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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Wilder, Wetter, Warmer

(5)

Wilder, Wetter, Warmer

(6)

Drilling

Cracow

& Water

25.3. 2013

Waste Management

OFFSHORE OIL WASTE

TORLEIV

BILSTAD

UNIVERSITY OF

STAVANGER

Norway

In collaboration with

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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-Discharge regulations

- Norway

Zero harmful discharge

to sea

substituting harmful

chemicals

improved treatment or

injection of produced

water

”Zero discharge” goal for 2005 in White Paper 1996/97

68

o

N

(10)

10

© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

1

0

Produced water volumes

@

Norwegian Continental Shelf

Discharge

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

1

9

9

0

1

9

9

2

1

9

9

4

1

9

9

6

1

9

9

8

2

0

0

0

2

0

0

2

2

0

0

4

2

0

0

6

2

0

0

8

2

0

1

0

2

0

1

2

2

0

1

4

2

0

1

6

2

0

1

8

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

2

2

0

2

4

2

0

2

6

2

0

2

8

2

0

3

0

M

il

l

m

3

Water production and discharge Norwegian Continental Shelf

Produced water

Discharge

Reinjected

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Cuttings removal from

wells

(15)

Drilling fluids are used when a hole is drilled

Why use drilling fluids?

Control formation pressure

.

Prevent formation loss

• Maintain wellbore stability

• Lubricate

• Remove cuttings

• Cool

• Transmit signals(pressure pulse) from mud to MWD & LWD tools

• Drilling fluids is utilized by the oil and gas producing companies, when they are

drilling a well.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Why drilling fluids?

• Drilling fluids are used when a hole is drilled

• Control formation pressure

• Maintain wellbore stability

Lubricate

Remove cuttings

Cool

• Transmit signals(pressure pulse) from mud to MWD & LWD tools

• Drilling fluids is utilized by the oil and gas producing companies, when they are

drilling a well.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Why drilling fluids?

• Drilling fluids are used when a hole is drilled

• Control formation pressure

Stabilize for cementing

Transmit signals, pressure pulses

from mud to

MWD

&

LWD

tools

MWD = measurement while drilling

(19)

Summarize: Why drilling fluids?

Increase Efficiency

Leif Erikson day rate 2012 = RP 4 600 000 000

NOK 2 800 000

US$ 460 000

PLN 1 400 000

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(21)

Indonesia –

not Iceland

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(27)

Particles of crushed sedimentary rock

produced during drilling operation

Ground rock coated with a layer of drilling fluid

A typical oil-based drilling fluid waste:

70 % mineral solids

15 % water

15 % oil

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Drill Cutting Removal &

(31)

Soil Washing and Oilfield Solids

Cleaning

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(37)

Dr. Aleksandra

Jamrozik

Thermomechanical Cuttings

Cleaner

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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Drilling Waste Management

FINISHED

(41)

Name

Operator

Production

start

Skarv

BP Norge

Q3 2011

Gaupe

BG Norge

Q4 2011

Oselvar

Dong

Q4 2011

Marulk

ENI Norge

Q2 2012

Vigdis North

East

Statoil

Q4 2012

Goliat

ENI Norge

2013

The drilling industry in Norway

Fields being developed

(42)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(43)

Rig Activity February 2012per February 2012

Sector

Jackup

Semisub

Drill ship

Active

Platforms

Land

Norwegian

sector

8

22

1

20

0

Danish

6

0

0

0

1

Type of rigs, and rig activity Scandinavia

February 2012

(44)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Well activity 2012 - Scandinavia

NORWAY

Forecast

Actuals per April 2012

EXP

DEV

EXP

DEV

62

127

10

26

DENMARK

Forecast

Actuals per April 2012

EXP

DEV

EXP

DEV

2

17

1

3

(45)

Drilling waste - what is it?

Oily water – Slop water (drilling slop)

+

Oily drill cuttings

(46)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Did specify ”why drilling fluids”

Now:

What are drilling fluids?

Aqueous

WBM

Non

aqueous

OBM

Diesel

SBM

(47)

Water Based Mud

Deflocculants:

Lignosulfonate

BaSO

4

CaCO

3

Viscosifier:

Bentonite clay

Salts

Polymers

(48)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Oil Based Mud

Water

Weighting agents

Emulsifers

Yellow &

red

chemicals

Mineral oil or

(diesel)

(49)

Environmental friendly WBM

1970 UK USA, Canada and Norway became concerned about discharging fluids

1990 Introduction of SBM (Synthetic) to replace OBM.

OBM is bio-accumulating and toxic

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Modern WBM

Contains green chemicals and/or sea water

Bioaccumulation

Reduction of chemicals

99% the last 10 years

Pose little or

no risk to the

environment

(51)

Regulations

Water based (WB) drill cuttings may be discharged

Oil based (OB) drill cuttings shall not be discharged

The Barents sea “0-discharge” area

Permit is required for all discharges

Permit is required for sub surface injection

Regulations for handling and treating waste onshore different from

offshore.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Why is still OBM used?

Reservoirs with HTHP (High Temp and High Pres) cracks the polymers

.

Deeper wells.

Used in the lower sections (17 ½”, 12 ¼”, 8 ½”)

High inclination on the well increase the chance on fracturing the well.

Requires good well stability and efficiency

When ROP (rate of penetration) > 50 degrees

High recycle rate (70% , WBM 45%)

Personnel safety on Norwegian continental

Shelf is 1st priority

(53)

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Drill cuttings

Oil based drill cuttings separated from drilling fluid

Most used separation technique - the «Shale shaker»

(vibrating screens)

(54)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Is Oil Based Mud really that bad?

Research have shown OBM discharges are killing

species and reducing biodiversity due to reducing

oxygen and clog the filter feeders

Spawning grounds for fish are damaged by drilling

discharge

Norway has big coral reefs

(Lophelia pertusa)

(55)

1)

Control formation pressure

2)

Stabilize wellbore

3)

Transport drill solids to surface

4)

Keep drill solids in suspension

5)

Cool and lubricate drill string & bottom hole

assembly (BHA)

6)

Provide buoyancy to drill string and casing

7)

Transfer hydraulic energy

8)

Medium for wireline logging and logging while

drilling

(56)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Offshore drilling waste

Disposal options

Discharge to sea

Injection sub surface

(underground)

Send to shore for treatment and disposal

(landfill)

Treat offshore

– discharge

or

send to shore

Choice depends on

location

,

type of

drilling fluid

,

laws/regulations

,

cost

Most operator adopt a best available technique (BAT) approach

combined with risk assessment in order decide.

UiS

&

(57)

Discharge of cuttings, sand and solid particles

Cuttings from drilling and well activities, sand and

other solid particles shall not be

discharged to sea

if

the content of formation oil, other oil or base fluid in

organic drilling fluid exceeds

ten grams per kilo

of dry mass = 1 %

The operator shall obtain a permit pursuant to Chapter 3

of the Pollution control Act to

inject materials

such as

cuttings, sand and solid particles.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Drilling waste produced offshore Norway

(tons)

Increasing amount sent onshore due to problems

associated with re-injection of drill cuttings

Majority of the amount to shore split between 4-5 of

the major bases along the coast of Norway.

Year

Total drilling

waste to shore

WB drill

cuttings

discharged

OBM Cuttings

Injected

2008

142 142

70 199

228 743

2009

151 704

132 003

252 562

2010

258 482

207 655

125 123

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NORWAY

SWEDEN

FINLAND

RUSSIA

Drill cuttings logistics

Rig to shore base

Supply vessel using cuttings skips or dense

phase transfer and larger bulk tanks.

At Base

Intermediate storage awaiting further

transport

Base to treatment site

Normally by boat or truck.

(60)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

High throughput performance.

>99% base oil recovery

No flashpoint or toxicity

degradation

<2% solids in recovered oil

Three recoverable byproducts

Base Oil

Water

Solids

Eliminates ship to shore

transportation of cuttings.

Mobile unit allows for quick

mobilization

Overall reduction in HSE exposure

(61)
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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(63)
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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Cuttings Transport Tank (CTT)

The CTT is filled using

air conveying pump

systems i.e. SV-400.

Easy access to

valves & manifolds

Easy to empty, short

circulation time

Transported & secured

like standard cargo

containers

(65)
(66)

Cuttings injection - CRI

UiS

(67)

Water &

Waste

Fluids

Cuttings

Basic Principles

Disposal Well

Injection Pump

Classification

Shaker

(68)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Injection Locations

Between casing strings

Into an

existing well

Above

production

zone

(69)
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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

East side pictures

(71)

Drilling Slop

Slop is usually a mix of rain water and

wash water with the remains of discarded

drilling, completion and similar fluids

A typical rig produces 100 to 300 m3 every month

1000 m3 per month is not uncommon, depending on

the operation

Oil

10%

Solids

(72)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Challenge

Closed rigs and drain system layouts

Limited possibility of segregation of

various types of slop.

Rain water, and high usage of water

for cleaning purposes, results in large

volumes of slop .

