The influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers mediated by organizational commitment

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ContaduríayAdministración61(2016)422–440

www.contaduriayadministracionunam.mx/

Availableonlineatwww.sciencedirect.com www.cya.unam.mx/index.php/cya

The

influence

of

passion

and

empowerment

on

organizational

citizenship

behavior

of

teachers

mediated

by

organizational

commitment

Influencia

de

la

pasión

y

el

empoderamiento

en

la

conducta

cívica

organizacional

de

los

maestros

mediados

por

el

compromiso

organizacional

Uree

Cheasakul

,

Parvathy

Varma

AssumptionUniversityofThailand,Thailand

Received30April2015;accepted8December2015 Availableonline9May2016

Abstract

Thepresentresearchaimstostudythedirectandindirectinfluenceofpassionandempowermenton orga-nizationalcitizenshipbehaviorofteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailandmediatedbyorganizational commitment.Thesamplecomprises124teachersteachingintheuniversityandtheOrganizational Citizen-shipBehaviorScale,adaptedbyPodsakoffandMackenzie(1990),PassionScale,developedbyVallerand, Carbonneau,FernetandGuay(2008),SchoolParticipantEmpowermentScale(SPES)developedbyShort andRinehart(1992)andOrganizationalCommitmentScalewhichwasmodifiedfromthe originalscale ofMeyerandAllen(1991)byMeyer,Allen,andSmith(1993)wereemployed.Thepathmodelwiththe dependentvariableorganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorandtheindependentvariablespassion,and empower-mentandthemediatingvariableorganizationalcommitmentwastestedusingregressionanalysis.Thereare relationshipsbetweenpassionforteaching,teacherempowerment,andorganizationalcommitmentonthe organizationalcitizenshipbehaviorofteachers.Theteachershavehighleveloforganizationalcitizenship

Correspondingauthor.

E-mailaddress:ureechs@au.edu(U.Cheasakul).

PeerReviewundertheresponsibilityofUniversidadNacionalAutónomadeMéxico.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cya.2016.04.003

0186-1042/AllRightsReserved©2016UniversidadNacionalAutónomadeMéxico,FacultaddeContaduríay Admin-istración.ThisisanopenaccessitemdistributedundertheCreativeCommonsCCLicenseBY-NC-ND4.0.

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behavior,suggestingthattheyexhibitbehaviorsofdiscretionarynaturethatarenotpartoftheirformalrole requirements,butwhichpromotetheeffectivefunctioningoftheuniversity.

AllRightsReserved©2016UniversidadNacionalAutónomadeMéxico,FacultaddeContaduríay Admin-istración.ThisisanopenaccessitemdistributedundertheCreativeCommonsCCLicenseBY-NC-ND 4.0.

JELclassification: M14

Keywords:Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior;Teacherempowerment;Passionforteaching;Organizationalcommitment

Resumen

La presente investigación se propone estudiar la influencia directa e indirecta de la pasión y el empoderamiento enel comportamientode ciudadaníaorganizativadelos maestrosenuna universidad privadadeTailandiamediadosporelcompromisoorganizacional.Lamuestracomprendea124maestros queense˜nanenlauniversidadyseemplearonlaEscaladeComportamientodeCiudadaníaOrganizativa (OrganizationalCitizenshipBehaviorScale)adaptadaporPodsakoffyMackenzie(1990),laEscaladePasión (oentusiasmo)(PassionScale)desarrolladaporVallerand,Carbonneau,FernetyGuay(2008),laEscala deEmpoderamientodeParticipantesEscolares(SchoolParticipantEmpowermentScale-SPES) desarrol-ladaporShortyRinehart(1992)ylaEscaladeCompromisoOrganizacional(OrganizationalCommitment Scale)quefuemodificadadelaescalaoriginaldeAllenyMeyer(1991)porMeyer,AllenySmith(1993). Elmodelodetrayectoriaconlavariabledependientedecomportamientodeciudadaníaorganizativaylas variablesindependientesdepasión(entusiasmo)yempoderamientoylavariabledemediaciónde compro-misoorganizacionalsepusoapruebaconelusodelanálisisderegresión.Hayrelacionesentrelapasión porlaense˜nanza,empoderamientodelmaestroycompromisoorganizacionalenelcomportamientode ciu-dadaníaorganizativadelosmaestros.Losmaestrostienenunaltoniveldecomportamientodeciudadanía organizativa,sugiriendoquemuestranconductasdenaturalezadiscrecionalquenosonpartedelosrequisitos formalesdesufunción,peroquepromuevenelfuncionamientoefectivodelauniversidad.

DerechosReservados©2016UniversidadNacionalAutónomadeMéxico,FacultaddeContaduríay Admin-istración.EsteesunartículodeaccesoabiertodistribuidobajolostérminosdelaLicenciaCreativeCommons CCBY-NC-ND4.0.

CódigosJEL: M14

Palabrasclave: Comportamientodeciudadaníaorganizativa;EmpoderamientodelMaestro;PasiónporlaEnse˜nanza; CompromisoOrganizacional

Modernizationhaschangedtheinfrastructureofuniversities.Therehasbeenadequateemphasis givenintechnologicaladvancementstocreatealearningenvironmentforthepresentgeneration students.Teachers playaverysignificant roleinthe lifeof thestudents andthe statusof the university.Therolegoesbeyondinspiringthestudentsinacademics,tomakeafieldforthestudents tonurturetheir creativity.AsstatedbyGargandRastogi(2006),the successoforganizations largely depends on the commitmentand effortput by their employees.It is fortunate for an organizationwhenemployeescommittoanorganizationbydevotingtheirfreetimeandenergy forthegrowthandprosperityoftheorganization(DiPaola&Hoy,2005).Therefore,university lecturers playan importantrole in theeducational systemandtheir proficiency, novelty, and developmentcanleadtheorganizationtosuccess.

In1983Smith,Organ,andNearintroducedtheconceptof‘organizationalcitizenshipbehavior’ andtheydefineditas“discretionarybehaviorthatgoesbeyondone’sofficialjobandisintendedto helpotherpeopleintheorganizationortoshowconscientiousnessandsupporttowardthe organi-zation”(p.775).Itwasstatedthatorganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorcanenhancetheefficiency oforganizations.Manyempiricalstudiesoforganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorwereprovento

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besignificantinmanyserviceorganizationssuchas restaurants,hospitalandhotels.Research indicatesahighcorrelationbetweenorganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorsandefficiencyof orga-nization,whichmeanshigherorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,higherwillbetheefficiency (Chu,2005).

There is ascarcity of empirical research onorganizational citizenshipbehavior of higher educationinThailand;therefore,itisinterestingtoinvestigateifthepredictorsoforganizational citizenshipbehaviorhaveadirectimpactontheefficienciesof theuniversities.Inthe present educationalsettingtheroleof theteachersdoesnotconfineonlytoteachingas theuniversity hastokeepuptothestandardssetbytheOfficeofHigherEducationCommission.Theprivate universitiescannotsurvivewithteacherswhoaregoodinteachingalone,thepaperworkandthe activitiesinvolvedrequiresatremendouseffortwhichextendsbeyondtheir traditionalroleof teachingdemands.They alsorequire amorepositiveattitudeandcommitment.Chughtaiand Zafar(2006)statedthesignificanceoffosteringpositiveorganizationalcommitmentamongthe academicstaff,asthereisasignificantcorrelationofcommitmentandcitizenshipbehavior.

Passionisdefinedas“astronginclinationordesiretowardsanactivitythatonelikesandfinds importantandinwhichoneinveststimeandenergy”(VallerandandHoulfort,2003).Therefore, passionforteachingcanbeexplainedastheinclinationorloveforteachingorimpartingknowledge totheirstudentandinvesttheirtimeandenergyintheirwork.Anotherimportantareaofconcern that isclosely linkedtopassion isempowerment.AccordingtoWilsonandCooligan(1996), empoweredlecturerswillbeconfidentintheirpotentialandabilitytobeabletoinfluencestudents learninganddevelopment.Thus,theyhavestrongindividualefficacyexpectations.Moreover,it isevidentthatwhenthelectureshaveasenseofcontroloverthejob,theyexhibithighlevelsof organizationalcitizenship.Inthesameway,whenempoweredteachersexperiencemeaningfulness intheirjob,theyaremorelikelytorespondwithhighlevelsofpersistenceandmotivation,which arelikelytotranslateintohighlevelsoforganizationalcitizenshipbehaviors(Kirkman&Rosen, 1999;Kirkman,Rosen,Tesluk&Gibson,2004).

Backgroundofthestudy

Researchonorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior(OCB)hasreceivedagreatdealofattention fromresearcherswiththebeliefthatinstructorsintheuniversityplayakeyroleintheeducational successandtheoverallefficiencyoftheuniversity.Instructorswithhigherorganizational citizen-shipbehaviorwillbewillingtospendextratimeforthedepartmentorforthestudentsandwill bevoluntarilygoingoutofthewaytocarryoutdepartmentoruniversityactivities(DiPaola& Neves,2009).Itisveryimportanttostudythefactorsthatpredictorganizationcitizenship behav-ior.Thoughastrongrelationshipwasidentifiedwithpassionforteachingandcitizenshipbehavior themediatingeffectoforganizationalcommitmentwasnotstudiedtodate.Teachersbeyondthe definedroles,involvedintheactivitiesofthedepartment,andqualitytimewithstudentsaregood examples oforganizational citizenshipbehavior.Itisvery importanttounderstandthe under-lyingmotivatingfactorsthatinstigatetheteacherstoengageinactivitieswhicharebeyondthe requirementsoftheirjobroles.ThepresentresearchaimstostudytheantecedentsofOCB.

Problemstatement

Employees’ or lecturers’ committed behavior is critical for an institution’s effective functioning.

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SeveralstudiesonOCBhavehighlightedthesignificanceofOCBonthesuccessofthe orga-nization(Chen,Hui,&Sego,1998).ResearchersbelievethatthelackofOCBinlecturerscan affect theacademic performanceof students andthe successof the organization. Itis, there-fore,necessarytoevaluatethedeterminantsoforganizationalsuccessinrelationtoitsmembers’ effortandinvolvementinorganizations.Intheuniversitycontext,itisalsonecessaryto evalu-atethedeterminantsofauniversity’ssuccessinrelationtothelecturers’effortandinvolvement intheorganization. Literaturereviewinthe areaof OCBprovidesclearevidencethat organi-zational commitmenthasapositiveinfluenceonorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior(Alotaibi, 2001;Scholl,1981;Yilmaz&Cokluk-Bokeoglu,2008).Decisionmaking,whichisasub vari-ableofteacherempowermentalsohadbeenidentifiedasapowerfulpredictoroforganizational citizenshipbehavior(Bogler&Somech,2004).Lecturerswhohaveapassionforteachingtend tostaycommittedtotheorganization(Day,2004).

Objectivesofthestudy

1. To investigate the level of organizational citizenshipbehavior, passion,empowerment and organizationalcommitmentamongteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailand.

2. To investigate the direct influence of passion for teaching and teacher empowerment on organizationalcitizenshipbehaviorofteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailand.

3. To investigate the indirectinfluenceof passion for teachingandteacher empowermenton organizationalcitizenshipbehaviorofteachersaprivateuniversityinThailandbeingmediated byorganizationalcommitment.

Significanceofthestudy

ItisimportanttounderstandthefactorsinfluencingOCBoflecturers.Firstly,exploringthe conceptoforganizationalcitizenshipbehavior(OCB)canaddvaluableliteratureonOCBwithin theuniversitycontext.Second,thisstudywillenrichtheprofessionallivesoftheuniversity lectur-ersbyservingasaknowledgeresource.Third,thefindings,implications,andrecommendations ofthisstudywillbenefituniversityadministratorstocreateplansandimplementactionplansto enhanceOCBamongtheuniversitylecturers.Forexample,iftheresearchfindingssupportthat passionforteachingandteacherempowermentsignificantlyinfluenceOCB,thenthemanagement canputmoreemphasisonhiringlecturerswhohavedemonstratedapassionforteachingandgive themmorefreedomorcontrolintheirjobresponsibilities,withanaimtoincreasetheirOCBs.

Fourth,ifthestudyvariablespassionforteaching,teacherempowerment,andorganizational commitmentaretosignificantlyinfluenceOCB,thestudymayencourageuniversity administra-torstodevelopandimplementtrainingprogramsandotherinterventionsaimedatenhancingand sustainingtheOCBsofteachersundertheirjurisdiction.Finally,theliteraturereview,findings, anddiscussionsofthestudycanbeusefulforfurtherresearch.

Conceptualframework

Thestudyaimstoanalyzethedirectinfluenceofpassionforteachingandteacherempowerment ontheOCBoftheteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailand.Theinvestigationalsoaimstostudy indirect influence of passion and teacher empowerment on OCBmediated by organizational commitment.Theconceptualframeworkofthecurrentstudyisproposed,asfollows.

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Passion for teaching Organizational commitment OCB Teacher empowerment

Fig.1.Pathmodelshowing theinfluenceofpassionforteachingandteacherempowermentontheorganizational citizenshipbehaviormediatedbyorganizationalcommitment.

Method

Researchhypotheses

Basedonthepathmodel(Fig.1)andresearchquestionabove,thefollowinghypotheseswere generatedfortesting:

H1. Thereisadirectinfluenceofpassionforteachingandteacherempowermenton organiza-tionalcitizenshipbehavior,suchthathigherthepassionforteachingandteacherempowerment, thehighertheorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior.

H2. Thereisanindirectinfluenceofpassionforteachingandteacherempowermenton organiza-tionalcitizenshipbehaviormediatedbyorganizationalcommitment,suchthathigherthepassion forteaching,teacherempowerment,andorganizationalcommitment,thehighertheorganizational citizenshipbehavior.

Researchdesign

The currentstudy employedacorrelationaldesign,via pathmodeling,totest theresearch hypotheses.Thisquantitativestudywasbasedontheresponsesoflecturersinaprivateuniversityto asurveyquestionnairedesignedtotapthestudy’sprimaryvariables,namely:passionforteaching, teacherempowerment (status,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decision making,impactand autonomy)organizationalcommitment(affective,continuanceandnormative)andorganizational citizenshipbehavior.

Participants

Theparticipantsof theresearchare thelecturers ofaprivateuniversityinThailand.There are1200lecturersteachingintheuniversityunderdifferentschools/disciplines.Thestatistical programG*Power3(Faul,Erdfelder,Lang,&Buchner,2007)wasemployedtodeterminethe requiredsamplesize.SettingF-testandtheuseofmultipleregressionomnibuses(R2deviation

fromZero),thesignificancelevelat.05,powerat.95,effectsizeat.15(medium)andthenumber of predictorsat9, therequiredminimum sample sizewas determinedtobe 112.The sample

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collected was from 123 lecturers from different schools of the university. The convenience samplingtechniquewasemployedinobtainingtheparticipants.

Researchinstrumentation

TheresearchersusedasetoffivequestionnairesinEnglish–ademographicquestionnaireand fourself-ratingscales.Thedemographicquestionnairetappedintothedemographicvariablesof gender,age,andyearsofexperience.ThefirstratingscaleusedwasOrganizationalCitizenship BehaviorScale,adaptedbyPodsakoffandMackenzie(1990)fromOrgan’s(1988)version.The originalquestionnairewith24itemsconsistedoffivedimensions.Theadaptedoneconsistedof 15items.Thefivedimensionsare:altruism(items9,14,10,7),conscientiousness(items11,13, 15,2),sportsmanship(items3,12,1),courtesy(items4,5),andcivicvirtue(items6,8).Item number3,12and1 indicatesreversescoring.PodsakoffandMackenzie(1990)conductedthe confirmatoryfactoranalysisofthescaleandreportedgoodcorrespondencewithOrgan’s(1988)

theoreticalframework.Fivefactorswereidentifiedandalloftheitemsloadedsignificantlyon thesefactors.Theinternalconsistencyreliabilityofthesubscalesexceeded.80,exceptforcivic virtue(.70)andgooddiscriminantvaliditywasalsoreported.Responsestoallitemswerescored ona7-pointLikertScalerangingfrom1=StronglyDisagreeto7=StronglyAgree.

The second part of the survey questionnaireconsistedof thePassion Scale,developedby

Vallerand, Carbonneau,Fernet,andGuay (2008).Thisscalewas usedtomeasurepassionfor teaching.Thescaleconsistsoftwodimensions:thefirstdimensionmeasurestheextenttowhich peoplehavepassionforanactivity,andtheseconddimensionofthescalemeasuresharmonious andobsessivepassion.Thetest-retestreliabilitywasdoneforthescalewithretestafter3months, theCronbach’salphareportedwere.79and.78respectively.TheCronbach’salphaforharmonious passionwas0.87forbothtimesandtheCronbach’salphaofobsessivepassionwas.76,and.80 respectively.Thescalehas16items.Items1,2,3,4correspondtopassioncriteria;items5,7, 9, 10,12,14correspond toharmoniouspassion; anditems 6,8, 11,13,15,16correspond to obsessivepassion.Responsestoallitemswerescoredona7-pointLikertscale.

ThethirdscaleemployedwasSchoolParticipantEmpowermentScale(SPES)developedby

ShortandRinehart(1992).The38-iteminstrumentmeasuresteacherempowermentonsix dimen-sions: decisionmaking, professionalgrowth, status,self-efficacy, autonomy,andimpact. The presentresearchemployedanadaptedversionthatconsistedof33items.Itemsforstatusare3, 7,13,18,23,30;itemsforprofessionalgrowthare2,12,17,27;itemsforself-efficacyare4,8, 14,19,24,28;itemsfordecision-makingare1,6,11,22,26,29,31,33;itemsforimpactare 5,10,16,21,25,32;anditemsforautonomyare9,15,20.TheSPESusesafive-point Likert-typeratingscaleforeachofthe38items,where1=StronglyDisagree,2=Disagree,3=Neutral, 4=Agree,5=StronglyAgree.Cronbach’scoefficientalphareliabilitiesforthesubscales measur-ingthedimensionswerereportedasfollows:.79fordecision-making,.66forprofessionalgrowth, .84forstatus,.83forself-efficacy,.83forautonomy,and.91forimpact.Alphareliabilityforthe totalscalewas.94(Short&Rinehart,1992,ascitedinKlecker&Loadman,1996).

ThefourthsurveyquestionnaireemployedwasOrganizationalCommitmentScalewhichwas modifiedfromtheoriginalscaleofMeyerandAllen(1991)byMeyer,Allen,andSmith(1993). Thisisa24-item scaleandresponsesare madeonaseven-pointLikert scalerangingfrom 1=StronglyAgreeto7=StronglyDisagree.Theadapteditemswhichusedinthisstudyconsisted of17Items1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8correspondtoaffectivecommitment;items9,10,11,12,correspond tocontinuancecommitment;anditems13,14,15,16,17correspondtonormativecommitment. Foritems4,5,6,8,16reverse-scoringisused.MeyerandAllen(1991)andMeyeretal.(1993)

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Table1

Meansandstandarddeviationsforthecomputedfactorsoforganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,passion,status,professional growth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,autonomy,affectivecommitment,continuouscommitment,andnormative commitment.

Mean SD Midpoint

•Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior 5.62 .74 4

•Passion 5.74 .72 4 •Commitment 3.49 1.06 4 •Status 3.97 .47 3 •Professionalgrowth 3.69 .62 3 •Selfefficacy 4.02 .45 3 •Decisionmaking 3.05 .72 3 •Impact 3.61 .56 3 •Autonomy 3.52 .74 3 •Affectivecommitment 3.25 1.08 4 •Continuancecommitment 3.97 1.46 4 •Normativecommitment 3.65 1.26 4

reportedgoodreliability.Stallworth(2003)reportedthereliabilityofthethreecommitmentscales ashigh,rangingfrom.75to.84.Thealphacoefficientforthe24-itemorganizationalcommitment scaleasawholeis.81.

Results

Thesampleconsistedof 123respondentsofwhom49(39.8%)weremalesand74(60.2%) werefemales.Theiragesrangedfromunder20yearsto60yearsandabove.Ofthetotalsample, 11.4%(n=14)belongedtotheagegroupof 20–29,35.8%(44)belongedtotheagegroupof 30–39,and52.8%(65)belongedtotheagegroupof40yearsandabove.Ofthesample17.9% (22)hadteachingexperienceof1–4years,26.2%(n=32)hadateachingexperiencebetween5 and9years,16.3%(n=20)hadteachingexperiencebetween10and14years,and39%(n=48) hadteachingexperiencebetween15and20years.Majorityoftherespondentswereteacherswith 15–20yearsteachingexperience.

Reliabilityanalysiswasconductedfororganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,passionfor teach-ing,andthesubscalesofteacherempowerment,andorganizationalcommitment.Thepurposeof thereliabilityanalysiswastomaximizetheinternalconsistencyofthemeasuresbyidentifying thoseitemsthatareinternallyconsistent(i.e.,reliable),andtodiscardthoseitemsthatarenot. Scaleitemstogetherwiththeircorrecteditem-totalcorrelations>0.33wereretainedandthe fac-torswerecomputedbasedontheretaineditems.ThecomputedCronbach’salphacoefficientsfor all11scaleswereabove0.7.Afterdiscardingitemsidentifiedasunreliable(i.e.,thosewith cor-recteditemtotalcorrelation<0.33),eachofthe11factorsoforganizationalcitizenshipbehavior, passion,status,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,autonomy,affective commitment,continuouscommitment,andnormativecommitmentwasthencomputedby sum-mingacrossthe(internallyconsistent)itemsthatmakeupthatfactorandtheirmeanscalculated. Thefollowingtablerepresentsthemeansandstandarddeviationsforallthecomputedfactors.

ItisquiteclearfromTable1thatthefactorsoforganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,passion, sta-tus,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,andautonomywereratedabove themidpoint.Thus,overall,respondentsratedthemselvesas havingorganizationalcitizenship behavior,passionateintheirteachingprofession,perceived higherstatus,professionalgrowth,

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self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,andautonomyintheirteachingrealm.Whilethefactors ofaffectivecommitment,continuancecommitmentandnormativecommitmentwereratedbelow themidpoint.Thus,therespondentsgenerallyperceivedthemselvesasbeinglesscommittedto theirinstitution.Meyeretal.(1993)didnotgivethecutoffscoresforhighandlowcommitment, hencethescoresbelowthemidpointwereconsideredaslowcommitmentandthescoresabove midpointashighcommitment.

Pathanalysis

Inordertotestthehypothesizeddirectandindirectrelationshipsbythepathmodeldepictedin

Figure1,pathanalysisviaregressionanalysiswasconducted.Theanalysiswasdoneinfoursteps: (1)aregressionanalysiswasconductedusingthefactorsofpassionforteaching,subvariablesof empowerment,thatarestatus,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact, auton-omy,subvariablesofcommitmentthatareaffectivecommitment,continuouscommitment,and normativecommitmentasindependentvariablesandorganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorasthe dependentvariable;(2)asecondregressionwasconductedwiththefactorspassion,status, pro-fessionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,andautonomyasindependentvariables andaffectivecommitmentasthedependentvariable;(3)athirdregressionwasconductedwiththe factorspassion,status,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,andautonomy asindependentvariableswithnormativecommitmentasthedependentvariable;and(4)afourth regression was conducted using the factorspassion,status,professional growth,self-efficacy, decisionmaking,impact,andautonomyasindependentvariablesandcontinuancecommitment asthedependentvariable.

Figure2depictsthepathmodel(asaresultofpathanalysisviaregressionanalysis)of orga-nizationalcitizenshipbehaviorasafunctionofthedirectandindirectinfluencesoftheirpassion andteacher empowerment(status,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy, decisionmaking,impact and autonomy), being mediated by their organizational commitment (affective commitment, continuouscommitment,andnormativecommitment).

Theresultsshowedthatprofessionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,andimpacthave adirectandindirectrelationshipwithorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior.Thus,thehigherthe teachers’perceptionofprofessionalgrowthandimpact,theloweristheirorganizational citizen-shipbehavior[(Beta=−.20),t=−3.19,p<.01;(Beta=−.22),t=−2.16,p<.05,respectively)]. Thehighertheteachers’perceptionofdecisionmakingpowerandself-efficacy,thehigheristheir organizationalcitizenshipbehavior[(Beta=.24),t=3.14,p<.01;(Beta=.56),t=6.74,p<.001]. Theinfluenceofprofessionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decision-making,andimpactontheirreported leveloforganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorarealsobeingmediatedbytheiraffectivecommitment. Thus,thehighertheteachers’perceivedprofessionalgrowthanddecisionmaking,thehigheris theirreportedlevelofaffectivecommitment[(Beta=.15),t=2.90,p<.01;(Beta=.20),t=2.95, p<.01].Subsequently,thehighertheiraffectivecommitment,thehigheristheirorganizational cit-izenshipbehavior[(Beta=.29),t=3.58,p<.001].Thehighertheteachers’perceivedself-efficacy andimpact,theloweristheirreportedlevelofaffectivecommitment[(Beta=−.16),t=−2.17, p<.05;(Beta=−.35),t=−4.24,p<.001].Subsequently,thelowertheiraffectivecommitment, the loweris their reported level of organizational citizenship behavior [(Beta=.29), t=3.58, p<.001].

Theresultsalsoindicatedthatpassionandstatushavenodirectinfluenceonorganizational citizenshipbehavior,buthaveanindirectinfluenceonorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,being mediated by affective commitment. The higher their passion for teaching, the lower is their

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Passion Status Profession al growth Self-efficacy Decision making Impact Autonomy Normative commitment OCB Continuance commitment Affective commitment –.56 .31 .15 –.16 .20 –.35 –.25 .40 –.22 –.26 .21 –.35 .29 –.20 .56 .24 –.22 –.19 –.15 .25 .32 –.32

Fig.2.PathmodelrepresentingOCBandthepredictors’passionandteacherempowerment(status,professionalgrowth, self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impactandautonomy)mediatedbyorganizationalcommitment(affective,continuous,and normative).

affectivecommitment[(Beta=−.56),t=−10.93,p<.001],andthelowertheiraffective commit-ment,theloweristheirorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior[(Beta=.29),t=3.58,p<.001].In thecaseofstatus,thehighertheirstatus,thehigheristheiraffectivecommitment[(Beta=.31), t=4.31,p<.001],andthehighertheiraffectivecommitment,thehigheristheirorganizational

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citizenshipbehavior[(Beta=.29),t=3.58,p<.001].Itcanalsobegleanedfromthepathmodel thatautonomyhasnodirectorindirectinfluenceonorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior.

Theresultsalsoindicatedthatpassion,status,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decision mak-ing,andautonomyhaveaninfluenceoncontinuancecommitment.Theresultshowed thatthe higher theteachers’passion,professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,andautonomy,thelowertheir continuance commitment[(Beta=−.25), t=−4.30,p<.001;(Beta=−22),t=−3.82,p<.001; (Beta=−.26),t=−3.18,p<.01;(Beta=−.35),t=−4.57,p<.001,respectively].Again,thestudy showedthatthehighertheteachers’perceivedstatus,anddecisionmaking,thehighertheir con-tinuancecommitment[(Beta=.40),t=4.99,p<.001;(Beta=.21),t=2.83,p<.01respectively]. The result also showed that passion, professional growth, decision making, impact, and autonomyhaveaninfluenceonnormativecommitment.Thehighertheteachers’perceived pas-sion,professionalgrowth,andautonomy,thelowertheirnormativecommitment[(Beta=−.19), t=−2.86,p<.01; (Beta=−.15), t=−2.37, p<.05;(Beta=−.32), t=−3.68, p<.001, respec-tively].

Finally,thehighertheteachers’perceptionthattheyparticipateindecisionmakingandhave impactontheorganization,thehighertheirnormativecommitment[(Beta=.25),t=2.88,p<.01; (Beta=.32),t=3.07,p<.01,respectively].

Discussion

The teachers in thisuniversity reportedly go beyond their assigned duties and play extra roles(OCB)fortheeffectivefunctioningoftheirrespectivedepartmentsorwithintherespective subjectstheyteach.Pastresearchhasclearlyindicatedthatempoweredteacherstendtoexhibit organizationalcitizenshipbehaviors(Wall&Rinehart,1998).Theteachersinvolvedinthecurrent study werefoundtoperceivethemselvesashavinghighteacherempowerment,indicatedbya scoreabovemidpointonallthecomponentsofteacherempowerment.Thisisquitetruebased on the university structure as the teachersresponsible for asubject are giventhe freedom to designthecourseaccordingtothemandtheeffectivenessofthecourseisbasedonthestructure givenbythepersonwhohandlesthecourse.Thiscanbeanexplanationwhytheteachersinthis studywerefoundtohavehighorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior.Thisfindingissupportedby earlierresearch(Bogler&Somech,2004)whichdemonstratedthatthemoreteachersperceived themselves asparticipatinginany ofthecomponentsof teacherempowerment,themorethey exhibitorganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorsintheuniversity.

Theteachersinthisstudywerefoundtobepassionateabouttheirworkandthattheyenjoy their teaching. It is evidentthat the teachers have a strong desire for teachingbecause they aremotivatedtowardstheirteachingprofession.ThisistrueparticularlyinThailandsettingas teachingprofessionisnothighlypaidcomparedtootherprofessionsorcomparedtocountries. Peoplewhocome tothisprofessionare theones wholiketoteach.Thisfindingisconsistent withthatofDay(2004)whopositedthatpassioniscloselyrelatedtomotivation.Accordingto

Vallerandetal.(2008),onewhoisintrinsicallymotivatedenjoystheactivityinwhichheengages and,therefore,sharestheaspectsoflikingtheactivitywiththeaspectofpassion.Theteachers under the present research perceived themselves as being empowered (perceived highstatus, professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,impact,andautonomy).Thismaybebecause theteachersexperienceandfeelthattheircolleaguesrespectandappreciatethem(status);thatthey aregettingfromtheuniversitytheopportunitytoequipthemselvespersonallyandprofessionally (professional growth);theyfeel thattheyare capableof helpingthe studentstolearnandare equippedwithskillssothattheyperformsuccessfully(self-efficacy);theyareinvolvedindecision

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makingrelativetocurriculum,textbooks,activities,projectsandclassschedules,grading,etcetera, andtheycanseethattheirdecisionsactuallyaffecttheuniversity’soperation(decisionmaking); theyfeelthattheyareeffectiveattheirjob(impact),andtheyhavefreedomandcontrolrelative totheireducationalmilieu (autonomy).Thesefindings areinlinewiththefindings ofBogler andSomech(2004)whoexplainedthatteachersperceivethemselvesas empoweredwhen the universitygivesthemmoreresponsibilityandpowerofdecisionmakingindifferentareasand thiswouldleadtogobeyondtheirdefinedroles.

The teachers inthis study rated themselves as having low affective commitment, average continuancecommitment,andlownormativecommitmenttowardstheuniversity.Thismaybe trueastheemployeeretentionrateoftheuniversityseemstobelow.Theuniversityjobrequiresa lotofextrapaperwork,astheuniversityfollowsThaiqualityframework(TQF)forqualitycontrol. Theteachersmighthavetofulfilltheirfamilyresponsibilitiesandtheymightfinditdifficultto haveapositiveattitudetowardsthetiringandroutinepaperworkanddocumentation.Thiscanbea reasonfortheirlowaffectiveandnormativecommitmenttotheuniversity.Thisfindingissupported byapreviousstudy(Karakus&Aslam,2009)whichfoundthatteachersdonothaveaffective, normative,andcontinuancecommitmentduetoproblemswiththeirschoolsorwiththeirworking group.Thestudyalsosuggestedthatteachersmayhavelownormativecommitmentbecausethey assessedtheir salaryas not satisfactory.In addition,as teachers’externalresponsibilitiesand burdensincrease,theirnormativeandaffectivecommitmenttotheprofessiondecreases.

Theadministratorsgivethemautonomyandtheyareallowedtoparticipateindecision-making aswellashavingmutualrespectandadmiration.Additionally,theymayfeelthattheyhavean influenceontheirdepartment/universityfunctioning.

Pathanalysis

Pathanalysishasresultedinanumberoffindingsrelativetointerrelationshipsbetweenand amongthekeyvariables.Thesefindingsarepresentedanddiscussedaccordinglyinthefollowing section.

First,asaresultofpathanalysis,itwasrevealedthattherespondents’professionalgrowth, self-efficacy,decision-making,andimpacthavedirectandindirectinfluenceontheirorganizational citizenshipbehavior(OCB).

Professionalgrowthandorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Theresultsindicatedthatwhenteachers’perceivedthattheyhavehigherprofessionalgrowth; theirreportedleveloforganizationalcitizenshipbehaviorwaslower.Thisfindingisnotin agree-mentwiththe findingofBoglerandSomech(2004)whichdemonstratedthat teachersexhibit higherOCBwhentheyperceivethattheygetmoreopportunitiestoimprovepersonallyand pro-fessionally.Usually,teachershavetheopportunitytoenhancetheirprofessionalexpertise;itis alsopossiblethattheymightthinkthatitisunderutilizationoftheirskills,whentheyhaveto participateinactivitiesofuniversitylikelonghoursofproctoringexaminations,goingthrough theelaboraterehearsalsofgraduationceremony,orotherregularactivitiesofuniversity.Finegan (2000)explainedthat, inordertoincreasetheir careermarketability, employeesseemtotake greater responsibility for their own professional growth rather than use it for the successof the organization.Followingthe samelogic,it canbe saidthat teachersmightuse knowledge

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expansion,careerdevelopmentoracademicresearchthatimprovestheirworkprofileinsteadof contributingtotheuniversity’sdevelopment.

Self-efficacyandorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Whentheteachersperceivedthattheyhavehigherself-efficacy,theirOCBwasalsohigher. These findings arein line withthat of Boglerand Somech (2004)revealed that when teach-ers believethey are competent and canadapt withthe demands of the students, theywould exhibit extra role behavior. University teachers have high belief in their ability tocarry out their role effectively in university. Therefore, they perform extra roles beyond the formal ones.

Decisionmakingandorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

The highertheteachers’participationindecisionmaking,the higheristheirreportedlevel of OCB.ThisisagainconsistentwiththeresultofBoglerandSomech(2004)whofoundthat decisionmakingisastrongpredictorofOCB.Teachers’participationinjointdecisionmaking will mostlikelyleadtotheirsatisfactionwiththeirjoband, thus,showmoreOCB.Teachers’ involvementcanincreaseasenseoffairnessandtrustamongtheadministratorsandmanagement (Koopman &Wierdsma,1998);thissense ofequality increasesthe willingnessof teachersto engageinOCB.

Impactandorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Thehighertheteachers’perceptionofthemselvesashavinganimpactontheschool,thelower istheirreportedOCB.IncontrasttotheresearchbyBoglerandSomech(2004)thatindicateda positiverelationshipbetweenimpactandOCB,thepresentresearchfoundanegativerelationship. Theresultofthecurrentstudycanbeexplainedthat,althoughtheteachersmayseethattheyhave theabilityandknowledgetoinfluencethelifeofthestudentsandtheuniversity,theymaynot benecessarilyhavinganemotionalinclinationtowardsthemanagementorotheraspectsofwork whichwouldhaverestrictedthemfromperformingorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior.Onthe otherhand,previousstudieshavedemonstratedthathighlycommittedteachersexhibithighlevels ofextrarolebehaviors(Noor,2009;Stallworth,2003).

Thepathanalysisalsoshowedthattheinfluenceoftheteachers’passionforteaching,status, professionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,andimpactontheirorganizationalcitizenship behaviorismediatedbytheiraffectivecommitment.

Passionforteaching,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Whenteachershavehighpassionforteaching,theiraffectivecommitmentwasfoundtobelow; subsequently,whentheiraffectivecommitmentwaslow,theirOCBwasalsofoundtobelow.This findingispartlysupportedbyChang(2001)whosestudydemonstratedthatpassionforteaching andcommitmentarepositivelycorrelated.Thismaybebecauseteachersmayhaveapassionfor teaching,butifitisoutoftheircontrol,itcanaffecttheotheraspectsoftheirlifesuchasleisure, family,socializationwithco-workers,etcetera. Thus,the situation mayproduceless adaptive outcomesandtheteachermaynothaveanyemotionalbondingtotheuniversity.Vallerandetal. (2008)statedthatobsessivepassionforteachingcomesfromcontrolledinternalizationandresults

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innegativeoutcomes.Thus,thelowertheaffectivecommitment,theloweristheindividual’sOCB. Furthermore,whenteachersfeellesscommittedtotheirorganization,theymaynotspendtheir extratimefortheuniversityorinstitutionandmayeventuallyleave,assuggestedbyPorter,Steers, Mowday,andBoulian(1974)whorevealedthat workerswithlowlevelsofcommitmentwere morelikelytoleavetheirinstitution.

Status,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

When status of the teachers was higher, their affective commitment is also found higher. Subsequently,thehighertheiraffectivecommitment,thehigheristheirOCB.Theteachersinthis studyshowedhighlevelofcommitmenttotheschoolbecausetheyperceivedthattheyaregiven respectandregardbyotherteachers.Inthesamevein,BoglerandSomech(2004)foundthatthose teacherswhohaveahighsenseofstatusintheirjobshowhighaffectivecommitment,leadingto highlevelofOCBastheircontributiontotheschool.Teacherswhofeelanemotionalattachment totheuniversityordepartmenttendtoexperienceafeelingof‘ownership’;thus,theywouldnot hesitatetospendtheir extratimeforthe successof university.Thisassertionis supportedby previousresearch(Aube,Rousseau,&Morin,2007;Gemmiti,2007)whichdemonstratedthat affectivecommitmentproducesextrarolebehavior.

Professionalgrowth,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

When the teachers’ experience higher professional growth, higher were their affective commitment; subsequently leading to a higher level of OCB. Teachers in university may identify opportunities given by their school to nurture them personally and professionally and, therefore, may be inclined to give more to the school as evidence of their commit-ment to the organization and to the enhancement of the profession. In other words, they may feel an emotional bond with university. This argument is supported by Bogler and Somech (2004)whoshowed that workinginauniversity that encourages professional devel-opment mayinfluence teachers’ emotionalattachment andcommitmentto the school andto their job. As a result, the higher the affective commitment, the higher is the individual’s OCB.

Self-efficacy,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Whentheteachersexperiencehigherself-efficacy,theloweristheirreportedlevelofaffective commitment;andthelowertheteacher’saffectivecommitment,theloweristheirlevelofOCB. Apreviousstudyhadshownthatthereisapositiverelationshipbetweenself-efficacyand affec-tivecommitment(Bogler&Somech,2004).In contrast,thepresentstudy revealedanegative relationship.Thismaybebecauseteachersinthisuniversitymayfeelquiteconfidentabouttheir teachingskillsandmaynotbecommittedenoughtoremainintheorganizationforalongperiod oftime.Althoughtheseteachersmayfeelconfidentabouttheirskillsandabilities,theymaynot haveintrinsicmotivationtohaveanemotionalcommitmenttotheinstitution,whichcouldbedue toseveralreasons.Theinternalcommunicationsystemwithintheschoolordepartmentmaynot bestrongenoughtocreateanaffectivecommitment.Thus,itislikelythatthelowertheiraffective commitmenttotheschool,theloweristheirdemonstratedOCB.

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Decisionmaking,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

Themoretheteachers’participateindecisionmaking,thehigheristheiraffectivecommitment, whichcouldsubsequentlyleadtoahighlevelofOCB.ThispositionissupportedbyBoglerand Somech(2004)whofoundthatteachers’involvementindecision-makingresultedinincreased commitmenttothe school,leadingtomoreexpressionof OCB. Whenteachersare giventhe opportunitytoparticipateindecisionmakingthatisdeemedinstrumentaltobetterschool per-formance andmoreenhancedteaching-learningprocesses,theyarelikelytointeractmoreand developgreateremotionalandmentalattachmenttotheschool;asaresult,theymaycontinueto stayintheschool.Thisstatementissimilartothatofsomeresearchers(Bogler&Somech,2004; Hoy,Tartar,&Bliss,1990)whoassertedthatteacherswhofeelthattheyareinvolvedinmajor decisionmakingmaystaylongerintheinstitutionandworkfortheachievementofitsgoals.It wasdemonstratedinthepresentstudythat thehighertheteachers’affective commitment,the higheristheirOCB.

Impact,affectivecommitment,andorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior

The more the teachers see that they havean impact onschool life, the lower their affec-tive commitment, subsequently leadingto lowerlevel of OCB. This finding does not concur withthatofBoglerandSomech(2004)whofoundapositiverelationshipbetweenimpactand commitment. Inthe currentstudy,it maybethat theteachersfeel thattheyhaveinfluenceon university eventsandstudentachievementbut arenot necessarilyemotionally attachedtothe university possiblybecause of dissatisfaction withcomplicated workingconditions or certain managerialactions.Theemotionalattachmentcouldalsocomefromthecommunicationsystem withintheschoolandtheco-workers.Whentheyarenotattachedtotheschoolemotionallytheir tendencytohelpouttheschoolinactivitieswillbeless.ThisargumentissupportedbyKarakus andAslam(2009)whosimilarlyfoundthatthelowertheaffectivecommitment,thelowerthe OCBamongorganizationalmembers.Thepathanalysisalsorevealedthatpassion,status, pro-fessionalgrowth,self-efficacy,decisionmaking,andautonomyhaveaninfluenceoncontinuance commitment.

Passionforteachingandcontinuancecommitment

Whenthepassionforteachingishigherfortheteachers,theircontinuancecommitmentseemto belower.Areviewofliteraturerevealedthatsomeearlierstudiesexplainedthisoutcomebylinking typeofmotivationwithjobsatisfactionandcommitmenttostayintheorganization,suggesting thatwhenemployeesareintrinsicallymotivatedatwork,theyexhibitprofoundenjoymentand satisfactionintheworkplace;whereas,whenpeopleareextrinsicallymotivated,theyengagein behaviorsthatmightattractsomeobjectiveoutcomeorconsequencesuchasconcreterewardsor praise(Deci,1975;Vansteenkiste,Lens,&Deci,2006).Usingthesamereasoning,theresultsof thisstudymaybeexplainedinthecaseofteacherswhoarepassionateaboutteachingwillnotstay forthejobbenefits.Continuancecommitmentisassociatedwiththeawarenessofthecostsifthey continuetostayintheschoolorinstitutionvis-à-visthecostsiftheyleavetheschool(Karakus &Aslam,2009).

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Statusandcontinuancecommitment

Theteachers’senseof statusismore, thecontinuancecommitmentseemtobehigher.The teachers’commitmenttostayinthesameuniversityanddepartmentincreasesbecausetheybelieve theyarerespectedandpraisedbytheircolleagues.Hence,itcanbeinferredthattheteachersin thisstudymightfeelthattheywouldlosetheirstatusiftheyleavetheuniversity.

Professionalgrowthandcontinuancecommitment

Whentheteachers’seemtoexperiencehigherprofessionalgrowth,theircontinuance commit-mentseemstobelower.Thereasonmaybethattheteachersinhisstudymayrealizethatalthough theygetalotofopportunitiestoincreasetheirskillandknowledgeforprofessionaladvancement, thebenefitstheyreceivemaybesatisfactoryenoughforthemtostay.Thus,theymayperceive thebenefitsassociatedwithcontinuinginthesamejobasbeingunattractiveand,therefore,their levelofcontinuancecommitmentislow.

Self-efficacyandcontinuancecommitment

The teachers’self-efficacy beliefs washigher, the their continuance commitmentislower.

Bandura (1977)explained self-efficacy based ontwo dimensions – outcome expectancyand efficacyexpectancy.FollowingBandura’stheoreticalperspective,it maybethat theuniversity teachersinvolvedinthisstudyperceivedthattheyhavecompetenceandskillandthattheycan makeadifferenceintheirstudentsbutmaynotwitnessabetteroutcomeafterteaching.Thus,they maynotbesatisfiedwiththeoutcometheyexpectfromeitherthestudentsorfromtheuniversity andhencelowercontinuancecommitment.

Decisionmakingandcontinuancecommitment

Themoretheteachersfeelthattheyparticipateindecisionmaking,thehigheristheir con-tinuancecommitment.Inarelatedstudy,Smylie(1994)foundthatparticipationinthedecision makingprocessandtheexerciseofinfluenceenhancesteachers’commitmenttotheinstitution. By thesametoken,the teachersinthisstudy mayperceivethat theyare involvedindecision making,relatedtheir courseor curriculumandactivities,consequently,theyfeel empowered. ThisexplanationisincompleteagreementwiththatofBoglerandSomech(2004).

Autonomyandcontinuancecommitment

Whenteachers’experiencehighersenseofautonomy,theircontinuancecommitmentislower. Theteacherswhoparticipatedinthisstudymayperceivethemselvesashavingahighsenseof freedomandcontrol over aspects of their worksuch ascurriculum development,scheduling, textbookandinstructionalplanningbutarenotnecessarilycommittedtotheinstitution.Freedom intheworkmaynotactuallysatisfythemtostaywiththeuniversity.Theremaybeothermotivators thatarenotsatisfied,forthemtostaywiththeuniversity.Thepathanalysisalsostudiedthatpassion, professional growth,decisionmaking,impact, andautonomyhaveaninfluence onnormative commitment.

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Passionforteachingandnormativecommitment

Whentheteachershavemorepassionforteaching,theirnormativecommitmentislow.Though theyteachwellandhaveastronginternalinclinationtowardstheirprofession,theymaynotfeel committedtocontinuetheirjobwiththeuniversity,iftheyhavebetteroptions.Itcanbeinferred fromthefindingsthatmanyteachersmayfeellittleornoobligationtocontinueworkingwiththis universityastheydon’thaveanykindofcontractssignedorotherexternalpressurestocontinue withthejob.

Professionalgrowthandnormativecommitment

Whenteachers’perceptionofprofessionalgrowthismore,theirnormativecommitmentisless. Usually,whenuniversityprovidesmoreopportunitiesforteacherstoimprovetheirprofessional skillsandabilities,theyareexpectedtoworkharderandperformbetterinordertoimprovetheir university’sperformanceandeffectiveness.Whenuniversityprovidesopportunityforprofessional advancementliketrainingandworkshopstoenhancetheirskills,theytakeitup.Thoughtheyare happyabouttheirprofessionalgrowth,theyarenotobligedtohaveacommitmenttocontinue theirjobintheuniversity,iftheyhavebetteroptions.Researchandexternalprofessionalservice like workingas aconsultant toother business organizations are considered as activities that enhancetheirprofessionalgrowth.Thoughtheseactivitiesenhancetheimageoftheuniversity, theymaynotnecessarilybeamotivatortostaycommittedtotheuniversity.Iftherearebetter opportunitiesavailable,theywouldnotmindquittingthejob,eventhoughtheyhaveopportunities forprofessionalgrowth.

Decisionmakingandnormativecommitment

Themoretheteachersfeeltheyareinvolvedindecisionmaking,thehigheristheirnormative commitment.Itcanbeinferredfromthisfindingthatteachersfeelempoweredwhenthey partici-pateincriticaldecisionmakingthataffectstheirworkandschoolfunctioning.Theteachersmay feel thereisafairredistributionof powerandauthoritywithintheorganizationalhierarchy,as suggestedbyLambert(1999).Thesefeelingsandinsightsarelikelytotranslateintofeelingsof obligationtoremainwiththeorganization.Itwouldbeeasytoassumethatteacherswhobelieve thattheyareempoweredthroughparticipationindecisionmakingwillnotleavetheuniversity becauseofamoralsenseofduty,orthattheyfeeltheneedtostayintheuniversitybecauseitan obligation,assuggestedbyYavuz(2010).Dulyarkorn(2010)likewisefoundthatdecisionmaking increasesnormativecommitment.

Impactandnormativecommitment

Thehighertheteachersperceivetheyhaveimpactontheirschooleventsandlife,thehigheris theirnormativecommitment.Logically,whenteachersfeelthattheyhaveaninfluenceonwhatis goingonintheschool,theyfeelempoweredandarelikelytobecontentedandsatisfiedintheir job.Theyfeelapsychologicalcontractwiththeuniversityanditsadministrators,thusdeveloping normativecommitmenttotheinstitution(Roussenau,1995).Inthesamevein,Yilmazand Cokluk-Bokeoglu(2008)foundthatcareersatisfactionisapredictorofnormativecommitment.

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Autonomyandnormativecommitment

Thehigherthesenseofautonomyteachers’experience,higheristheirnormativecommitment. ThisfindingisnotinagreementwiththefindingofBoglerandSomech(2004)whodemonstrated thatthereisapositiverelationshipbetweenautonomyandcommitment.Earlier,Harvey,Barnes, Sperry,andHarris(1974)foundthat individualswithinternallocusof controlthinkthatthey arecapableofexercisingcontrolovertheirachievementsandfailures, andthat theyarelikely toattributethe thoughtfulnessandretributionstheyget totheir ownactionsratherthantothe kindnessandgenerosityoftheirboss.Inthesamelight,iftheteachersinthisstudybelievethey havefreedomtomakedecisionsrelatedtoschoolaspectssuchasselectionofbooks,adjusting thecourses,activities,introducingplansforcurriculumdevelopment,butthesesituationscanbe interpretedasproofoftheirpersonalcompetenceandabilitytocontrolvariousaspectsoftheir workinglife ratherthanan actof kindness or afavorgrantedby the management.Teachers’ perceptionstakeninthiscontextmaydampentheir feelingsof obligationandgratitudetothe school,assuggestedbyHarris(2005).

Limitationsofthestudy

It is essential to notethe limitations of this study. First, the study’s findings are only be generalizedtotheteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailand.Inaddition,thepresent study’s variablesmaynotbe culturallyrelevant inthe Eastsincethetheories underlyingthe primary variablesofthestudyweredevelopedandappliedmainlyintheWest.Forexample,theWestern educationalsystemandtheuniversityculturearedifferentfromtheEasterneducationalsystem. Furthertothis,thesameargumentappliestotheresearchinstrumentationusedinthepresentstudy. Theinstrumentsweredevelopedandusedinthewesternsetting.Thus,theabovedrawbacksand limitationscould havecontributedtosomeof the inconsistenciesbetween thefindings of the currentstudyandthoseofstudiescitedin-text.

Conclusions

Onthewhole,itcanbeconcludedthattherearerelationshipsbetweenpassionforteaching, teacherempowerment,andorganizationalcommitmentontheorganizationalcitizenship behav-iorofteachersinaprivateuniversityinThailand.Podsakoff,MacKenzie,andBommer(1996) reportedthatleadershipstylecaninfluenceorganizationalcitizenshipacts.Administrator’s leader-shipstyleplaysanimportantrole.Lateron,Podsakoff,MacKenzie,Paine,andBacharach(2000)

empiricallyfoundthatleadershipandcharacteristicsofworkenvironmentaffectorganizational citizenshipbehaviormorethanworker’spersonality.Theteacherswhoparticipatedinthisstudy haveahighleveloforganizationalcitizenshipbehavior,suggestingthattheyexhibitbehaviors ofdiscretionarynaturethatarenotpartoftheirformalrolerequirements,butwhichpromotethe effectivefunctioningofuniversity.Inaddition,theseteachershaveahighsenseofpassionfor teaching,suggestingthattheyhavegenerallystronginclinationordesiretowardstheirprofession, whichtheyfindimportant,andworthinvestingtheirtimeandenergy.Itcanalsobeconcludedthat theteachersunderstudyhaveahighlevelofteacherempowerment,suggestingthattheybelieve thattheyhavedevelopedthecompetencetotakechargeoftheirownpersonalandprofessional growthandresolvetheirproblemsaswellasthoseoftheuniversity.TeachingjobinThai univer-sityhasmoreautonomyandteachershavethefreedomtodoresearchordoconsultationservices outsidetheuniversityandcanenhancetheirprofessionalexpertise.Theresearchorconsultation

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servicesaredoneindependently.Itisachallengefortheadministratorstoaligntheir personal goalsinlinewiththeuniversitygoals.Thoughthepersonaldevelopmentalsocontributestothe universitygoal,thismaynotenhancetheircommitmenttotheuniversity.Finally,thisresearcher concludesthat,inspiteofallthegivenpositiveaspectsoftheirwork,teachersinthisuniversity havelowcommitmenttotheuniversity.Ineffect,thepsychologicalstatethatbindstheteachers totheirrespectiveuniversityisweak,suggestingthattheiremotionalattachmentandfaithfulness totheuniversityisfragileandmaybecompromisedifcertainintrinsicneedsarenotmet.

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Figure

Fig. 1. Path model showing the influence of passion for teaching and teacher empowerment on the organizational citizenship behavior mediated by organizational commitment.
Fig. 1. Path model showing the influence of passion for teaching and teacher empowerment on the organizational citizenship behavior mediated by organizational commitment. p.5
Fig. 2. Path model representing OCB and the predictors’ passion and teacher empowerment (status, professional growth, self-efficacy, decision making, impact and autonomy) mediated by organizational commitment (affective, continuous, and normative).
Fig. 2. Path model representing OCB and the predictors’ passion and teacher empowerment (status, professional growth, self-efficacy, decision making, impact and autonomy) mediated by organizational commitment (affective, continuous, and normative). p.9