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A CRITICAL EDITION OF MiM
lLt BY AL-
(d. 538 H-/1144)
AEWL RALIK BIN MUHAMD
Thesis presented to the University
of Sto Indrews
for the degree of Doctor of n2llosoplW
I hereby declare that the following is a -record of
research work carried out by me; that the thesis is my
own composition, and that it has not previously been
presented for any other degree.
16th., December, 1976.
Abdul Halim bin Mmmad
completed nine term
of i-esserch work in the United College
of St., Salvatox and St* Imonardg University
of St. Andrevaq
that he has fulfilled
(1967) of the University
Court* and that be in qualified
to subatit the accompatVing thesis in application
the degree of Doctor of Philosopbye
J. Burton (Mr.
- ill -
in . %.
+ vcv -
fotha + yi'b m
tatha + vav
latha + allt
- iv -
n. d. No date.
no, Note# number.
Represents an insert within an insert.
Dr. John Burton has super-ýised my studies during the pre-
of this thesis.
It is my duty to offer him my sincere
thanks for his scholastic
guidance and his encouragement. My
thanks are also due to Dr. Jackson for his valuable suggestions
in the course of preparation
of this work in the absence of
Dr. John Burton.
I would like to thank the staff
of the Chester Beatty
Library, Dublin, for providing me with a microfilm of the Text
Ru3iis al-Yasq'ils and for giving me access to other materials
in their library.
My thanks are also due to the staff of the Library of the
British Museumt Londont the staff of the Library of the Arab
League, and the staff of the Egyptian National Library, Cairo,
for sending me microfilms of various MSS which are relevant to
the subject, and for allowing me to use other materials available
in their libraries.
Pinally, I also wish to thank the staff of the Library of
the University of St. Andrews for their assistance and co -
operation, and to the Universiti Kebangsa! an Malaysia (The
National University of Malaysia)q for sponsoring me to undertake
I conducted my research under the supervision
of bra Joba Ruptono
I was admitted as a
rosesvRi student under Ordinance General No*
12 on lot October 1973 and as a candidate for
the degree of Ph*Do under this ordinance an
lot October 1973*
Abdul Bolin bin Muhammad
Transliteration table ill
PART ONE : INTRODUCTION
Chapter one :. Introduction to the MS and Text.
1- The NS used in this edition 1- 2
2- The copyist and orthography 2-
3 - Purpose and date of composition 5 -6
4 - Critical apparatus 7 -8
Chapter two : Author
1- His nameg kunyal nisbahs and
2- His Family 11 - 13
3- His education and his
teachers 13 - 16
4- His pupils
16 - 17
5- His literary output 18 - 30
6- His travels 30 - 34[image:9.2160.165.2019.101.3165.2]
Chapter three : Place in literature
1- Compositions of RuTs al-Masa'il 35 - 36
2- Authorshiý of the present work 36 - 38
3- Comparison of Ru"ýs al-Masa'il
with other works of Ikhtil7f 39 - 42
a) The significance of the work 42 - 43
b) Zamakhshaýlls legal thought 43 - 46
Chapter four : Development of Ikhtil7af literature 47
1- Ikhtilaf in general, 48 - 53
2- Birth of the science of al-
Xhilýfi 53 - 57
Chapter five The (scope of application of) classical
theory of UZI of jurisprudence to the
theory of UZ-1
of jurisprudence 58 - 59
2- The application of the theory 59 - 68
3- Conclusion 68
70 - 85
of two parts.
part deals with
an introduction which is divided into five chapters,
Chapter one provides, general information on the MS, the copyist
and the orthography. The date and purpose of composition of the
work is also discussed, and the critical apparatus explained.
Chapter two concerns the authorship and outlines briefly the
educationg his teachers,
his pupils and his other works. The date
of his death is also ascertained.
Chapter three deals with the place of the Ru'ýis al-Maia"il
type in literature, and consists of a review of works of similar
title. Confirmation of the authorship of the present work , and
comparison of this work with other similar works results in
showing its significance and in illustrating the attitude of the
author on matters dealt with on Figh.
A historical survey of the development of Ikhtiiaf literature
and the beginnings of the science of al-Khil; fiZZat have been
discussed in chapter four.
Finallyt chapter five deals with the classical theory of Usul
and its application in the Ikhtil7af literature which is followed
The second part presents the Text. This contains 407 ralings-
under 62 titles
and sub -. titles
which deal with different
ranging from ritual, family law and penal law to the ralings on
food and drink.
The separate notes have been provided in order to show the
development of the Sh-aft'Ite doctrines. An appendix is also pro-
vided aiming to illustrate the development of Zamakhshari's ideas
3WRODUCTION TO THE IIS AND TEXr
I- The M used in this edition
The present edition of "Rufus al-Masglilw is based on the unique
"M no- 3600 preserved in the Chester Beatty Library
-1, J. Arberry who described the work has briefly stated that no
other copy appears to be recorded. I
The measurement of each page of the present work, consisting
altogether of 107 folios,
is 17 x 13-1 cm- Each page contains
between 11-17 lines
and between 7-15 words to each line.
On the top of the front cover of the HS is written
the Shah; da
on the right
is the title
the book and the name of its author
and on the left
the names of two persons who possessed the IIS.
The following folio is the first page of the IM. At the top of
it again the same title is written in la Tge writing, and also in the
middle of this-folio is written twice the same title. The first and
second verses of the first s; ra of the Qur3an appear in the middle of
the same page, and on the left are written the names of several persons
who studied this book.
The t! astey-w, and %ý,
estevn numbers appear together
on the top of the
hand corner, recto side of the folio,
2 to 75, but
on the rest only wastem numbers are written.
The MS is well preserved, except for one minor hole on folio
a few words are obscured and there is humidity
damage on folios
1, A. J. Arberry, A Handlist of the Arabic IISS, Dublin
1955, vol- 3,
The transcription of the work was completed in Rajab, 576 H., -
that is December 1180, about-thirty nine years after the death of its
2 -, The copyist and orthography
of the Dublin MS signed his name on the bottom of
105a. as Shibli
b. ýAbdul Rahm3n b. Jandar b. Ayyab.
He does not, seem to be among the well known figures.
account of him can be traced,
and assessment of his writing
on the basis of the present work has resulted
in the opinion that he
had insufficient Imowledge about both the Arabic language and juris-
He stated the date when he finished
this work as Rajab, 576/December, 1160.
His orthography is generally, good and clear.
The Text in nasldýi'
is mostly provided with diacritical
supplied with vocalisations.
He applied the classical Arabic usageg but it seems that he does
the recognised form. - Thisphonomenon can be
found in many places such as in the case of lal-Sh3fi5i'
'which was written
in three different
and also in the case of the word Ita"9191 which was
I ULZ 49
and I jW
Cf. ms, fo. llb.
There are many words where hamza is involved. The writing
appears in various forms depending on the place in which it occurs.
Generally hamza is omitted after final long alif suchas-I ký41 I
V1,11 and in the end of the word like I
S" 12 for I Ot
Similarly when it comes in the middle like and
for I or when it is in the beginning of the word
such as and J, I for I JI, 10 For some
other words hamzas are provided as required, but he puts them in the
wrong place such as for for and
Occasionally Y91 replaces the alif such as I L-J ýS 110 for
the hamza as in I P-: ý- Ill Cýjýj 112 for 1!
for and I ', pS
or conversely such as in \-: ý, 13 for I In other cases
hamza and y7a' are written, together instead of hamza alone as tý. Lvt14
for and occasionally he used tg3maft; ha instead of t9
Lmartu-ta such as for and for
while in other cases he used long alif instead of alif maqsura such
as for4%Aj, >-ik,. He also used abbreviations-for some
1. Cf. ms, fo. 12b.
2. Ibid., fo. 83a.
words such as
12 for t
On the other hand, some letters which are not provided with dia-
critical points in the modern Arabic usage have been so provided as
L)Lz 5 for
for and 4 for or ,
II and 1 16 for II
He does not seem to have been careful in copying this transcript-
ion. Misairangement occurs on several occasions; he misplaced.
headings7 or rulings8.
He also missed out many words9 and
repeated some others
Several corrections have also been made in the Text. It is to
be presumed that the corrections were made by the copyist himself,
the writing of the corrections is similar to the original.
This gives us the idea that the copyist had gone over it again and made
He has applied vaxious methods for corrections. When a word or
words were repeated, he simply crosses out one of them; this applies
similarly to incorrect words. If the mistake is crossed out he
places the correct words in the margin, sometimes without crossing any-
He uses various techniques to cross out. If some words are
missed out, the correct words are placed between the lines or in the
margin. Usually in such cases he uses týis sign in place of
Cf. ms fo. 16a.
lbid., , fo.
the missing words, but not in all cases, and sometimes he writes the
word Ie ''(i. e. correct) at the end of the correction. Occasion-
sign I IS I at tha end of the ruling
for a full
On the other hand, there are words and signs which seem to have
no obvious connection
with the passage.
