Cervical ectopia cordis in a calf: a case report

0
0
5
6 days ago
PDF Preview
Full text
(1)Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (4): 224–228 doi: 10.17221/8824-VETMED. Cervical ectopia cordis in a calf: a case report J. Jezek, A. Domanjko Petric, T. Paller, J. Staric Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia ABSTRACT: A female Holstein Friesian calf with inferior cervical ectopia cordis was followed from the 16th day of age until euthanasia at the age of three months. The heart was located in the lower cervical region and was covered with skin. The calf was presented with normal heart and respiratory rate. A grade II/VI systolic murmur was audible at the heart base when the calf was checked for the first time, but this later disappeared. The ultrasonography revealed that the apex of the heart was directed cranio-ventrally with the left ventricle ventral and slightly to the right side while the right ventricle was dorsal. The results of complete blood count and biochemistry were inside reference intervals. At necropsy the heart was covered with normal pericardium and skin and displaced to the caudal part of the ventral cervical region, just cranial to an enlarged apertura thoracis cranialis. Additionally, the cranial lobes of the lungs were displaced through the enlarged thoracic aperture under the skin on the ventral part of the neck. In conclusion, we suspect that the deformed and enlarged cranial thoracic aperture enabled displacement of the heart and cranial lung lobes to the ventral neck region, because no other abnormalities of the heart and vessels were observed. This is the first case of cervical ectopia cordis reported in Slovenia and this article provides data regarding different aspects of the case (clinics, laboratory, pathomorphology) while also discussing previously published cases of ectopia cordis in cattle. Keywords: ectopic heart; bovine; congenital malformation; displacement of heart. Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation characterised by a complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It may be subdivided into three types; cervical, sternal (thoracic) and abdominal. Based on the position of the heart in the cervical region, the cervical type may in turn be divided into two further subtypes: superior and inferior. The inferior cervical type is the most common reported type of ectopia cordis and the most compatible with life (Bowen and Adrian 1962; Windberger et al. 1992). In the sternal type the heart is partially or completely displaced through of a defect in the sternum or ribs. The abdominal type is the least frequent. Here, the heart lies in the epigastric, lumbar or umbilical region with the great vessels and is displaced through a defect in the diaphragm. In some cases the heart herniates through a split in the abdominal wall. The ectopic heart may lack skin coverage and in some cases also the pericardium (Bowen and Adrian 1962). The exact pathogenesis of ectopia cordis is unknown, and most cases are sporadic. The incidence in humans is reported to be 5.5–7.9/million live births 224. (Morales et al. 2000). Ectopia cordis was reported also in pigs (Freeman and McGovern 1984; Sabolic et al. 2006) and goats (Ramadan and Abdin-Bey 1993). In a 14-year study Gopal et al. (1986) found ectopia cordis cervicalis in 10 out of 36 calves with cardiac defects. The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and laboratory findings and morphological abnormalities in a female Holstein Friesian calf with inferior cervical ectopia cordis and to review previously reported cases.. Case description History and clinical findings. The gestation length and parturition of the female Holstein Friesian calf were normal but after birth the owner noticed enlargement and pulsation on the neck of the calf. The calf was 16 days old when it was examined for the first time. It was bright, alert and responsive with normal appetite. The heart was located in the lower cervical region and was covered with skin. The heart rate was 94/min and respiration rate was 40/min. Mucus membranes were.

(2) Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (4): 224–228. Case Report. doi: 10.17221/8824-VETMED. Figure 1. The calf with cervical ectopia cordis. Figure 2. Pathomorphology; the heart covered with pericardium, atelectatic cranial lung. slightly cyanotic. Continuous low intensity murmur grade II/VI was audible on the heart base. No abnormal sounds were found by lung auscultation. The calf was re-examined 17 days later when it was 33 days old. The owner noticed lower weight gain and that the calf often coughed while eating forage. The heart rate was 95/min and respiration rate was 40/min, the CRT was 2–3 s. Low intensity systolic murmur (II–III/VI) was still audible at the heart base. At the age of 2.5 months the calf was admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants for further observation. At that time the general appearance of the calf was normal. Vital signs were within normal ranges (T = 38.9 °C, P = 62/min, R = 48/min, Rc = 7/5 min). The mucus membranes were slightly cyanotic; CRT was 2–3 s. Heart auscultation revealed no abnormal heart sounds. After moderate exercise we observed increased respiratory rate and slight mixed dyspnoea. Laboratory findings. At the age of 16 days haematological values were the following: RBC (8.05 × 1012/l), Hb (109 g/l), Ht (0.33 l/l) and MCV (41 fl). Haematological values at the age of 77 days were, RBC (10.56 × 10 12/l), Hb (123 g/l), Ht (0.37 l/l) and MCV (35 fl). The values of other haematological variables changed only negligibly between samplings. Biochemical examination at the age of 77 days revealed, CK (257 IU/l), AP (163 IU/l), GGT (14 IU/l), total serum protein (63.6 g/l), urea 4.03 mmol/l, Ca (2.62 mmol/l), iP (2.41 mmol/l), Mg (1.07 mmol/l), and serum iron (22.6 μmol/l). Electrocardiographic and ultrasound examination. The base-apex electrocardiogram showed no abnormalities. Ultrasonography revealed that the apex of the heart was directed cranio-ventrally, the left ventricle was. located ventrally slightly to the right and the right ventricle was dorsal. The right ventricle was slightly dilated. The aorta and truncus pulmonalis were directed caudally, and positioned normally. Both atria were of appropriate size. Blood flows were normal except for trivial insufficiency of the aortic valve. Pathomorphological findings. The calf was euthanised and sent for necropsy. The heart was positioned under the skin on the ventral part of the neck. The apex was directed cranio-ventrally, the right side of the heart was oriented laterally to the left and the left ventricle was oriented laterally to. Figure 3. Enlarged cranial thoracic aperture. 225.

(3) Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (4): 224–228 doi: 10.17221/8824-VETMED. the right (torsion for 90° to the left). The heart was covered with normal pericardium; within the pericardial sac 1.5 dcl of yellow transparent fluid was found. The atria and both ventricles were dilated. Cranial thoracic aperture was oversized (11 cm × 11 cm) and the sternum was cleft cranially. The cranial lobes of the lungs were atelectatic and displaced through the enlarged cranial thoracic aperture under the skin on the ventral part of the neck. The liver and kidneys were hyperaemic. Mucus membranes were cyanotic. No other anatomical abnormalities were observed.. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The most frequently reported types of ectopia cordis in cattle are cervical (82%), pectoral (14%) and abdominal (3%). The cervical type is the most compatible with life (Hiraga and Abe 1986; West and Payne-Johnson 1987) while calves with the other types died before or early after birth (Eroksuz et al. 1998; Schulze et al. 2006). Ectopic heart cases can be complicated by different kinds of cardiac and non-cardiac malformations (Hiraga and Abe 1986; Hiraga et al. 1993; Eroksuz et al. 1998. West. Table 1. Review of previous reports of ectopia cordis in calves Reference. Breed, sex. Age. Form of ectopia. Heart malformations. SH, F. 22 months. C+P. DA, AV, ductus Botalli. SH, F. 3 days. C+P. PFO. Kurtz and Ellery 1969. HF, F. fetus (late stage 3rd trimester). S+P. dilated atria. SM. Fiedler and Seidler 1974. A, F. 5 weeks. C+P. DA, PFO, AV, dilated right ventricle, ductus Botalli. SM. HF, F. 29 days. C+P. DA. SM, torticolis. HF, F. 20 h. C+P. DA. SM, cleft palate. HF, M. 1 day. C+P. DA. SM, torticolis. HF, M. 312 days. C+P. DA, ductus Botalli. SM. HF, F. 1 day. C+P. DA. SM, torticolis. Bowen and Adrian 1962. Hiraga and Abe 1986. West and PayneJohnson 1987 Windberger et al. 1992 Hiraga et al. 1993. Further findings SM, abnormally shaped lungs. HF, F. 5 min. C+P. DA. SM, torticolis, cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia. HF, M. 10 min. C+P. DA. SM, torticolis. HF, M. 3 min. C+P. HF, F. 8 months. C+P. HR, M. 14 months. C+P. DA PFO, interventricular septal defect PFO. SM, torticolis SM, abnormally shaped lungs. FV,M. 21 months. C+P. AV, myocardial hypertrophy. H, M. 0. C+P. DA. H, F. 1h. C-S + P. enlarged heart (750 g) dilated atria. SM, torticollis, cleft palate, bilateral cryptorchidism SM, torticolis partial cleft palate SM. Eroksuz et al. 1998. H, F. 30 h. S+P. Schulze et al. 2006. GH, M. 0. S+P. Shirian et al. 2010 Hamali and Ashrafihelan 2010. HF, M. 10 min. C+P. DA. H, M. 2 min. C+P. rounded shape of the heart. Onda et al. 2011. H, F. C+P. dysplasia of the tricuspid valve. SM. Frackowiak et al. 2014. 3 years, 4 months. L, F. newborn. S-. DA, PFO, AV. SM. thoracoschisis SM, torticolis. HF = Holstein Friesian, H = Holstein, GH = German Holstein, A = Angler, HR = Hereford, L = Limousin, SH = Shorthorn, M = male, F = female, C = ectopia cordis cervicalis, S = ectopia cordis sternalis (pectoralis), P = pericardium present, DA = double apex, PFO = patent foramen ovale, AV = abnormalities of great vessels, SM = sternum malformation. 226.

(4) Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (4): 224–228. Case Report. doi: 10.17221/8824-VETMED. and Payne-Johnson (1987) observed tachycardia, increased respiratory rate and a positive jugular pulse in a three-month old calf with cervical ectopia cordis. They found a patent foramen ovale and a ventricular septal defect at post mortem. Most cases of ectopic heart were reported in the Holstein Friesian breed (Hiraga and Abe 1986; Hiraga et al. 1993; Schulze et al. 2006; Onda et al. 2011). The condition has also been reported in Angus, Shorthorn, Hereford, Guernsey, Simmental, Limousin and mixed breed animals (Hughes 1934; Bowen and Adrian 1962; Gopal et al. 1986; Windberger et al. 1992; Frackowiak et al. 2014). The clinical signs observed in our case, such as coughing, slight dyspnoea after exercise and cyanotic mucus membranes were in accordance with the findings of other reported cases (Bowen and Adrian 1962; Hiraga and Abe 1986; Windberger et al. 1992). Cough may result from the pressure of the heart on the trachea when the calf lowers the head. Dyspnoea could be a consequence of atelectatic cranial lung lobes in our case. A comparison of haematological findings between the first and the second sampling established that RBC number, and Hb and Ht values increased and MCV values decreased. The increased RBC count, and Hb and Ht concentrations are partly age-related, while the values could also partly reflect the response of the organism to lower lung capacity due to atelectasis of the cranial lung lobes. However, the values were still inside reference intervals for calves (Jezek et al. 2011). This explains the clinically observed cyanosis and dyspnoea after exercise. Biochemistry results were within reference values for this age (Jezek et al. 2006). Windberger et al. (1992) also reported normal haematological and biochemical values in a calf with ectopia cordis cervicalis at the age of three weeks. Onda et al. (2011) observed no abnormalities with respect to complete blood count, blood biochemistry and blood gas analysis. No other reports describing haematological and biochemical results were found in the literature. Ultrasound examination revealed no anatomical abnormalities of the heart except trivial insufficiency of the aortic valve. With respect to instances of cardiac malformation in the literature, Onda et al. (2011) reported that in the case of a five-day old calf with cervical ectopia cordis ultrasonography revealed dysplasia of the tricuspid valve. No other reports of ultrasound findings were found in the literature regarding ectopia cordis.. As in other reported cases of cervical ectopia cordis (Bowen and Adrian 1962; Fiedler and Seidler 1974; Hiraga and Abe 1986; Windberger et al. 1992), the heart was located in the cervical area and was covered with normal skin and pericardium. In cases of thoracic ectopic heart the heart protruded through the defect