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(1)guideCover2.qxd. 8/21/00. 11:52 AM. Page 1. Power • Accuracy • Functionality. V E R S I O N. 6.0. T u t o r i a l s.

(2) . 1999 Structural Research and Analysis Corporation (SRAC) 12121 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 700 Los Angeles, California 90025-1170 310 207-2800 (phone) 310 207-2774 (fax). COSMOS/M, COSMOS/Works, and GEOSTAR are trademarks of Structural Research and Analysis Corporation. ANSYS is a trademark of SAS IP. MSC and MSC/are registered trademarks of MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation.. Information is subject to change without notice. No material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means for any purpose without written permission of SRAC.. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.. As a condition to your use of this software, you agree to accept the limited warranty, disclaimer and other terms and conditions set forth in SRAC License Agreement which accompanies this software. If, after reading the SRAC License Agreement, you do not agree with its terms and conditions, promptly return the unused software and all accompanying material to SRAC and your payment will be refunded.. IGES Access Library is a trademark of IGES Data Analysis, Inc. Other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.. Acrobat, and Acrobat Reader are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.. Portions of this software® 1999 Unigraphics SolutionsTM, Inc. Portions of this software® 1999 Visual Kinematics, Inc. Portions of this software® 1999 Solversoft, Inc..

(3) 1 Introduction. This manual provides you with step-by-step tutorials to use COSMOS/Works. These tutorials assume that you are familiar with SolidWorks. The tutorials are grouped as follows. q q q q q q q. Static Analysis Tutorial Contact Stress Analysis Tutorial Importing Motion Loads Frequency Analysis Tutorial Buckling Analysis Tutorial Thermal Analysis Tutorial Optimization Analysis Tutorial. Although you can begin with the tutorials, we recommend that you read the COSMOS/Works Fundamentals, COSMOS/Works Interface, and Analysis Background chapters of the COSMOS/Works User’s Guide to familiarize yourself with some of the fundamentals, including:. q q q. Design Study Concepts The COSMOS/Works Manager, and COSMOS/Works Analysis Capabilities. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 1-1.

(4) ✍ Structural Research and Analysis Corporation continuously updates the COSMOS/Works program to improve accuracy and performance. Please note that when you try the tutorials in this manual, you may obtain slightly different results depending on the version of SolidWorks and COSMOS/ Works installed on your computer.. 1-2. COSMOS/Works Tutorial.

(5) 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. This chapter presents step-by-step lessons for performing linear static analysis.. q q q q q q q q. Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model) Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-beam (Shell Model) Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model) Lesson 6: Analysis of a Fuel Storage Tank (Shell Model) Lesson 7: Analysis of a Pulley Under a Bearing Force Lesson 8: Stress Concentration Around a Hole in a Plate. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-1.

(6) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part In this lesson, you will learn how to:. q q q q q q q. Retrieve a part and create a static analysis study, Assign material to the part, Insert restraints and pressure loading, Mesh the part, Run static analysis, Use COSMOS/Works menu system and new toolbars to perform analysis steps, and Visualize the static analysis results.. Retrieve the Part To retrieve the part:. 2-2. 1. Start COSMOS/Works.. 2. Click File, Open. The Open dialog box opens.. 3. Change the Look in folder to ...\Examples where “...” refers to the COSMOS/Works installation directory.. 4. From the Files of type drop-down list, select Part Files (*.prt; *.sldprt)..

(7) 5. Double-click the Tutor1.prt file. The part opens.. ✍ If you do not see the COSMOS/Works menu in the SolidWorks menu bar, click Tools, Add-ins, then click the COSMOS/Works checkbox and click OK. To set the unit options: 1. Click Tools, Options. The System Options-General dialog box opens.. 2. On the Document Properties tab, click Units.. 3. From the Linear units menu select Millimeters.. 4. Click OK.. ✍ We recommend that you use File, Save As to save the part to a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again.. Create a Static Analysis Study The first step in performing analysis with COSMOS/Works is to create a design study. You can use the COSMOS/Works Manager or the menu system to create and manage studies. We will use the COSMOS/Works Manager to manage all aspects related to design analysis studies.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-3.

(8) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. To start the COSMOS/Works Manager: Click the COSMOS/Works Manager icon located at the lower left corner of the window.. COSMOS/Works Manager. ✍ To return to the normal FeatureManager design . tree, click the FeatureManager icon To create a static analysis study: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Tutor1 part icon and select Study, - or From COSMOS/Works menu, select Study, - or Click the Study button Works Main toolbar.. on COSMOS/. The Study dialog box opens. 2. Click the Add button. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type in the name of the study, for example, Static-1.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, choose Static (default).. 5. In the Mesh Type box, click the Solid button.. 6. Click OK. The study name appears in the Studies list box.. 7. Click OK.. To set the properties of the static study:. 2-4. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Static-1 study icon and select Properties. The Static dialog box opens.. 2. In the Solver box, make sure that FFE is selected..

(9) 3. Click OK.. Preprocessing Assign Material To assign a material from the COSMOS/M Library: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Tutor1 icon under Solids folder and select Apply/Edit Material, - or From COSMOS/Works menu, click Apply Material to All, - or Click the Apply Material to All button toolbar.. on the COSMOS/Works Main. The Material dialog box opens with the COSMOS/M Library tab selected. 2. From the Material Type drop-down menu, verify that Steel is selected.. 3. In the Material Name list box, verify that Alloy Steel is selected.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-5.

(10) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. 4 Optional: From the Unit System. drop-down menu, click the desired system of units to use in displaying the material properties. ✍ In general, you can use any system of units regardless of the units you used to create the model. 5 Optional:. From the Property Type drop-down menu, choose All, Structural, or Thermal. Only structural or thermal properties will be listed if you select Structural or Thermal, respectively. ✍ The Unit System option is used for display convenience only when you select a material from the library. It does not change the actual values or affect the results. The proper unit system must be selected if you choose to input values for material properties manually.. 2-6. 6. Click OK. COSMOS/Works assigns Alloy Steel to the part. A checkmark appears on the part icon.. 7. To list the properties of the applied material, right-click the Tutor1 icon under the Solids icon and click Details. The material information is listed in the Details window..

(11) Insert Loads and Boundary Conditions For static analysis, you must apply sufficient restraints to stabilize the part and apply at least one type of loading. In this example, we will fix the two holes in the part’s base and apply pressure normal to the front face of the cylinder.. Apply pressure normal to this face Fix these holes. To fix the two holes: 1. Select the face of one hole. Press and hold down the Ctrl key and select the face of the other hole. The two faces highlight as shown in the figure.. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Load/Restraint icon and select Restraints, - or From COSMOS/Works menu, select Insert, Restraints, - or Click the Restraint button. on COSMOS/Works Loads toolbar.. The Restraints dialog box opens.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-7.

(12) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. 3. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. From the Type box, select Immovable.. 4 Optional:. To change the color of the restraint symbol, click the Color button. The Color palette opens. Select the desired color and click OK.. 5. Click OK. Restraints are applied to the selected spotted faces and displayed in the selected color.. To apply uniform pressure: 1. Select the front face of the cylinder. The face highlights.. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Load/Restraint icon and select Pressure, - or From COSMOS/Works menu, click Insert, Pressure, - or Click the Pressure button. on COSMOS/Work Loads toolbar.. The Pressure dialog box opens.. 2-8. 3. In the Type box, click the Normal to selected face button.. 4. In the Distribution box, make sure that Uniform is selected..

(13) 5. From the Units menu, select English (IPS).. 6. In the Value field, enter 1000 to apply 1000 psi.. ✍ Although the unit of length for the model is millimeters, you can choose to specify pressure in any other system of units. ✍ You can view the value of the applied pressure in other units by changing the unit field. 7. Click OK. The pressure is applied.. ✍ You can edit the definition of any load or boundary condition by rightclicking the corresponding icon in the COSMOS/Works Manager tree.. Mesh the Part The meshing process prepares the model for the numerical solution. The quality of the mesh controls the quality of the results. We will use high quality mesh for this part.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-9.

(14) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. To set mesh preferences: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens with the Mesh tab selected.. 2. In the Mesh Quality box, select High .. 3. In the Mesh Control box, select Smooth Surface.. 4. In the Mesher Type box, select Standard.. 5. From the Jacobian Check menu, make sure that 4 Points is selected.. 6. Click OK.. To mesh the part: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Create. - or From COSMOS/Works menu, click Mesh, Create, - or Click the Mesh button. on COSMOS/Works Main toolbar.. The Mesh dialog box opens and an average element size is suggested. You can change the element size by typing in its field or using the slider. A finer mesh gives more accurate results but requires more computer resources and takes more time to solve. In this example, however, we will use the default element size.. 2-10.

(15) 2. Click OK. The Mesh Progress window opens and the program starts meshing. After the mesh is completed, the Solid Mesh completed message appears.. 3. Click OK. Notice the checkmark that appears on the Mesh icon.. To view the mesh: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Show Mesh. The mesh is displayed in the SolidWorks window.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and select Hide Mesh to hide the mesh.. 3. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Details to display information about the mesh: global element size, tolerance, quality option, and the number of nodes and elements. You are now ready to run the analysis.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-11.

(16) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. Run Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Static-1 study icon and select Run, - or From COSMOS/Works menu, select Run, - or Click the Run button. on COSMOS/Works Main toolbar.. Analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis Completed message. 2. Click OK.. Postprocessing Static Results COSMOS/Works provides advanced high quality rendering and visualization tools as an option during result visualization. You can switch to the Standard result visualization scheme which is useful in the case of very large models. To calculate the reaction forces on the faces of the two holes: 1 Hide the restraint and pressure symbols by right-clicking the Load/Restraint folder and selecting Hide All. 2. Select the faces of the two holes as shown in figure.. 3. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, rightclick the Displacement folder and select Reaction Force. The Reaction Force dialog box opens.. 4. 2-12. From the Units menu, select lb. The sum of the reaction forces on the selected faces and on the entire model will be listed in the selected unit.. Select these faces.

(17) To verify the results of the reaction force, multiply the area of the circular face (2.8389 in 2 ) by the applied pressure (1000 psi) to get the reaction force on the entire model. To calculate the reaction forces on the vertical face:. Select this face. 1. Select the vertical face of the bracket.. 2. Right-click the Displacement folder and select Reaction Force .. 3. In the Reaction Force dialog box, change the Units field to lb. The sum of the reaction forces on the selected face will be listed. Note that the listed values are all zeros as expected.. To calculate the reaction forces on the bottom face of the bracket: 1. Select the bottom face of the bracket.. 2. Right-click the Displacement folder and select Reaction Force.. 3. In the Reaction Force dialog box, change the Units field to lb. The reaction force components will be listed. Note that the reaction force components in the X, Y, and Z directions are not zeros. This is due to the fact that the edges of the two holes are contributing to the reaction force on that face.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-13.

(18) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. ✍ If you select the edges of the two holes and calculate the reaction forces, you should obtain the same values as those obtained when you select the bottom face.. Select this face. To set result visualization (Graphics) option: 1. Click COSMOS/Works, Preferences. The Preferences setting box opens.. 2. Click the Graphics tab.. 3. In the Display box, click the Advanced button.. 4. Click OK.. Built-in Standard Plots von Mises Stress Plot. Von Mises stresses are calculated from stress components in various directions. They give an overall picture of the stress. Refer to the Analysis Background chapter for more details. To plot von Mises stresses: 1. 2-14. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress folder. The Plot1 icon appears in the Stress folder..

(19) 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. ✍ By default, the stresses are plotted on the deformed shape.. To set the color map of the plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Plot1 icon and select Color Map. The Color Map dialog box opens. The Color Map dialog box gives you 4 options, Default, Rainbow, Gray Scale, and User-defined.. 2. Make your selection and click OK. ✍ If you select the User-defined option, you will need to specify the number of colors you want to use. You can use up to 9 base colors. To change or define a color, click its box, and choose a color from the color palette.. To change the stress units: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens with the Properties tab selected.. 2. From the Stress Units menu, select the desired units and click OK.. To animate the stress plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Animate. The Animation dialog box opens.. 2. Click the right arrow button animation.. 3. Click the square button. 4. Close the Animation dialog box.. to start the to stop the animation.. ✍ You can save your animation as an AVI movie file by checking the Save As AVI checkbox.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-15.

(20) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. To view an AVI file with Media Player: 1. In the Animation dialog box, check Save As AVI file.. 2. Check View with Media Player and click Browse to specify the path and name of the file.. 3. Click . The Video Compression dialog box opens.. 4. Accept the defaults and click OK.. Equivalent Element Strain Plot. The equivalent element strains are calculated from strain components in various directions. Refer to the Analysis Background chapter for the definition of the equivalent element strain. To generate the equivalent element strain plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Strain folder. The Plot1 icon appears.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Resultant Displacement Plot. Resultant displacements are calculated from displacement components in various directions.. 2-16.

(21) To generate the resultant displacement plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement icon. The Plot1 icon appears.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Deformation Plot. To generate the deformed shape plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Deformation icon. The Plot1 icon appears.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-17.

(22) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. Section Plot. To generate a section plot of the first principal stress:. 2-18. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Stress folder and select Define. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. From the Result Type box, click Node Values.. 4. In the Plot Type box, click Section.. 5. From the Fringe Type drop-down list, click Filled, Discrete.. 6. In the No. of Sections field, type in 1.. 7. From the Component drop-down list, click P1: Normal Stress (1st principal).. 8. Click OK. The section plot is generated and a new icon (Plot2) appears in the Stress folder of the study..

(23) To control the section plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Plot2 and select Clipping. The Section Clipping dialog box opens.. 2. In the Uncut field, select Fringe.. 3. In the Cut Direction field, select Outside.. 4. Click the Sensitive checkbox.. 5. Drag the sliders to modify the distance and orientation of the section.. 6. Click OK.. To change the cutting tool (primitive) for the section plot: 1. Right-click the Plot2 icon in the Stress folder and click Edit Definition.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. Double-click the 0 Plane: in the cutting tool list box. The primitive selection menu opens.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-19.

(24) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. 4. Click the desired primitive (Plane, Cylinder, or Sphere).. 5. Click OK.. To generate a default design check plot: 1. Click the (+) sign next to the Design Check folder. The Plot1 icon appears.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon, the Design Check Wizard Step 1 of 3 window opens.. 3. Click the Maximum von Mises stress button.. 4. Click Next. The Design Check Wizard Step 2 of 3 window opens.. 5. In the Set stress limit box, click the to Yield strength button.. 2-20.

(25) 6. Click Next. The Design Check Wizard Step 3 of 3 window opens.. 7. Click the Areas below factor of safety button and enter a value of 1 in the field next to it.. 8. Click Finish. Regions with a factor of safety less than 1 (unsafe regions) will be shown in red.. Unsafe regions. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-21.

(26) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 1: Analysis of a Bracket Part. Printing Plots To print a plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the icon of the plot you want to print and select Print. The Print dialog box opens.. 2. Set your printing options and click OK.. Saving Result plots: To save a plot as a BMP or VRML file: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, double-click the icon of the plot.. 2. Right-click the plot icon and select Save As. The Save As dialog box opens.. 3. In the Save in field, specify the folder where the plot is to be saved.. 4. In the File name field, enter a name for the plot.. 5. In the Save as type field, select VRML files (*.wrl), Bitmap files (*.bmp), XGL files (*.xgl), or ZGL (*.zgl) files.. 6. Click Save.. Generating a Report for the Study The Report utility provides an excellent way for reviews by colleagues and supervisors as well as placement on web sites. 1 Click COSMOS/ Works, Report. The Report setting box opens.. 2-22.

(27) 2. Click the desired section in the Settings for list box for a preview of its contents.. 3. Click Set to enter or modify its contents. The corresponding Set dialog box opens.. 4. Specify the desired information or make the desired change.. 5. Click OK.. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 for other sections. You can insert bitmap images, AVI movies, and VRML files in the appropriate sections.. 7. Click OK.. This lesson is completed.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-23.

(28) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly In this lesson, we will analyze the crank subassembly shown below. This subassembly contains 4 components (parts) as follows:. q q q. Crank Pulley, Crank Arm Axle, and Two Crank Arms.. In this lesson, you will learn how to:. q q q q q 2-24. Retrieve the assembly, Create a static analysis study, Assign materials to the various components of the assembly, Insert restraints and loads, Mesh the assembly,.

(29) q q q q q q. Run static analysis, Visualize the static analysis results, Create a frequency analysis study, Copy materials, restraints, and loads from the static analysis study, Run frequency analysis, and Visualize frequency analysis results.. ✍ A special authorization (intermediate configuration) is required to work with assemblies.. Retrieve the Assembly To retrieve the assembly: 1. Start SolidWorks.. 2. Click File, Open. The Open dialog box opens.. 3. Change the Look in folder to ...\Examples where “...” refers to the COSMOS/ Works installation folder.. 4. From the Files of type field, select Assembly Files (*.asm; *.sldasm).. 5. Check the Preview checkbox.. 6. Double-click the Crank.ASM assembly file. The Crank assembly opens.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-25.

(30) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. ✍ If you do not see the COSMOS/Works menu, click Tools, Add-ins, then check the control box for COSMOS/Works and click OK.. To set the unit of length: 1. Click Tools, Options. The System Options-General dialog box opens.. 2. On the Document Properties tab click Units.. 3. From the Linear units menu select Inches.. 4. Click OK. ✍ We recommend that you click File, Save As to save the part to a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again.. Analysis of assemblies in COSMOS/Works is simple and straightforward. The steps required to analyze an assembly are identical to those required to analyze a part except for the option to apply different materials to different components.. 2-26.

(31) To start the COSMOS/Works Manager: COSMOS/Works Manager. Click the COSMOS/Works Manager toggle icon located at the lower left corner of the SolidWorks window.. Create a Static Analysis Study 1. Right-click the Crank icon and select Study. The Study dialog box opens.. 2. Click Add. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type in the name of the study, for example, Initial.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, select Static (default).. 5. In the Mesh Type box, click Solid.. 6. Click OK. The study name appears in the Studies list box.. 7. Click OK to close the Study dialog box.. Define Material for Each Component In the assembly environment, the Solids folder contains an icon for each component (part) of the assembly. The name of the part appears next to the corresponding material icon. You can assign a different material to each part, or one material to all parts at once.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-27.

(32) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. To assign a material to the CrankArm Axle part: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click CrankArm Axle-1 in the Solids folder and select Apply/Edit Material. The Material dialog box opens with the COSMOS/M Library tab selected.. 2. From the Material Type drop-down list make sure that Steel is selected.. 3. From the Material Name list box, select Stainless Steel (ferritic).. 4. Click OK. The selected material will be assigned to the CrankArm Axle part.. To assign materials to the other parts: Repeat the steps above to assign Gray Cast Iron to CrankPulley1, and Alloy Steel to CrankArm-1 and CrankArm-2. ✍ If you have an assembly with the majority of the parts made of the same material, you can apply the following procedure:. 2-28. 1. Assign this material to all parts by right-clicking the Solids folder and selecting Apply Material to All.. 2. Edit the material definition for each part with a different material by rightclicking its icon and selecting Apply/Edit Material..

(33) Apply Loads and Restraints We will fix the outer face of the pulley, and apply a force in the negative Xdirection to the face of one of the pedals.. Apply a force to this face in the negative X-direction. Fix this face. To fix the outer face of the pulley: 1. Select the outer cylindrical face of the pulley. The face highlights.. 2. Right-click Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. select this face. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-29.

(34) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. 3. In the Type box, select Immovable (No Translation).. 4. Click OK.. To apply uniform force to one of the pedals: 1. Select the face of the pedal of CrankArm-2. The face highlights as shown.. 2. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Force. The Force dialog box opens.. select this face. 2-30.

(35) 3. In the Type box, click Apply Force/Moment.. 4. From the Distribution box, make sure that Uniform is selected.. 5. From the Units drop-down list, select English (IPS).. 6. Click the Along Plane Dir1 checkbox.. 7. In the Value field, enter -200 (pounds).. 8. Click OK. The total force is applied.. Mesh the Assembly The whole assembly is meshed at once. To set mesh preferences: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens with the Mesh tab selected.. 2. In the Mesh Quality box, click High.. 3. In the Mesh Control box, select Smooth Surface.. 4. In the Mesher Type box, select Standard.. 5. In the Jacobian Check field, make sure that 4 Points is selected.. 6. Click OK.. To mesh the assembly: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Create.. 2. In the Global Size field, enter 0.6 (inches).. 3. Click OK. The Mesh Progress window opens and the program starts meshing the parts one by one.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-31.

(36) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. To Show/Hide the mesh: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon, and select Show Mesh . The mesh is displayed as shown.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and click Hide Mesh to hide the mesh, - or Click the Show/Hide Mesh button Works Main toolbar.. 3. on COSMOS/. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Details to display information about the mesh: global element size, tolerance, quality option, and the number of nodes and elements.. Run Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. Right-click the Initial study icon and click Run. The analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis Completed message.. 2. Click OK.. Visualize the Results of Static Analysis COSMOS/Works gives you the option to use the Standard or the Advanced graphics for result visualization. To set the graphics option: 1. Click COSMOS/Works, Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Graphics tab.. 3. In the Display box, click Advanced.. 4. Click OK. ✍ Use the Standard option for very large models.. von Mises Plot To visualize von Mises Stresses: 1. 2-32. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress folder. The plot1 icon appears..

(37) 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. The von Mises stress plot is generated.. 3. To change the display units of the stress, right click the Plot1 icon and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 4. On the Properties tab, select psi from the Stress Units menu.. To animate the stress plot: 1 2. Right-click the Plot1 icon and select Animate. To save the animation as an AVI file, check the Save as AVI File box.. 3. To start the animation, click the play button. 4. To stop the animation, click the stop button. 5. Close the Animation dialog box.. . .. To change the color map for the stress plot: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon and click Color Map. The Color Map dialog box opens.. 2. From the drop-down list select a color map. The available color maps are: Default, Rainbow, Gray Scale.. 3. Enter the desired number of chart colors you want to use in the plot.. 4. After making your choice, click Apply to see the effect dynamically.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-33.

(38) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. 5. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. Click OK.. To create your own color map: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon and select Color Map. The Color Map dialog box opens.. 2. From the drop-down list select User Define .. 3. Enter the number of colors you want to use in the plot.. 4. Choose the colors you want to use. To change a color, click its box and select the desired one from the color palette.. 5. Click OK.. Section Plots To generate a section plot:. 2-34. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Stress folder and select Define.. 2. On the Properties tab, select psi from the Stress Units menu.. 3. Click the Display tab.. 4. In the Plot Type box, click Section.. 5. From the Fringe Type drop-down list, select Filled, Tone.. 6. From the No. of Sections menu, click the spin box to specify a number of sections, for example, 3.. 7. Double-click 0 Plane: in the list box to select a cutting tool, for example, Cylinder.. 8. Repeat step 6 for 1 Plane and 2 Plane..

(39) 9. Click OK. The section plot is generated.. To control the Section plot: 1. Double-click the Plot2 icon under the Stress folder.. 2. Right-click the Plot2 icon in the COSMOS/Works Manager and select Clipping. The Section Clipping dialog box opens.. 3. From the Uncut Part drop-down list, select Fringe.. 4. From the Cut Direction drop-down list, select Both.. 5. Check the Sensitive checkbox.. 6. Modify the sections as desired using the sliders. To modify a section, click its tab and drag the Radius and Center sliders.. 7. Click OK.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-35.

(40) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 2: Analysis of a Crank Assembly. Vector Plot To generate a vector plot:. 2-36. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Stress folder and select Define. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click Display tab.. 3. In the Plot Type box, click Vector.. 4. From the Fringe Type drop-down list, select Filled, Discrete.. 5. In the Component list box, select P1: Normal stress (1st principal).. 6. Click OK..

(41) Generating a Report for the Study To generate a report: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Initial study icon and select Report. The Report dialog box opens.. 2. Click a section in the Settings for list box to preview its contents.. 3. Click Set. The corresponding Set dialog box opens.. 4. Edit the contents as desired and click OK.. 5. Repeat steps 2-3 for other sections of the report.. 6. For the result sections of the report, you may add AVI files, and image files as desired.. This lesson is completed.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-37.

(42) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model) In this lesson, you will learn how to:. q q q q q q. Open a part and create a static analysis study (shell elements), Assign material to the part, Insert restraints and pressure loading, Mesh the part with shell elements, Run static analysis, and Visualize the static analysis results.. Open the Part To open the part: 1. Click File, Open. The Open dialog box opens.. 2. Change the Look in folder to ...\Examples where “...” refers to the COSMOS/ Works installation folder.. 3. From the Files of type dropdown list, select Part Files (*.prt; *. sldprt).. 2-38. 4. Double-click the sheet.prt file.. 5. Verify that COSMOS/Works appears in the top menu bar of SolidWorks..

(43) ✍ If you do not see the COSMOS/Works menu, click Tools, Add-Ins. Check the COSMOS/Works checkbox and click OK. To verify the units: 1. On the SolidWorks menu bar, click Tools, Options.. 2. On the Document Properties tab click Units.. 3. Make sure that Inches appears from the Linear units drop-down menu.. 4. Click OK. ✍ At this point, we recommend that you click File, Save As to save the part with a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again.. Before performing the analysis with COSMOS/Works, we will scale the part down by a factor of 0.1. To scale the part: 1. Click Insert, Features, Scale. The Scale dialog box opens.. 2. In the Type box, make sure that Centroid appears in the About menu.. 3. Make sure also that the Uniform box is checked.. 4. In the Scaling factor field, type 0.1.. 5. Click OK. The model will be scaled down by the specified factor.. To restore the normal view of the model, click the Zoom to Fit tool View toolbar.. on the. Create a Static Analysis Study The first step in performing analysis with COSMOS/Works is to create a design study. We will use the COSMOS/Works Manager to manage all aspects related to design analysis studies. Equivalent commands are available in the pull-down menus. To start the COSMOS/Works Manager: Click the COSMOS/Works Manager button located at the lower left corner of the window. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-39.

(44) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). To create a static analysis study: 1. Right-click the Sheet part icon and select Study. The Study dialog box opens.. 2. Click Add. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type in Shell as the name of the new study.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, select Static (default).. 5. In the Mesh Type box, click the Shell using midsurfaces button. The program displays a message about the limitations of shell modeling in this version.. 6. Read the message and click OK.. 7. Click OK. The study name appears in the Studies list box.. 8. Click OK.. Set the Properties of the Study To set the properties of the study: 1. Right-click the study icon and select Properties. The Static dialog box opens.. 2. In the Solver box, make sure that FFEPlus is selected.. 3. Click OK. ✍ FFE does not support high-order shells. If you choose FFE, the program will automatically switch to FFEPlus.. 2-40.

(45) Assign Material To assign a material from the COSMOS/M Library: 1. Right-click the Sheet icon in the Solids folder and select Apply/Edit Material. The Material dialog box opens with the COSMOS/M Library tab selected. 2. From the Material Type drop-down list, verify that Steel is selected.. 3. From the Material Name list box, verify that Alloy Steel is selected.. 4. From the Unit System drop-down list, click the desired system of units to use it in displaying the properties.. 5. From the Property Type drop-down list, choose All.. 6. Click OK. The material is assigned to the part and a checkmark appears on the Sheet icon in the Materials folder.. 7. To verify the material assignment, right-click the Sheet icon and select Details.. .. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-41.

(46) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). Insert Loads and Restraints We will fix the three holes and apply pressure to the bottom plate. To insert restraints: 1. Select the face of any hole. You can use the Zoom In tool to make sure you select the proper face.. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the faces of the other holes. The selected faces should highlight as shown in the figure.. 3. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. ✍ Notice that the Selected Entities box lists the number of selected faces, edges and vertices. In this case, 3 faces are selected. 4. 2-42. From the Type box, verify that Fixed is selected to set all translations and rotations to zero..

(47) ✍ The Immovable option sets the translations to zero while the Fixed option sets both translations and rotations to zero. 5 Optional:. To change the color of the restraint symbol, click the Color button. The Color palette opens. Select the desired color and click OK.. ✍ The Units option is irrelevant when selecting Immovable or Fixed. 6. Click OK.. To insert uniform pressure: 1. Select the face of the model shown in the figure.. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Load/Restraint and select Pressure. The Pressure dialogue box opens.. Select this face. ✍ Notice that the Selected Entities box lists one selected face. 3. In the Type box, click Normal to selected face to apply pressure normal to the selected face.. 4. From the Distribution box, make sure that Uniform is selected.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-43.

(48) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). 5. From the Units menu, select English (IPS).. 6. In the Value field, enter 1.00 to apply 1.00 psi.. ✍ You can list the value of the applied pressure in other units by changing the unit field. 7. Click OK. The pressure is applied.. Mesh the Part The meshing process prepares the part for the numerical solution. The quality of the mesh controls the quality of the results. To set mesh preferences: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens with the Mesh tab selected.. 2. From the Mesh Quality box, click High.. 3. In the Mesh Control, check Smooth Surface and uncheck Automatic Transition.. 4. In the Mesher Type box, select Standard.. 5. From the Jacobian Check drop-down menu, select 4 Points (default).. 6. Click OK.. To mesh the part: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Create. The Mesh dialog box opens and an average element size is suggested. We will use the default element size.. ✍ The Global Size and Tolerance are given in the preferred units used to create the part.. 2-44. 2. Click OK. The Mesh Progress window opens and the program starts meshing. After the mesh is completed, you will get the Shell Mesh completed message.. 3. Click OK. Notice that a check mark appears on the Mesh icon..

(49) To Show/Hide the mesh: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Show Mesh. The mesh is displayed as shown.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and select Hide Mesh to hide the mesh.. 3. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Details to display the information about the generated mesh.. Flip misaligned shells Stresses on the top face of a shell element are, in general, different from those on its bottom face. Therefore, it is essential to align faces of adjacent shells properly before running the analysis. After meshing is completed, COSMOS/Works allows you to easily identify top and bottom faces of shell elements. After showing the mesh, top faces will be shown in the shaded color of the model and bottom faces will be shown in the selected Fill Color in the Mesh Preferences dialog box. By visual inspection of the model, you will find that there are two faces that have to be flipped. These faces are shown in the following figure.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-45.

(50) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). ✍ You may get different misaligned shells based on the version or service pack of SolidWorks that you are using. , Flip these shell elements. To flip misaligned shells: 1. In the graphics area, select one of the faces shown in figure.. 2. In COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Mesh icon and select Flip shell elements. The shell elements will be flipped.. 3. Repeat steps 1-2 for the other face.. You are now ready to run the analysis.. Run Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Shell study icon and select Run. Static analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis completed message.. 2. Click OK. COSMOS/Works automatically creates postprocessing folders in the COSMOS/Works Manager tree. For static analysis, the program creates folders for stress, displacement, strain, deformed shape and design check results.. Postprocessing Results of the Static Study First, let us generate the standard plots for static analysis.. 2-46.

(51) von Mises Stress Plot Von Mises stresses are calculated based on the stress components. They give an overall picture of the stress field. To plot von Mises stresses on the top faces of the model: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Stress folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. The von Mises stress fringe plot is generated. ✍ The default plots are always generated on the top faces of the shell model.. To change the units of the plot: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. On the Properties tab, select psi from the Stress Units menu.. 3. Click OK.. ✍ By default, the stresses are plotted on the deformed shape. To plot von Mises stresses on the bottom faces of the model: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Plot1 icon and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. In the Plot Type box, select Bottom from the Shell Face drop-down menu.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-47.

(52) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. 4. n Lesson 3: Analysis of a Thin Bracket (Shell Model). Accept the rest of the defaults and click OK.. To animate the stress plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Animate. The Animation dialog box opens.. 2. Click the right arrow button. 3. Click the square button. 4. Close the Animation dialog box.. to start the animation. to stop the animation.. ✍ You can save your animation as an AVI movie file by checking the Save As AVI checkbox. Equivalent Element Strain Plot To plot equivalent element strain:. 2-48. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Strain icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Strain folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. The equivalent element strain fringe plot is generated.. 3. Click the Animate in the COSMOS/Works Manager to animate the plot as was described for the stress plot..

(53) Resultant Displacement Plot To plot the resultant displacement: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Displacement folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. The resultant displacement fringe plot is generated.. Deformation Plot To generate the deformed shape plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Deformation icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Deformation folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Printing and Saving Plots To print a plot: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, double-click the desired plot icon.. 2. Right-click the desired plot and select Print. The Print dialog box opens.. 3. Click OK to print.. To save a plot as VRML or BMP file: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, double-click the desired plot.. 2. Right-click the desired plot and select Save As. The Save As dialog box opens.. 3. From the Save As Type drop-down list, select VRML files (*.wrl), or Bitmap files (*.bmp).. 4. Set the location and the name of the file.. 5. Click Save.. This lesson is completed. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-49.

(54) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling). Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling) In this lesson, we will create two studies for the I-beam shown below. We will use shell meshing in the first study and solid meshing in the second study.. Open the Part To open the part: 1. Click File, Open. The Open dialog box opens.. 2. Change the Look in folder to ...\Examples where “...” refers to the folder of the COSMOS/Works installation.. 3. From the Files of type drop-down list, select Part Files (*.prt; *.sldprt).. 4. Double-click the Ibeam.SLDPRT file. ✍ At this point, we recommend that you click File, Save As to save the part with a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again. ✍ If you do not see the COSMOS/Works menu, click Tools, Add-ins, check the COSMOS/Works checkbox and click OK.. To start the COSMOS/Works Manager:. COSMOS/Works Manager. Click the COSMOS/Works Manager icon located at the bottom of the FeatureManager window.. Create a Static Analysis Study To create a static analysis study: 1. 2-50. On SolidWorks menu, click COSMOS/Works, Study. The Study dialog box opens..

(55) 2. Click Add. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type Shell Study as the name of the new study.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, choose Static (default).. 5. In the Mesh Type box, click the Shell using midsurfaces button. The program displays a message that the shell modeling can be applied to thin parts only. Click OK.. 6. Click OK. You will return to the Study dialog box.. 7. Click OK.. Assign Material To Assign a Material from the COSMOS/M Library: 1. Right-click the Ibeam icon in the Solids folder and select Apply/Edit Material. The Material dialog box opens with the COSMOS/M Library tab selected.. 2. From the Material Type drop-down list, select Steel.. 3. From the Material Name list box, select Alloy Steel.. 4. Click OK. The material is assigned to the part.. Insert Restraints and Loads We will fix one end of the beam and apply normal pressure to the top flange. To fix one end of the beam: 1. Select the face at one end of the beam. The face highlights as shown.. 2. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. Select this face. ✍ In the Selected Entities box, notice that one face is selected. 3. From the Type box, click Fixed.. 4. Click OK. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-51.

(56) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling). To apply uniform pressure to the flange: 1. Select the top face of the top flange. The face highlights as shown.. 2. Right-click Load/Restraint folder and select Pressure. The Pressure dialog box opens.. Select this face. ✍ In the Selected Entities list box, notice that one face is selected. 3. In the Type box, click Along plane Dir 2 (direction 2 of Plane 1).. 4. From the Distribution box, make sure that Uniform is selected.. 5. From the Units drop-down list, verify that SI is selected.. 6. In the Value field, enter -1000.. 7. Click OK. The pressure is applied.. 8. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder again and choose Hide All to hide load and restraint symbols.. Mesh the Part To set mesh preferences:. 2-52. 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens with the Mesh tab selected.. 2. In the Mesh Quality box, select High.. 3. In the Mesh Control box, select Smooth Surface.. 4. In the Mesher Type box, select Standard.. 5. From the Jacobian Check drop-down menu, select 4 Points.. 6. Click OK..

(57) To mesh the part: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Create. The Mesh dialog box.. 2. Drag the slider to the most right position on the scale as shown. ✍ The type of mesh (shell or solid) was specified when the study was created. The Global Size and Tolerance are given in the preferred units used to create the part.. 3. Click OK. Meshing starts.. 4. After the meshing is completed, you will get the Shell Mesh completed message. Click OK. Notice the checkmark that appears on the Mesh icon in the COSMOS/Works Manager tree.. To view the mesh: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Show Mesh.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and click Hide Mesh to hide the mesh.. 3. Right-click on Mesh icon and choose Details to display meshing information.. You are now ready to run the analysis.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-53.

(58) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling). Running Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. Right-click the Shell Study icon and select Run. Analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis completed message.. 2. Click OK. COSMOS/Works automatically creates result folders in the COSMOS/Works Manager tree under the Shell study icon.. Postprocessing Results of the Shell Study To plot von Mises stresses on the top faces of the model: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Stress folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. ✍ The default plots are always generated on the top faces of shell models. ✍ By default, the stresses are plotted on the deformed shape. To plot von Mises stresses on the bottom faces of the model:. 2-54. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. In the Plot Type box, select Bottom from the Shell Face drop-down menu.. 4. Click OK..

(59) To animate the stress plot: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Animate. The Animate dialog box opens.. 2. Click the right arrow button to start the animation.. 3. Click the square button to stop the animation.. 4. Close the Animation dialog box.. To plot the equivalent element strain: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Strain icon. The plot1 icon appears in the Strain folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Resultant Displacement Plot To plot the resultant displacement: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Displacement folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-55.

(60) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling). Verify the Results with Solid Mesh Create a Solid Mesh Study To create a solid mesh static analysis study: 1. From the COSMOS/Works menu, click Study. The Study dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Add button. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type Solid Study (or any other name) as the name of the new study.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, choose Static (default).. 5. From the Mesh Type box, click the Solid button.. 6. Click OK. You will return to the Study dialog box.. 7. Click OK.. Assign Material and Apply Loads/Restraints You can apply material and restraints exactly as described for the Shell study. Instead, we will use drag and drop to define the new study. To assign material: 1. Right-click the Solids icon in Shell Study folder and select Copy.. 2. Right-click the Solids Study folder and select Paste. The material will be copied. - or Drag the Solids icon from the Shell Study and drop it on the Solid Study folder. The material is copied.. To apply loads/restraints: 1. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder in the Shell Study folder and select Copy.. 2. Right-click the Solid Study folder and select Paste. The loads and restraints will be copied. - or Drag the Load/Restraint folder from the Shell Study and drop it on the Solid Study. The restraints are copied.. 2-56.

(61) Mesh the Part We will the use same mesh preferences as those we used in the shell example. To mesh the part: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Create.. 2. Click OK to accept the default element size.. To show/hide the mesh:. 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Show Mesh. The mesh is displayed.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and click Hide Mesh to hide the mesh.. 3. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Details to display the information about the mesh.. You are now ready to run the analysis.. Run Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. Right-click the Solid Study icon and select Run. Analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis completed message.. 2. Click OK.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-57.

(62) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 4: Analysis of an I-Beam (Shell Modeling). Postprocessing Results of the Solid Study Von Mises Stress Plot To plot von Mises stresses: 1. Click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress icon in the Solid study. The Plot1 icon appears in the stress folder.. 2. Double-click Plot1. The von Mises stress fringe plot is generated.. To plot the equivalent element strains:. 2-58. 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Strain folder in the Solid study.. 2. Double-click Plot1..

(63) Resultant Displacement Plot To plot the resultant displacements: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement icon.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. This lesson is completed.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-59.

(64) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model). Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model) In this lesson, you will learn:. q q q. Applying local boundary conditions Applying non-zero prescribed displacements Shell meshing. Open the Part To open the part: 1. Start SolidWorks. The initial window of SolidWorks opens.. 2. From the File menu, click Open. The Open dialog box opens.. 3. Browse to the folder in which you installed COSMOS/Works.. 4. Click the Examples folder.. 5. Choose the funnel.prt file.. 6. Click Open. The part file opens.. 7. Verify that COSMOS/Works appears in the top menu bar of SolidWorks. ✍ If you do not see the COSMOS/Works menu, choose Tools, Add-ins, click the control box for COSMOS/Works and click OK.. To check the units: 1. Click Tools, Options.. 2. On the Document Properties tab click Units.. 3. Make sure that Millimeters appears in the Linear units field.. 4. Click OK. ✍ At this point, it is recommended that you click File, Save As to save the part with a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again.. 2-60.

(65) To start the COSMOS/Works Manager:. COSMOS/Works Manager. Click the COSMOS/Works Manager button located at the lower left corner of the SolidWorks window.. Create a Static Analysis Study To create a static analysis study: 1. From the COSMOS/Works menu, click Study. The Study dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Add button. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, type Shell Study (or any other name) as the name of the new study.. 4. From the Analysis Type drop-down list, choose Static (default).. 5. From the Mesh Type box, click Shell using midsurfaces. A message window opens.. 6. Read the message and click OK.. 7. Click OK. The study name appears in the Studies list box.. 8. Click OK. You will return to the Study dialog box.. 9. Click OK.. Assign Material To assign a material from the COSMOS/M Library: 1. Right-click the funnel icon in the Solids folder and select Apply/Edit. The Material dialog box opens with the COSMOS/M Library tab selected.. 2. From the Material Type drop-down list, select Plastics.. 3. From the Material Name list box, select Nylon 6/10.. 4. From the Unit System drop-down list, click the desired system of units to use it in displaying the properties.. 5. From the Property Type drop-down list, choose All.. 6. Click OK.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-61.

(66) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model). Insert Loads and Restraints A rigid cylindrical boss of a 121 mm radius is to fit in the cylindrical base of the funnel. As the inner radius of the base is 120 mm, this condition may be simulated by prescribing a 1 mm displacement in the radial direction. To prescribe radial translation: 1. Select the inner face of the cylindrical base. The face highlights as shown.. 2. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. Select this face. 2-62. 3. In the Selected Entities list box, notice that one face is selected.. 4. From the Type box, click On Cylindrical Face.. 5. From the Displacement Units drop-down list select mm.. 6. Click the checkbox associated with Radial Displacement. A checkmark appears.. 7. Type in 1.0 in the Radial Displacement field.. 8. Click OK..