They normally appear between
such as 1,
in the margin like
Grammatical peculiarities and unusual expressions occur very often,
but these phenomena were probably never due to the author, who had
specialised in grammar and therefore were almost certainly due to the
The contents of the HS appear to end on 105a- Following this in
the IIS there is an addition
of two sections
of which appears to belong to the Kit; b al-Da6wý, 'while the second
seems to belong to the Kit; b al-Hiba
which is absent from this work.
These have simply been reproduced according to their
in the HS.
Purpose and date of composition
We have no clear idea about the purpose of this composition.
Zamakhshari has never declared it either
in the present'work
the contents of the work before us encourages
a presumption that the work. was composed in order to declare to people
that he had become a follower
in. his late period,
spending most of his life
showing his attachment to any one
Cf. ms fo. 22b.
particular school of legal thought.
It may also be presumed that the composition is intended as a
to those two famous imams Abý Hani-fa and Shýa_figi whom he
This presumption is based on the ground that the
argument presented in this work shows that ZamakhshaTi does not insist
on defending the madhhab which he has followed; in most cases he
produces cases and evidence for both sides equally without giving
further argumentation in support of his madhhab as wap done by other
Hanafite scholars on the subject.
The present NS is obviously
not an original
copy of the work,
because transcription of the present work was made about thirty-nine
after the death of the author.
Even so, the idea-contained is original, and it is to be pre-
sumed that the present work was composed after the year 528 H. in which
the author completed his other work al-Kashshaf. This suegestion is
based on the ideas present in both al-Kashsh3f and Ru7; s al-Mas; lil.
The ideas contained in al-Kashsh; f do not show that he was interested
in a particular madhhab, whereas the ideas in the RO; s al-Mas; lil in
which he entirely
adopts the Hanafite
views are completely
Thus the composition of ROUs al-MasPil
is most likely
to be placed
after the year 528 H.
in Arabic language
can be found in his al-Kashshgf, Cairo 1946, Vol. lt P- 376, and
of Abý Hanirfats knowledgels
mentioned in his
Naw9bigh al-Kalim. in Amthal al-Sharq wa al-Gharb, 'Cairo 1960-61,
The critical apparatus has been designed to deal with the Dublin
The aim in this edition
is to preserve the original
the Text wherever possible.
In order to achieve this,
appearing in the Text have been kept, and any changes which have been
made are. mentioned in the footnotes.
Modern Arabic orthography has been preferred except for quotations
from the Qurl; 'n.
This has meant that several letters
in the MS have
had to be altered as not conforming with modern Arabic usage as, for
1 64. P-31
i to , B_A..
LJtZ I to I Ot'3 t and I
to In such cases no mention has been made in the critical
notes as this is only a matter of orthography. This applies also to
words which have no diacritical points because it would be impractical
to mention them all.
An attempt has been made to limit the footnotes to the grammatical
--peculiarities, incorrectly copied, unusual spellings, unclear writing,
corrections by the copyist, and any words appearing in the margins
and between the lines.
have been ignored except where they have any
References for the rulings and the supporting evidence have been
mentioned in the notes.
Various symbols have been used;
the words supplied by the editor,
/, > indicate
ist's corrections, inverted commas "" indicate evidence from the
Qurlgn and Hadith, and other direct quotations. Round brackets
indicate th3t the words have no obvious connection with the passage,
Where words are not certain
the word (sic) has been used, and
generally in this situation suggestions have been given.
1- Zamarkhsha: rlts name, kunya
, nisbahs and titles
(a) Zamakhsharl"s name
Biographers who deal with Zamakhshari. I have given-different accounts
of his name. Yaqut said that it was Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Tmar
Qiftiv that it was Ab; al"Q; sim Mahm; d Ibn 'Umar Ibn Muhammad 2
SuyW,, that it was Mahm; d Ibn 'Umar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad ; and
, Ibn Khallikan that it was Abu al-Q; sim Mahnffid Ibn Tmar Ibn Muhammad
Suyuti and Ibn Khallikan both seem to have named Zamakhshari s
but it appears there was disagreement
However, tUmar seems to me the most likely
in that a
have agreed on this5.