in the sternum and was not covered with skin (Kurtz and Ellery 1969; Hiraga et al. 1993; Eroksuz et al. 1998; Schulze et al. 2006; Frackowiak et al. 2014). Hiraga and Abbe (1986) observed no abnormalities in the heart itself except for a double apex in a cervical ectopia cordis case. In our case the heart was normal except for slight right ventricular dilatation, which was detected ultrasonographically. This was most likely a consequence of increased pulmonary resistance due to atelectatic cranial lobes. Bowen and Adrian (1962) observed double apex, dilatation of the right ventricle and a larger than normal heart. Windberger et al. (1992) observed myocardial hypertrophy of both ventricles in a 21-month old calf with a cervical ectopic heart, which in the authors’ opinion, was caused by the altered anatomical situation of the great vessels. Also, in a case of a thoracic ectopic heart, no abnormalities of the heart were observed (Schulze et al. 2006). Some authors have observed anomalies in the great vessels derived from the heart, which may be attributed to developmental failure in the early embryological stage (Fiedler and Seidler 1974; Windberger et al. 1992; Hiraga et al. 1993). The cranial thoracic aperture in our calf was much wider than normal, which is in agreement with other reports (Bowen and Adrian 1962; Hiraga and Abbe 1986). The cranial lobes of the lungs protruded through the enlarged thoracic aperture under the skin, on the ventral part of the neck. This most likely caused atelectasis, similarly to what was observed in Case 3 reported by Hiraga and Abbe (1986). In Case 1 reported by Hiraga et al. (1993) the cranial part of the right lung lobe protruded into the pericardial cavity while the sternum was cleft cranially and was fused only at the xyphoid process. In our case only the presternum was cleft. Windberger et al. (1992) observed emphysaema and atelectasis combined with follicular peribronchitis in patches throughout the lung. Liver and kidney hyperaemia were observed in our case, most likely due to congestion. Hyperaemia of various internal organs was also observed in another case of ectopia cordis (Schulze et al. 2006). On the basis of the findings in this case and reports from other authors, we suspect that deformed cranial thoracic aperture was the cause of the ec227.

(5) Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (4): 224–228 doi: 10.17221/8824-VETMED. topa cordis cervicalis, because no other abnormalities of the heart and vessels were found.. REFERENCES Bowen JM, Adrian RW (1962): Ectopia cordis in cattle. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 141, 1162–1167. Eroksuz H, Metin N, Eroksuz Y (1998): Total pectoral ectopia cordis and other congenital malformations in a calf. Veterinary Record 142, 437. Fiedler HH, Seidler D (1974): Ectopia cordis cranialis with anomalies of vascular truncs close to the heart in a calf (in German). Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 81, 619–621. Frackowiak H, Jaskowski JM, Nabzdyk M, Kociucka B, Sczerbal I, Switonski M, Bukowska D, Antosik P (2014): Congenital sternal ectopia cordis in a Limousin calf – a case report. Acta Veterinaria Brno 83, 51–54. Freeman LE, McGovern PT (1984): Ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis in a piglet. Veterinary Record 115, 431–433. Gopal T, Leipold HW, Dennis SM (1986): Congenital cardiac defects in calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47, 1120–1121. Hamali H, Ashrafihelan J (2010): A report on bovine fetal Ectopia cordis cervicalis associated with two cervical sacs. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 11, 287–299. Hiraga T, Abe M (1986): Eight calves of cervical ectopia cordis and their sternums. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 48, 1199–1206. Hiraga T, Abe M, Iwasa K, Takehana K, Tanigaki A (1993): Cervico-pectoral ectopia cordis in two Holstein calves. Veterinary Pathology 30, 529–534. Hughes HV (1934): Ectopia cordis in the calf. Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 47, 141–151.. Jezek J, Klopcic M, Klinkon M (2006): Influence of age on biochemical parameters in calves. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 50, 211–214. Jezek J, Nemec M, Staric J, Klinkon M (2011): Age related changes and reference intervals of haematological variables in dairy calves. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 55, 471–478. Kurtz JH, Ellery JC (1969): Ectopia cordis in a bovine fetus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 30, 471–473. Morales JM, Patel SG, Duff JA, Villareal RL, Simpson JW (2000): Ectopia cordis and other midline defects. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 70, 111–114. Onda K, Sugiyama M. Niho K, Sato R, Arai S, Kaneko K, Ito S, Muto M, Suganuma T, Wakao Y, Wada Y (2011): Long-term survival of a cow with cervical ectopia cordis. Canadian Veterinary Journal 52, 667–669. Ramadan RO, Abdin-Bey MR (1993): Ectopia cordis in a goat. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 28, 137–139. Sabolic M, Radmanic T, Husnjak B (2006): Ectopia cordis – case report (in Croatian). Veterinarska Stanica 37, 145–148. Schulze U, Kramer K, Hewicker-Trautwein M, Haas L, Distl O (2006): Ectopia cordis in a German Holstein calf (in German). Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 113, 281–284. Shirian S, Oryan A, Samadian MR (2010): Ectopia cordis in a male Holstein Friesian calf. The Open Anatomy Journal 2, 34–36. West HJ, Payne-Johnson CE (1987): Ectopia cordis in two calves. Veterinary Record 121, 108–109. Windberger U, Forstenpointner G, Grabenwoger F, Kopp E, Kunzel W, Mayr B, Pernthaner A, Simon P, Losert U (1992): Cardiac function, morphology and chromosomal aberrations in a calf with ectopia cordis cervicalis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 39, 759–768. Received: 2015–09–25 Accepted after corrections: 2016–02–18. Corresponding Author: Jozica Jezek, University in Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty, Clinic for Ruminants with Ambulatory Clinic, Cesta v Mestni Log 47, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: jozica.jezek@vf.uni-lj.si. 228.

(6)

New documents

Bis(2,2′ bi­pyridine κ2N,N′)­chloro­copper(II) tetra­fluoro­borate di­chloro­methane solvate
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 1997; cell refinement: SMART; data reduction: SAINT Bruker, 1997; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997a; programs used to refine
Could the sentiments of Rio derail an active nation?
Moreover, the UK government has even suggested that elite sporting success can trigger positive changes in people’s lifestyles, including increased non-sporting physical activity and
Tri­aqua­(2,2′ bi­pyridine)(4 sulfonatobenzoato)manganese(II) monohydrate containing seven coordinate manganese
metal-organic papers Data collection: SMART Bruker, 2002; cell refinement: SAINT Bruker, 2002; data reduction: SAINT; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997;
Development of an auditory rehabilitation training programme for hearing impaired adults in Saudi Arabia
b Auditory Rehabilitation AR group For the AR group, during appointment 3, after completing the with the hearing aid section of the GHABP questionnaire and performing the speech test
Di­aqua­bis­(4 hy­droxy­benzoato κO)(1,10 phenanthroline κ2N,N′)­cobalt(II) monohydrate
The title complex, [CoC7H5O32C12H8N2H2O2]H2O, displays a distorted octahedral coordination geometry about the CoII atom, involving two 4-hydroxybenzoate anions, one 1,10-phenanthroline
Women at the intersection of the local and the global in schools and community history in Britain since the 1980s
Women at the intersection of the local and the global in schools and community history in Britain since the 1980s ALISON, Twells Available from Sheffield Hallam University Research
catena Poly­[[bis­(μ 1,10 phenanthrolin 2 olato κ3N,N′:O)­dicopper(I,II)(Cu—Cu)] μ chlorocopper(I) μ chloro]
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 2002; cell refinement: SAINT Bruker, 2002; data reduction: SAINT; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to refine
User acceptance of Tamil technology in postcolonial Tamil Nadu
SPSS software to establish the relationship between the target question- Does factors such as first language, language of instruction at school, social value of language to name a few,
Di μ hydroxo bis­­[aqua­(1,10 phenanthroline κ2N,N′)copper(II)] terephthalate octa­hydrate
metal-organic papers structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to refine structure: SHELXL97 Sheldrick, 1997; molecular graphics: SHELXTL/PC Sheldrick, 1999; software used to
Location prediction optimisation in WSNs using kriging interpolation