(67) To fix the bottom face in the axial direction: Select Axis1 from SolidWorks. 1. Change the view as shown and select the bottom face of the funnel.. 2. Click the FeatureManager button at the lower left corner of the SolidWorks window to switch to the FeatureManager tree.. 3. Press and hold down Ctrl and click Axis1 in the FeatureManager tree.. 4. Click the COSMOS/Works Manager button to switch back to the COSMOS/Works Manager tree.. FeatureManager. Select this face. 5. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. 6. In the Selected Entities list box, notice that one face is selected.. 7. In the Type box, verify that Use Reference plane or Axis is selected.. 8. In the Selected References list box, verify that Axis1 is selected.. 9. Click the checkbox of Axial Displacement and verify that 0 is entered in its field.. 10. Click OK. The restraint is applied so that this face may not move in the axial direction.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-63.

(68) To make the top face immovable:. Select this face. 1. Change the view as shown and select the top face of the funnel.. 2. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder and select Restraints. The Restraints dialog box opens.. 3. From the Selected Entities list box, notice that one face is selected.. 4. In the Type box, click Immovable (No Translation).. 5. Click OK. The restraint is applied so that this face cannot move in any direction. ✍ Immovable and Fixed are different for shells. Fixed sets all translations and Rotations to zero while Immovable sets only the translations to zero.. 6. 2-64. Right-click the Load/Restraint folder in the COSMOS/Works Manager tree and choose Hide All to hide the restraint symbols.. COSMOS/Works User’s Guide.

(69) Mesh the Part To set mesh preferences: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. The Preferences dialog box opens with the Mesh tab selected.. 2. In the Mesh Quality box, select High.. 3. In the Mesh Control, select Smooth Surface.. 4. In the Mesher Type box, select Standard.. 5. From the Jacobian Check drop-down menu, select 4 Points.. 6. Click OK.. To mesh the part: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Create.. 2. Accept the default element size and click OK. The Mesh Progress window opens and the program starts meshing.. 3. When the mesh is completed, you will get the Shell Mesh completed message. Click OK to close the dialog box.. To show/hide the mesh: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Mesh icon and select Show Mesh. The mesh is displayed.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and select Hide Mesh to hide the mesh.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-65.

(70) 3. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Details to display information about the generated mesh.. Flip this face. Before flipping. After flipping. Flip misaligned shells Stresses on the top face of a shell element are, in general, different from those on its bottom face. Therefore, it is essential to align faces of adjacent shells properly before running the analysis. After meshing is completed, COSMOS/Works allows you to easily identify top and bottom faces of shell elements. After showing the mesh, top faces will be shown in the shaded color of the model and bottom faces will be shown in the selected Fill Color in the Mesh Preferences dialog box. By visual inspection of the model, you will find that there is one face that has to be flipped. This face is shown in the above figure. ✍ You may get different misaligned shells based on the version or service pack of SolidWorks that you are using. To flip misaligned shells: 1. In the graphics area, select the face shown in figure.. 2. In COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Mesh icon and select Flip shell elements. The shell elements will be flipped.. You are now ready to run the analysis.. 2-66. COSMOS/Works User’s Guide.

(71) Run Static Analysis To run static analysis: 1. Right-click the Shell Study icon and select Run. Analysis starts. When the analysis is completed, you will get the Static Analysis completed message.. 2. Click OK.. Visualizing the Results To plot von Mises stresses on the top faces of the model: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress folder. The Plot1 icon appears in the Stress folder.. 2. Double-click Plot1. The stresses on the top face are plotted.. Global Coordinate System. ✍ The default plots are displayed on the top faces of the model. To plot von Mises stress on the bottom faces of the model: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. In the Plot Type box, select Bottom from the Shell Face drop-down menu.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-67.

(72) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. 4. n Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model). Click OK.. ✍ To visualize extreme stresses, we recommend that you plot the stresses on top and bottom faces for all shell models. To change the display settings of the result axes: 1. Activate Plot1 by double-clicking its icon.. 2. Right-click Plot1 and select Axes. The Axes dialog box opens.. 3. In the Axis box, move the size sliders to the positions shown in figure.. 4. In the Ticks fields, enter 6.. 5. In the Grid box, check XY, YZ, and ZX checkboxes.. 6. Click OK.. Global coordinate system displayed with the settings shown in the Axes dialog box shown to the left. 2-68.

(73) To change the stress units: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens with the Properties tab selected.. 2. From the Stress Units menu, select the desired unit and click OK. The plot with new units will be displayed.. To animate the stress plot: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Animate. The Animation dialog box opens.. 2. Click the right arrow button. 3. Click the square button. 4. Close the Animation dialog box.. to start the animation. to stop the animation.. ✍ You can save your animation as an AVI movie file by checking the Save As AVI checkbox. Equivalent Element Strain Plot To plot the equivalent element strains: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Strain icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Strain folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-69.

(74) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 5: Analysis of a Funnel (Shell Model). Resultant Displacement Plot To plot the resultant displacement: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager tree, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement icon. The Plot1 icon appears in the Displacement icon.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon.. This lesson is completed.. 2-70.

(75) Lesson 6: Analysis of a Fuel Storage Tank (Shell Model) In this lesson, you will learn how to:. q q q q. Create a coordinate system, Apply variable pressure, Run static analysis, and Visualize stress and displacement results. Fuel. Density of Fuel is 0.029 lb/in3.. y. p(y) =γy. Description An aluminum storage tank is partially filled with a fuel of density γ = 0.029 lb/in3. The fuel exerts a hydrostatic pressure that can be simulated by applying a varying pressure. A linearly varying pressure (p(y) =γy) will be applied to all inner faces of the tank below the fuel surface, where y refers to the vertical distance measured from the surface of the fuel. In order to apply the pressure p(y) =γy, the faces of the tank were split at the surface of the fluid so that we can apply the pressure to the walls of the tank below the surface of the fluid. We will also create a coordinate system at the fluid surface with its y axis pointing downwards in order to be able to describe the pressure variation in the y direction according to the above equation.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-71.

(76) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 6: Analysis of a Fuel Storage Tank (Shell Model). Open the Model and Create a Static Study Open the Fuel_Storage_Tank part located in the Examples folder of the COSMOS/Works installation. ✍ We recommend that you click File, Save As to save the part to a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again. To create static analysis study: 1. Right-click the Fuel_Storage_Tank part icon and select Study.. 2. In the Study dialog box, click the Add button. The Study Name dialog box opens.. 3. In the New Study field, enter variable pressure as the name of the study.. 4. From the Analysis Type menu, make sure that Static is selected.. 5. In the Mesh Type box, select Shell using midsurfaces. You will be prompted with a message that the shell meshing works only for simple thin parts and is being improved by both SRAC and SolidWorks. Close this information window by clicking OK.. 6. Click OK. You will return to the Study dialog box.. 7. Click OK to close the Study dialog box. ✍ In the variable pressure study we will use the first shell meshing technique, namely, Shell using midsurfaces. In order for this technique to work, SolidWorks 2000 with SP3 service pack or higher should be installed on your computer.. 2-72.

(77) Assign Material to the Model Assign Aluminum Alloy (1060 Alloy) from the COSMOS/M Material Library to the tank.. Apply Restraints and Pressure to the Model Apply displacement restraints to the bottom faces of the tank To restrain the bottom face of the tank: 1. Select the bottom faces of the tank (3 faces).. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Load/Restraint icon and select Restraints .. 3. In the Type box, select Immovable.. 4. Click OK.. Apply the hydrostatic pressure First, we will create a coordinate system at the surface of the fuel with its y- axis pointing downward.. Fix these faces. To create a coordinate system at the surface of the fuel: 1. In SolidWorks menu bar, click Insert, Reference Geometry, Coordinate System. The Coordinate System dialog box opens.. 2. Click inside the Origin box and select the vertex shown in the figure.. 3. Click inside the Y Axis box, and select the edge shown in the figure.. 4. Click OK. The coordinate system will be created and highlighted.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-73.

(78) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 6: Analysis of a Fuel Storage Tank (Shell Model). Select this edge as the Y-axis. Select this vertex as the origin. To apply hydrostatic pressure to the inner faces of the tank: 1. Select the coordinate system you just created, hold the Ctrl key down and select all inner faces that are below the fluid surface in the tank (total of 7 faces).. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Load/Restraint icon and select Pressure. The Pressure dialog box opens.. 3. In the Type box, select Normal to selected face.. 2-74. 4. In the Distribution box, make sure that Variable is selected.. 5. From the Units menu, select English (IPS).. 6. In the Value field, enter 1.0.. 7. In the Selected Coord. System box, make sure that Coordinate System1 is selected.. 8. In the Equation for Variable Pressure fields, enter 0.029 in the field corresponding to the y coefficient and 0 in all other fields.. 9. Click OK..

(79) Mesh the Model To mesh the part: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. Use the options shown in figure below.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and select Create.. 3. Click OK to accept the default element size and tolerance.. To show the mesh: Right-click the Mesh icon and click Show Mesh. The mesh will be displayed. Flip misaligned shells Stresses on the top face of a shell element are, in general, different from those on its bottom face. Therefore, it is essential to align faces of adjacent shells properly before running the analysis. After meshing is completed, COSMOS/Works allows you to easily identify top and bottom faces of shell elements. After showing the mesh, top faces will be shown in the shaded color of the model and bottom faces will be shown in the selected Fill Color in the Mesh Preferences dialog box. By visual inspection of the model, you will find that there are two faces that have to be flipped. These faces are shown in the figure below. ✍ You may get different misaligned shells based on the version or service pack of SolidWorks that you are using.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-75.

(80) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 6: Analysis of a Fuel Storage Tank (Shell Model). To flip misaligned shell elements: 1. Select one of the misaligned faces.. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Flip shell elements. 3 Select the other face and repeat steps 1-2. 2. Before Flipping. Select these faces and flip the associated elements. Run the Analysis Right-click the study icon and select Run.. Visualize Stress and Displacement Results To plot von Mises stress on the top faces of the model: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, click the (+) sign to the left of the Stress folder.. 2. Double-click the Plot1 icon. ✍ The default plots are always displayed on the top faces of the model.. 2-76. After Flipping.

(81) To plot von Mises stress on the bottom faces of the model: 1. Right-click the Plot1 icon in the Stress folder and select Edit Definition. The Stress Plot dialog box opens.. 2. Click the Display tab.. 3. In the Plot Type box, select Bottom from the Shell Face drop-down menu.. 4. Click OK.. To plot displacement results: 1. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, click the (+) sign to the left of the Displacement folder.. 2. Right-click the Plot1 icon in the Displacement folder and select Edit Definition. The Displacement Plot dialog box opens.. 3. On the Properties tab, select in (inch) from the Displacement Units drop-down menu.. 4. Click OK.. This lesson is completed.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-77.

(82) Lesson 7: Analysis of a Pulley Under a Bearing Force In this lesson, you will learn how to:. q. Create a coordinate system, and. q. Apply forces with prescribed intensity. f(θ) = F0Sin(θ) = (F0)(y/a). X. θ. a. Y. f(θ) = F0Sin(θ) = (F0)(y/a) where f(θ) is the intensity of the force, a is the radius of the hole, and F0 is a scale factor calculated by the program such that the sum of all forces is set equal to the specified force value.. Description COSMOS/Works lets you handle bearing problems in two ways: • You can model the assembly of the axle and the pulley. The forces are transferred through the gap elements generated automatically by setting the Contact/Gaps option on the faces of contact between the axle and the pulley. • You can model the pulley only and approximate the force intensity exerted by the axle. The validity of the approximation depends on the validity of the assumed force intensity for the problem at hand. The second approach is used in this lessons force exerted by the axle on the pulley is approximated by a 700 pound force acting normal to the lower face of the hole. The intensity is assumed to be f(θ) = Sin(θ), where θ is defined as shown in the figure.. 2-78. COSMOS/Works User’s Guide.

(83) The surface of central hole of the pulley was split into two faces. We will create a coordinate system at the center of the hole as shown in the figure and use it to specify a total normal force with given intensity.. Open the Model and Assign Material 1. Open the Pulley-Bearing part located in the Examples folder of the COSMOS/ Works installation folder.. ✍ We recommend that you click File, Save As to save the part to a different name before defining a study so that you can use the original file again. 2. Start the COSMOS/Works Manager.. 3. Create a Static analysis study. Make sure to select the Solid option while defining the study.. 4. Assign Steel Alloy from the COSMOS/M Material Library to the pulley.. Apply Restraints and Force to the Model Apply displacement restraints To restrain a portion of the lower face of the rim: 1. Select the face shown in the figure.. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, rightclick the Load/Restraint icon and select Restraints.. 3. In the Type box, select Immovable.. 4. Click OK.. Select this face to apply restraints. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-79.

(84) Chapter 2 Static Analysis Tutorial. n Lesson 7: Analysis of a Pulley Under a Bearing Force. Apply the bearing force First, we will create a coordinate system at the center of the pulley. To create a coordinate system at the center of the pulley: 1. In SolidWorks menu bar, click Insert, Reference Geometry, Coordinate System . The Coordinate System dialog. box opens and a default coordinate system is created. 2. Flip the y-axis by clicking the Flip checkbox under Y Axis.. 3. Click OK.. To apply the bearing force:. 2-80. 1. With the newly created coordinate system selected from the previous procedure, hold the Ctrl key down and select the lower half of the surface of the central hole.. 2. In the COSMOS/Works Manager, right-click the Load/Restraint icon and select Force. The Force dialog box opens.. 3. In the Type box, select Apply Normal Force .. 4. In the Distribution box, make sure that Variable is selected.. 5. From the Units menu, select English (IPS).. 6. In the Force field, enter 700.. Create a local coordinate system to define variable force.

(85) 7In. the Selected Coord. System box, make sure that Coordinate System1 is selected.. 8In. the Equation for Variable Force fields, enter. 1.3333 in the field corresponding to the y coefficient and 0 in all other fields. 1.333. is the. coefficient of y in the force intensity equation: f(y) = (1/a)y = (1/0.75)y= 1.333 y. where a is the radius of the cylindrical hole. 9. Click OK.. ✍ The summation of the magnitudes of the forces applied normal to the face will be 700 pound force. The horizontal components over the face will cancel each other.. Mesh the Model To mesh the part: 1. Right-click the Mesh icon and select Preferences. Use the options shown in figure.. 2. Right-click the Mesh icon again and select Create.. 3. Click OK to accept the default element size and tolerance.. Run the Analysis Right-click the study icon and select Run.. Learning to Use COSMOS/Works. 2-81.

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