moving parts

Few moving parts

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

Extremely limited on discharge pressure

Extremely limited on discharge pressure

Used primarily in vacuum applications

Used primarily in vacuum applications

Higher operational expense (oil, filters, etc.)

(102)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Reciprocating

Reciprocating

Compressors

Compressors

Piston/cylinder

Piston/cylinder

arrangement

arrangement

May be air, water

May be air, water

or oil cooled

or oil cooled

Ages old

Ages old

technology

technology

May be slow

May be slow

speed or high

speed or high

speed

speed

(103)
(104)
(105)
(106)
(107)

Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor

Typical Operating Parameters

Typical Operating Parameters

Differential pressure

Differential pressure

in excess of 2000

in excess of 2000

-

-3000 psig (for multi

3000 psig (for multi

-

-stage models).

stage models).

Volumes in excess

Volumes in excess

of 20 MMSCFD

of 20 MMSCFD

(dependent upon

(dependent upon

suction pressure).

suction pressure).

Relatively high

Relatively high

suction

suction

temperatures (<

temperatures (<

200

200

°

°

F)

F)

(108)

Reciprocating Compressors

Reciprocating Compressors

Advantages

Advantages

High volume/high pressure

High volume/high pressure

Able to handle spikes in pressure

Able to handle spikes in pressure

Relatively low maintenance

Relatively low maintenance

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

Low suction pressure results in large first stage cylinder

Low suction pressure results in large first stage cylinder

size

size

Inefficient at low pressures

Inefficient at low pressures

Rings and valves fail in wet gas applications

Rings and valves fail in wet gas applications

Control is difficult at atmospheric pressures

(109)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Dry Screw

Dry Screw

Compressors

Compressors

Similar in design to

Similar in design to

flooded screw

flooded screw

Lubricating oil never

Lubricating oil never

comes in contact

comes in contact

with process gas

with process gas

Extremely high rpm /

Extremely high rpm /

very sophisticated

very sophisticated

seal systems

seal systems

Noise suppression

Noise suppression

systems req

systems req

d

d

(110)

Dry Screw Compressor Typical

Dry Screw Compressor Typical

Operating Parameters

Operating Parameters

Not recommended

Not recommended

for volumes less

for volumes less

than 2 MMSCFD.

than 2 MMSCFD.

Discharge pressure

Discharge pressure

up to 600 psi

up to 600 psi

Volumes in excess

Volumes in excess

of 25 MMSCFD

of 25 MMSCFD

(111)

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR TYPES

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

USED IN LOW PRESSURE

Vapor Jet

Vapor Jet

Utilizes

Utilizes

pressurized water

pressurized water

to affect gas

to affect gas

gathering

gathering

No moving

No moving

internal parts

internal parts

Uses produced

Uses produced

water in a closed

water in a closed

system

system

Separation of gas

Separation of gas

and water

and water

required

required

(112)

VAPOR JET VAPOR

VAPOR JET VAPOR

RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY

RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY

PRODUCED WATER TANK VAPORS JET PUMP (EDUCTOR) WATER PUMP WATER/GAS MIX SEPARATOR PRODUCED WATER RETURN SALES LINE

(113)

Vapor Jet Typical Operating

Vapor Jet Typical Operating

Parameters

Parameters

Differential pressure equal

Differential pressure equal

to or less than 40 psig (for

to or less than 40 psig (for

single

single

-

-

stage models).

stage models).

Volume from approximately

Volume from approximately

5 MSCFD to 75 MSCFD (for

5 MSCFD to 75 MSCFD (for

single

single

-

-

compressor units).

compressor units).

Suction Temperature is not

Suction Temperature is not

an issue.

an issue.

Gas composition and

Gas composition and

saturation level is not an

saturation level is not an

issue.

issue.

Gas can be sent down the

Gas can be sent down the

pipeline, or re

pipeline, or re

-

-

injected into

injected into

the formation

(114)

JET PUMP VAPOR

JET PUMP VAPOR

RECOVERY RANGES

RECOVERY RANGES

Jet Pump Size ( in. ) 1 1/2 2 2 1/2

Operating Medium Pressure ( psig ) 200 200 200

Operating Medium Rate ( gpm ) 45 82 143

Gas Volume Recovered ( Mcfpd ) 25 45 77

Centrifugal Pump Eff. ( % ) 26 42 53

Motor Eff. ( % ) 0.9 0.9 0.9

KW-HR/day 401 453 625

Power Cost ( $/KW-HR ) 0.045 0.045 0.045

(115)

Technological

Technological

Advancements

Advancements

Low Pressure Gas Management

Low Pressure Gas Management

Systems

(116)

Sensing Technology

Pressure sensing

achieved with

diaphragm

actuated

mechanical device

/ set pressures

achieved by

manually setting

counter weights in

conjunction with

proximity switch

(117)

Sensing Technology

High sensitivity

electronic

transmitters are now

commercially viable

for low pressure

(118)

Sensing Technology

These transmitters

are highly accurate

to extremely

minute pressures –

and do not require

a highly trained

technician to

calibrate.

(119)

Lubrication Systems

Lubrication Systems

Advancements

in lubrication

systems

monitoring and

control have

dramatically

increased

bearing life

(120)

Lubrication Systems

Lubrication Systems

Lubrication

requirements are

precisely

monitored and

detailed reporting

capabilities are

easily downloaded

into handheld

“palm” devices or

directly into Excel

format.

(121)

Control Systems

Control Systems

PLC driven auto

PLC driven auto

ignition for natural

ignition for natural

gas drive engines

gas drive engines

reduce

reduce

compressor

compressor

downtime and

downtime and

pumper

pumper

requirements

requirements

(122)

Technology Advancements

Control systems

Control systems

can range from

can range from

almost

almost

completely

completely

manual to

manual to

incredibly

incredibly

sophisticated

sophisticated

.

.

(123)
(124)
(125)

Programmable Logics Controllers have

dramatically expanded the capability of these

packages

Automated restart is now possible on BOTH electric and

engine drive units

(126)

Typical Shutdown indicators include:

High Discharge Temperature

High Discharge Pressure

High Liquid Level

Low Suction Pressure

Lube Oil No-Flow

Excessive Vibration

(127)

Even the most basic PLC can be

configured to automatically call

the cell phone number of the

correct field personnel based on

the specific cause of the

shutdown.

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :