# Enter the word MEAN in column A, immediately below the line

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You should be familiar with the following tasks using excel in order to be able to complete the statistics assignment.

TO GET HELP ON ANY TOPIC, CLICK ON THE HELP BUTTON download the practice Excel file from the KIN 306 web site

note: When using excel, you may the wizard buttons in the toolbars rather than using the menu bar pull-down menus (or keyboard short cuts) to do many operations. This manual will list all menu commands and common menu buttons to short-cut some of these menu commands.

insert new column (insert column to left of subject column for labels) select column to right of where you want new column

Home tab: Cells: insert >> insert sheet column

place line below data (to visually separate it from summary statistics to be calculated below line)

select row which you want the line to be BELOW

Home tab: Font: Use this button to place a line. To place the line shown (the last line you placed, a thin underline in figure at left), click on the left side of the button. To place other types of boarder lines, click on the arrow to get the menu, and select the line desired.

Alternate:

Select the cells you want to format, then right click, then use the boarders icon

Enter the word MEAN in column A, immediately below the line

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Using function wizard to calculate Mean and Standard Deviation

computing mean and standard deviation using functions Formulas tab: Function Library: Insert Function:

OR USE

Home tab: Editing:

category = statistical, then select function (e.g., average) select range

Format Number to set # of decimals

format numbers to set # of decimals Home tab: Number:

Alternate:

Select the cells you want to format, then right click, then use

Home tab: Clipboard: copy functions & formatting to paste to other similar, parallel columns

Writing a formula

BMI = BODY MASS INDEX

= WEIGHT (kg) / height2 (m) e.g., 5 ft 4 inch & 145 lbs

= 64 inches, 145 lbs

= 1.62 meters, 66 kg

= 66 / 1.62562 BMI = 25

Note that in Excel, the multiplication sign * must be included when needed, Excel does not multiply round brackets

practice writing formula with address for 2nd student’s score demonstrate copying formula to related test data points Skills to demonstrate:

1. How to split the screen vertically and horizontally to view all of your data.

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2. How to insert a new worksheet.

3. How to show a number in scientific notation in excel

Select the cells you want to format, right click, choose “format cells”, choose “Number” tab, choose “scientific” category, Set decimals, OK.

Plot a scattergram

do a scattergram (a fancy one with 2 sets of data on a single graph)

*

go to the DATA page

TRICK: To view the top & bottom of your page that is too big to fit on a screen, use a HORIZONTAL SPLIT SCREEN. Similarly, to view extreme right and left sides beyond the view of the screen, use a VERTICAL SPLIT SCREEN.

TRICK: To select continuous data across a split screen- select the first cell in one window, then shift+click of the last cell in the second window. The full range between these two selections will be selected.

Insert tab: charts: Scatter: Scatter with only markers:

Chart tools: Design: Data: Select data:

Select data source:

Remove any contents if present click on Add button

select series name box, click on cell that contains name of data set (e.g., D2 contains “Jump 1”)

highlight X Values box to make it black

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the data you wish to plot on the X axis (do not include column titles) (use JUMP1 for the demonstration) highlight Y Values box to make it black

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the data you wish to plot on the Y axis (do not include column titles) (use JUMP2 for the demonstration) Click OK

WARNING: Data points may be connected by a line, even if you selected a chart pattern that did not include lines. If this is the case do the following:

 Select the data points and the lines on the graph

 Right click

 Select: Change series chart type

 Select: No lines on scatter plot.

To add second set of data on one pair of axis.

click on Add button

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select 2nd series name box, click on cell that contains name of data set (e.g., E2 contains “Jump 2”)

highlight X Values box to make it black

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the data you wish to plot on the X axis (do not include column titles) (use JUMP1 for the demonstration) highlight Y Values box to make it black

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the data you wish to plot on the Y axis (do not include column titles) (use JUMP2 for the demonstration) Click OK

click OK

Chart must be selected or chart tools will not be available

Control legend (Keep legend if you have more than one set of data on one axis pair) Chart tools: Layout: legend: position/none

turn off Value (Y) axis Major Gridlines (not needed in this simple plot, may be needed in more complex ones you make)

Chart tools: Layout: axis: gridline: Horizontal gridlines

enter appropriate title, and labels for both value (X) axis, & value (Y) axis Chart tools: Layout: Labels: Chart title

Chart tools: Layout: Labels: Axis title

NOW CHECK THE PLOT AGAINST THE DATA!!

Double click on any item in the graph you wish to modify (experiment!) Optional - to set a fixed range on an axis:

RIGHT Click on the axis line or tick label to open operation box

Use options in box to set reasonable (& not conflicting) min, max, step sizes, # decimals displayed etc.

Skills to demonstrate:

1. How and Why to set the axis range 2. How to set the axis range

a. left click on the axes to select it, this will show as a selection box around the axes and its labels.

b. Right click exactly on a number along the axis.

c. Select: format axis

d. use axis options, min and max to set the axis range 3. How to change a graph once you make it:

a. Change axis label: click on it to select it and edit it

b. Position of legend: Select it, then drag it to move it, and change its shape.