The others have not
paid much attention to this point, probably to avoid involving them-
selves in this problem, and they have simply been satisfied to mention
YgqUt, Ifu9jam al-Buld3n,
Tehran 1965, vol. 2, P- 940-
Tgr"lkh al-Hukam33, Leipzig 1903, p. 293-
3- SuYýtlr, BughYat 1-Wu'Ft fl' Tabaq3t al-Lughawiyyln wa al-Nuha-t,
Cairo 1965, Vol. 2, p. 279.
Ibn Khallik9n, Wafay9t al-Agygn wa Anbgl Abn; ýal-Zamgn, Beirut
1968-72, vol. 5, p. 168.
who agree on this are Ibn Athirr,
al-Dubab fi I
Cairo 1938, vol. 6, P- 315, and
- 10 -
his father's name because it was unanimously agreed.
(b) Zamakhsharl's'kunya', nisbahs'a'nd titles
Beside his full name above, he has a kunya, various nisbahs and
He was called Ab; al-Casim as his kunya 1 His nisbahs were
various; he was called al-Zamakhshari , indicating that he was born
in Zamakhsha: t!; al-Khwarzim713, which indicates that he originated from
, i, 14, which
Khwarizm, a province which contains Zamakhshar; al-M,, eta,
simply shows that he belonged to the Multazilite madhhab; and finally
al-Hanaf, 115, this last nisba' showing that he belonged to the Hanafite
He specialised in many subjects; therefore he was lalown as al-
EIF (gTammarian)', al-Lughawf
(commentator of the Qprlgn),
(a man of letters),
lo Ibn Khallik9n, opo cit., loco cito
Ibn Taghxir Bird!,
fir Ylul9k Misr wa al-QahiTa,
Cairo (n. d. ), vol- 5, p. 274.
Vol- 59 P. 170-
Ibn TaghrI Bird'17, op. cit.,
6. qift11,op. cit., loc. cit.
7.SamIgn1i, op. cit., loc. cit.
8. Ibn f-ImZd, ShadharEt al-I)hahab, Cairo 1350, VOL 4, P- 118.
9. Ygqýt, op. cit., loc. cit.
10. Kahbala, Muljam al-Mulallif'in fl Tar3jim Musannaf3t al-K-utub al-
. 00 -
- 11 -
Moreover sI everal titles have been given to him in'recognition of
his intellectual reputation; he was called Ustadh al-Dunia (professor
of the World), 'Sheikh al-gArab wa il-f. Ajam 2 (a teacher of the Arab and
non-Arab), and Fakhral-Khwarizm3 (pride of Khwarizm). He was also
known as J9rulIJ (neighbour of God), because he visited Mecca several
times and stayed there for years.
"I s family
Zamakhsharl, was born on Wednesday 27th Rajab, 467'11. /Bth. March, 1075.
This date was accepted by most of his biogra'phers
except that a few
of them said it fell on 17th. Rajab, 467, H. 7 or at the end of Rajab8.
occurred in Zamakhshar, in Khwarizm. ,a comparatively
village at that time, although it later became famous when it was
closely linked with the name of Abý al-Qgsim.
He was of Persian descent 10
, but his fa'Mily was not well known.
Cf. Zamakhsharl, Maq7uý; t, Cairo 2: 325, introduction p. 2.
3- Ibn Qutlubugha, ýaj al-: Tai_: 7jim, Baghdad i962, P. 71-
4- Ibn Taghrl' Birdl, op. cit., vol- 5, p. 273-
5- Ibn Khallik3n, OP- Cit-, vol- 5, ' P- 173.
who agree on this are Qirti",
OA19 Inb9t al-Nuh3t,
Cairo 1957, Vol. 3, p. 266., Anbgrl, ITuzhat
fir Tabaq3t al-Udab33, Cairo (n. d. ), P. 3931
Ibn tImad, op. cit-,
4, p. 121.
8. Suy; tlrt op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 279.
1, op. cit.,
10. Cf. Bxockelmann, Al-Zamakhsharl, in Encyclopaedia of Islam,
- 12 -
This has resulted in a lack of information on the subject, and even
the biographical works have not dealt sufficiently with it except a
statement which showed that his father was an Imam in Zamakhshar
there is available
another source which provides
more information about his family; it is Zamakhsharills poetic com-
where he mentions that his father
learned, cultured and pious man, and that as a result of his death he
himself lost. greatly 20
Concerning his father's
he spent most of his time in spiritual
and did so for the sake
in fact he did not pay much attention
to secular matterS3.