High cost for the operator

– Ship to Shore

– Onshore treatment

Solution

Treat waste at point

of origin

Less waste transported

to shore

(73)

Continuous discharge monitoring

Advanced sensors

OIW EX 1000:

UV-fluorescensce

Continuous on-line monitoring of

discharge water

Easy to connect and easy

to operate

Data storage and transfer of

records.

(74)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

7

4

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

BTEX

Naphtalenes

PAH

- 2 – 3 ring

- 4 –ring +

Alkyl-phenols

C0 – C3

C4 - C5

C6 - C9

Metals (Cu, Cd, Hg, Zn, Pb, Ni)

Added chemicals

Corrosion inhibitor

Biocide

Scale inhibitor

Flocculent

Emulsion breaker

H2S-scavenger

(75)

The drilling industry in Norway

Drilling waste – drill cuttings and drilling slop

Drilling waste disposal options

Regulations

Drilling waste volumes and logistical challenges

The process of drilling oil and gas wells

Drilling Waste Management and strategies

Drilling waste handling on the rig – technologies

(76)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Produced Water

: Separation and polishing

Choke technology

Separator technology

Oil Droplet separation

Chemical Injection Points

Sand/Particle Handling

OnLine OiW monitoring

7

8

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Wilder, Wetter, Warmer

(83)

Water Management Technologies

Hydrocyclone Water pump Oil pump Electric cable GEL

Water

Oil

Oil

Separation at seabed and

reinjection

Selective water shut off

Separation at platform

and discharge to sea

Separation at platform and

reinjection into the reservoir

(84)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

C

l

CO2 Capture and storage (CCS) – removal of

CO2 from natural gas

Carbon capture and storage

– Sleipner (1 mill ton/year)

– In operation since 1996

– Monitoring in Utsira

– Snøhvit (0.7 mill ton/year)

• In operation since 2007

(85)

Produced Water Treatment

Mitigation Measures

EIF - risk

Water treatment

technology

C-Tour

EPCON

Zero

harm

Reduce/optimise chemical

use

H2S removal

Re-injection or

disposal

(86)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

C

l

Statoil - Exploration and Production Norway

5 major environmental aspects / ISO 14001

1. Oil and natural components in produced water

2. Chemicals in produced water and discharges for drilling & wells

3. Emissions of NOx and CO2 for power generation and flare

4. Waste

(87)

Modern WBM 3

KLIF = Climate and pollution agency

BAT = Best available technology

(88)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

88

-Possible dangers and threats to the environment

when chemicals are used

Can the chemicals accumulate in the

food chain?

Are the chemicals persistent

or biodegradable?

C

10

H

18

N

3

O

2

Microbial degradation

CO

2

+H

2

O+NH

3

(89)
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90

© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

D r i l l i n g M u d

D r i l l i n g M u d

L i q u i d s

S o l i d s

S o l u b l e

S a l t s

- O i l

- W a t e r

- E s t e r

- O l e f i n

- N a C l

- K C l

- C a C l

2

- G l y c o l , S i l i c a t e s

L o w G r a v i t y S o l i d s

W e i g h t i n g

M a t e r i a l

- B a r i t e

- H e m a t i t e

- I l m i n i t e

D e s i r e d

S o l i d s

- B e n t o n i t e

- P o l y m e r s

- T h i n n e r s

- O t h e r

D r i l l e d

S o l i d s

- S a n d s

- S i l t

- S h a l e

- A n h y d r i t e

(95)

Treatment of OBM

• Shipped to shore, thermal treeatment (expensive)

• Recycled

(96)

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© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Best Available Techniques (BAT)

Substitution program for replacement of enviornmental unacceptable

chemicals

– Statoil work together with their suppliers

– Has achieved very good results the last 10 years regarding

discharge of unacceptable chemicals

Select technology to avoid chemicals (BAT):

– Use of high quality material in flowlines to avoid corrosion inhibitor

• Effects water cleaning and enviornmental impact

• Reuse of drilling chemicals / drilling mud

(97)

-The business we’re in . . .Drilling

Cuttings Transport

The Circulating System

(98)

98

© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Select environmental acceptable chemicals

9

8

BIODEGRADATION

Biodegradation

seawater with natural bacteria fauna

O

2

O

2 2

CO

O

2

H

O

2

H

O

2

H

2

CO

2

CO

Day 28

CARBONDIOXIDE + WATER + S + P + O + N....

seawater with natural bacteria fauna

O

2

O

2

O

2

O

2

O

2

O

2

O

2

O

2

Day 0

CHEMICAL + OXYGEN

R-OH

R-OH

(99)

No light

No algae

warm

&

CO

2

water

(pH)

(100)

100

© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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