Using recently measured data and estimates, the Kriging method is used to interpolate temperature of uncovered regions in the field and positions of heat sources are predicted with

Related documents

Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom
A new expressivist approach to writing instruction might require teachers to develop strategies that allow a lot of classroom space for low-stakes writing and give
0
1
319
History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877
Grant defeated Horatio Seymour in the presidential race february 1869 Fifteenth Amendment passed by Congress December 1869 Grant encouraged Congress to readmit
0
14
864
The Ideologies of Lived Space in Literary Texts, Ancient and Modern
ideologies.lived.spaces.book Page 229 Saturday, August 17, 2013 11:47 AM 229 Writing space, living space Time, agency and place relations in Herodotus’s Histories1
0
5
261
Writing the Nation: A Concise Introduction to American Literature 1865 to Present
Writing the Nation American Liter ature Since 1945 1945 - Present Jim Crow Laws: Named after a popular racist caricature of the nineteenth century, Jim Crow refers
0
10
775
Reading With My Eyes Open: Embracing the critical and the personal in language pedagogy
vi  Reading With My Eyes Open Social and Cultural Views of Language 37 Hymes’ Theory of Communicative Competence 37 Sapir-Whorf 38 Critical Language Awareness 39
0
0
211
eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Marketing in a Digital World
Glossary › Video search engine optimisation VSEO Glossary › Search engine spiders Search engine spiders Search term Secondary research Segmentation Sender alias
0
5
305
The pattern of intra cranial hemorrhage in the age group of 2 weeks and 6 months with reference to late onset hemorrhagic disease of newborn
SUBJECTS AND METHODS METHODOLOGY: DESIGN OF STUDY : Descriptive study PLACE OF STUDY : PICU, NICU, medical wards and Institute of Child newborn ward in Health and Hospital for Children,
0
0
68
The role of cranial and thoracic EMG within diagnostic criteria for ALS.
To facilitate diagnosis, the El Escorial,1 revised El Escorial,2 and subsequent Awaji-Shima3 criteria all combine patterns of upper motor neuron UMN and lower motor neuron LMN
0
0
24
Geometric Morphometric Analyses and Cranial Shape Evolution in Monitor Lizards
Our study examines how observation view dorsal, ventral and lateral influences 2D geometric morphometric analysis of interspecific cranial shape variation in monitor lizards.. We
0
0
64
Adult Posterior Cranial Fossa Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report
In our case, since the vermis were present and normal position of the torcula were found, the cyst did not communicate with the fourth ventricle which was rostrally deviated, our
0
0
5
Leaf Morphology Variation of Populus nigra L in Natural Populations along the Rivers in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Populations sampled in the lower course of the River Neretva, which correspond to the hairy type of the European black poplar, have smaller leaves and a greater angle between the first
0
0
13
Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of Marketing Tools and the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products Based Small and Medium Enterprises in the South East Europe
This paper describes the challenges and opportunities related to the use of marketing tools for improving business of the small and medium enterprises SMEs dealing with non-wood forest
0
0
10
Future of the Main Important Forest Tree Species in Serbia from the Climate Change Perspective
Distribution data of the nine most abundant tree species in Serbia European beech, Turkey oak, Sessile oak, Hungarian oak, Pedunculate oak, Norway spruce, Silver fir, Black and Scots
0
0
8
The Comparison of Innovations in Slovakian Forestry between 2002 and 2010 a Shift to Multifunctionality?
The positive shift towards non-wood product offer is a result of adopted strategic documents such as National Forest Program, Rural Development Program that emphasize the principle of
0
0
9
Biological Control of the Invasive Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) an Overview and the First Trials in Croatia
MORIYA S, INOUE K, SHIGA M, MABUCHI M 1992 Interspecific relationship between an introduced parasitoid, Torymus sinensis Kamijo, as a biological control agent of the chestnut gall wasp,
0
0
10
Show more