On the other hand he also mentions that his father had many
children who were left in comparative poverty, while his father was
suffering in prison4. Zamakhsharl" realised that his family was left
in a difficult situation, therefore in order to rectify this situation
he asked-Muayyid al-Mulk for the release of his father5.
for the, imprisonment
of his father
is not clear;
it was perhaps
to Ibn Ath-ir Mifayyid al-Mulk was 2 man of bad
As a student Zamakhsharig' occasionally
for the sake
of gaining knowledge, and when his father died he was away from home.
1. TFshkubri-ZZda, h, Mift; h al-Sa0-; da wa Misb; h al-Siyada, Cairo (n. d. ),
2, p. 100.
2., Cf. Zamakhsharl, Dlwgn, MS Egyptian National Library, No- 529, (adab),
4- Ibid., fo. 97b.
- 13 -
This continuous separation caused him sorrow and grief. In fact he
was often saddened by separation from his family, but the grief caused
by the death of his father was comparatively severe 1, especially since
he was not with him when the death occurred.
He also mentions that his mother had a deep religious consciousness.
He explains that when he was a child he caught a sparrow and tied its
leg with a piece of thread, but it escaped from his hand and ran away;
and it went into a hole;
he pulled it out, and as he did
so the thread cut through its
His mother was'angry and upset
about the incident and said, 'May God cut off the leg of the treacherous
as he cut off the bird's leg'
In regard to his family as a whole he dec lares that they respected
and that their
was well known3.
Zamakhsharl"s education and his teachers
Tracing the background of Zamakhsharl's parents and his family as
a whole, as he has described them, certainly indicates that he was
brought up in a cultured and religious environment.
His father was a learned man, even though there is no information
indicating that he was involved in any educational activities. There-
fore it is uncertain whether Zamakhshari I received his primary
education from his father. But a statement given by him shows that
his father was imprisoned; this tragedy caused his separation from
2, Cf. Yaqut, Kitab Irshad al-Arib ilg Macrifat al-Ad-ib, Cairo 1925,
vol. 7, P. 147.
- 14 -
there was very little
for them to
meet each other.
of his education is that he appears to have
which was well known as a cenize of education
and had produced many celebrated
He also studied in
Nany remarkable scholars who specialised in various sciences were
consulted by him. Under them he studied different branches of science
brought him up to a position
as a famous scholar of his
He became a pupil of Abý Mudir b. Jarl'r al-Dabbl' a, -NahW14
According to the biographer
Y5qýt, Abý Mudir was unique in
his time, the acknowledged authority in philology, grammar and medicine,
who followed the blultazilite doctrine and was responsible for bringing
it to Khwarizm5. ZamakhshaT! studied under him-both grammar 6 and
, and at
the same time he was sponsored by his teacher
Cf. Y-aq; t, op. cit.,
Maqdisi describes Khwarizm in his Ahsan al-Taqgslv*M, Leiden 1906,
kýý ýU -** -
Aý ces\ltý Cut, Nil
Cf. Ibn Khallik3n,
Vol- 5t P- 170.
Cf. Ygq5t, op. cit.,
Cf. Anbgril, 02- cit-,
7. Ygqýt, op. ci ., loc. cit.
Cf. Zamakhsharl", op. cit.,
- 15 -
On his way to Mecca, in the year 533 H., he arrived
where he was warmly welcomed by the leaxned4AUE Hibatull7ah al-
They exchan'ged greeting
warmly when they Met each other
While he was in Baghdad he consulted Abý ManOi al-Jawgliqll'.
According to Qiftit I Ab; Mans; r al-Jawaliqll twice read some philology
'ýooks to him and gave him ijaza .
He also met Abu- Abdullgh al-
Dgmighanil', but it is not clear if he studied any particular subject
from him. However, D3migh3nI7 had a conversation with Zamakhsharli,
and asked why his leg was cut off3. This occasion gives us the
impression that there must have been a close relationship between him
and Zamakhsharl, and most likely this was the relationship between
teacher and pupil.
When he was in Mecca , he was a pupil of cAll b. Wahhýs for some
time4, and he, 'also became a pupil of Ab7u Bakr b. Talhah b. Mahmýd b.
'gAbd-ull; h al-Ygbirl
who was a grammarian, an authority
and a jurist
He read to him*Kitgb Sibawaih,
Sharh cal; Ris3la Ibn Zaid, and the book. al-Raddlala
Other scholars among his teachers were AbG al-Khattabal-Bitz,
. &b5 Sa "ad al-S3fani and AbU Xansýr al-E3rithi He studied jurie-
1. Cf. YgqUt, op. cit., loc. cit.
Cf. - W112", op. cit.,
3# p. 270.