4. How to copy a graph and a range of cells to word.

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To include a regression line and calculate the equation of the line

Chart must be selected or chart tool will not be available

Chart tools: Layout: trendline: more trendline options (do not choose the shortcut to directly add a linear trend line): select data series: options = display equation To format trendline: select trendline: right click: format trendline: line color = black,

line style can be modified

Calculate a correlation

place the cursor in the cell where you want the calculated value to appear Formulas tab: Function Library: Insert Function:

category = statistical, then select function (e.g., correl) select range

Alternate method:

Formulas tab: Function Library: More Functions: Statistical: then select function (e.g., correl),

Copying excel material to word

For writing a report: You will produce a professional report by copying the graph and pasting it into a Word document to create on Word file with text and figures. To copy the graph to word: Select the graph. Ensure you select the whole graph, i.e., click near the edge of the graph frame and see the outer most edge of the graph indicated by the

selection box. Do not select only the axis portion of the graph by clicking at the center of the graph. Copy the graph. Then open your word report document, and place the cursor where you want the graph to go, and paste the graph in.

To copy the output table to word: Select the range of cells you wish to copy. Copy the range. Then open your word report document, and place the cursor where you want the table to go, and paste the data table in.

Backup your work

Ensure you have more than one copy of any work you care about!!!

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The following are advanced techniques required of KIN 506 students, and potentially useful for KIN 306 students when writing lab reports.

Advanced bar graph techniques

To plot mean and standard deviation values for groups to report results.

We will use the following data to produce the following sample graph:

Mean Aerobic Capacity (ml/kg/min) Pre-training Post-training

males 45 50

females 30 40

Standard Deviation of Aerobic Capacity (ml/kg/min)

Pre-training Post-training

males 10 15

females 2.5 5

Mean Aerobic Capacity of Males & Females

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

males females

Maximum Aerobic Capacity (ml/kg/min)

Pre-training Post-training

*

graph the means of variability of groups

Insert tab: charts: column: select top left sub-type (plain column graph):

Chart must be selected or chart tools will not be available

Chart tools: Design: Data: Select data:

Select data source:

Remove any contents if present click on Add button

select series name box, click on cell that contains name of data set (e.g. "Pre- training"). This is the term that will appear in the figure legend.

highlight Values box to select it

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select (drag over) the column of cells containing the first data (e.g., pre- training data for males & females, do not include column titles) OK

Horizontal categories label: EDIT

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the bin labels (i.e. males &

females) OK

to add the second data series, click on add AGAIN click in Name box to place cursor there

select a cell containing the label of the data second set of data (e.g. "Post- training"). This is the term that will appear in the figure legend highlight the Values box to select it

select (drag over) the column of cells containing the second data (e.g., post- training data for males & females, do not include column titles).

OK

Control legend (Keep legend if you have more than one set of data on one axis pair) Chart tools: Layout: legend: position/none

turn off Value (Y) axis Major Gridlines (not needed in this simple plot, may be needed in more complex ones you make)

Chart tools: Layout: axis: gridline: Horizontal gridlines

enter appropriate title, and labels for both value (X) axis, & value (Y) axis Chart tools: Layout: Labels: Chart title

Chart tools: Layout: Labels: Axis title

NOW CHECK THE PLOT AGAINST THE DATA!!

Double click on any item in the graph you wish to modify (experiment!) Optional - to set a fixed range on an axis:

RIGHT Click on the axis line or tick label to open operation box

Use options in box to set reasonable (& not conflicting) min, max, step sizes, # decimals displayed etc.

Now add the error bars to first data set:

Chart tools: Layout: analysis: error bars: more error bar options:

Select ONE set of data. (e.g., Pre training) OK

Select "Both" & "Custom"

“specfy value”

Place cursor in "+" range box

Drag and select the column of male & female pretraining standard deviation values

Place cursor in "-" range box

Drag and select the column of male & female pretraining standard deviation values

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OK

Now add the error bars to second data set - by repeating the above procedure for the second data set

Note:

 You can insert text (such as a symbol to mark significance) by using: Insert: text:

text box.

 You can change the words used in the graph legend by changing the text of the corresponding cell in the excel spreadsheet.

 Changes in the data in the excel spreadsheet will automatically be replotted.

 The same data can be plotted in an alternative organization, as shown below, by:

Chart tools: design: data: Switch row/column

Mean Aerobic Capacity Pre and Post Training for Both Sexes

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Pre-training Post-training Maximum Aerobic Capacity (ml/kg/min)

males females

Non-parametric test – Chi Squared Chi Squared analysis

See sample data in Excel lesson data worksheet.

Organize table of Actual Observations

Calculate table of Expected Observations (using absolute and relative addresses) Expected responses = (column total x row total) / N

Use function: CHITEST (use function help if needed) Function returns probability

Note that you can copy the first Chi Squared test you build, and use it as a template for additional questions.

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