Cf. Ibn Kha; li0n,
Brockelmann, op. cit.,
see also Qifti,
Vol. 3, p. 268.
Cf. SuyUtI, Op. cit.,
Vol. 2, P- 46;
AbU Hayyan, Bahr al-Yuh-it,
Riygd-(n. d. ), vol, 4, P- 372.
Cf. Suyiitir, Librum de InterpTe
1839t P. 41.
- 16 -
prudence under Sheikh al-SadId
ýIlm al-Us7ul under'
Rukn al-Din Muha=ad al-Usuli
On the other-hand, Ygqýt states that Abý'Al_ 1 al-Hasan b. al-
Muzaffar al-NaisýbUri was one of his literature
a man of letters,
a, poet, and an author, who died in 442 R.
However, Nais5býrills death occurredrbefore Zamakhsharl was born;
this statement is in doubt, therefore. It was obviously impossible for
the latter to become his pupil.
Zamakhshazirts intellectual capacity was highly regarded. In the
course of his career in the academic field he appears to have given
instruction to many people in different subjects.
Among his pupils-were Ab; Y; suf Yasqib b. "Ill b. Muhammad b.
Ja9far al-Balldil, who was one of the famous figures in literature5.
Abu al-Hasan b. gAli b. Muhammad b. Ahmad b. H3run al! I=ani7 al-
Khwarzim studied tradition under himý and Muhammad b. AbZ al-Q3sim, b,
known as Zain al-Mashavikh learned from him philology,
al-Ifr9b and tradition
Moreover, Samýgnli says that among Zamakhsharl
1. Cf. T9shkubri-ZEdah, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 100.
Cf. Yaqut, op. cit.,
4* Cf. SuyZtl, op. cit., loo.
5. Cf. YgqZt, OP- cit-,
vol. 79 P- 304.
vol. 5, P- 412.
vol- 7, p- 77.
- 17 -
were Ab7u al-14ah3sin Isuýi vIll b. 4Abdull7ah al-Tawirli
al-Mah3sin cAbdul Rahim al-Bazz3r
of Aby5d, Ab-u "Umax Amir b. al-Hasan
of Zamakhshar, Abii Salid Ahmad b. MahmUd al-Shati
and Abu Tahir Sa=3n b. Abdul Malik, jurist of Khwarizm and others
In addition to these pupils, a number of scholars derived their
) from him;
for example Zainab b, al-ShOr, # Who
authoxised Ibn Khallik5n was given her authority by Zamakhsharl". She
was a learned woman who studied under a group of celebrated scholars,
among them Zamakhshar,
Also H3fiz Abý T3hir Ahmad b. Muhammnd al-
Salafi wrote twice from Alexandria asking him for his authoritý, 3.
Zamakhshari agreed and authorised him4.
Among his pupils who obtained authority from him were AbU T3hir
Barak3t b. IbighiM al- and Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Abdul
Jal'ill b. Abdul Malik b. Muhammad b. Abdullýh Rashlid al-DIn al-Watwat,
a man of letters and poet
Finally there were those who were both his teachers-and pupils.
Among these were Rukn al-Din Mahmud al-Us3ll,
him7 and "All b. fIS3 b. Wahh3s
1. Cf. SamcgniE. op. cit., p. 278.
Cf. Ibn Khallikin,
2, P. 344-
vol. 5, P. 170
Cf. SuY-utl', op. cit.,
Cf. SamarzZlip, al-Diras3t
al-Nahwiyya wa al-Lughawiyya
Baghd9a 1971, p. 21.
7, p. 92.
- 18 -
The liteTary outDut of Zamakhshari
Zamakhsharils achievement in Arabic and Islamic literature was
very great. This is reflected in his numerous works on grammar,
linguistics, lexicography, literature, poetry, commentary on the Quil9n,
He devoted most of his life to knowledge and his interest in it
was great. He denied himself a family and children because he felt
that it had a great potential as a source of problems and difficulties
Therefore he chose a priestly way of life, although this attitude was
opposed by his people 2
Perhaps the way of life which he had chosen gave him more opportunity
produce so many books.
Here is a survey of his works;
1- al-Kashshaf ýan haq; 3iq_al_-tanzi, 3
This work was printed for the first time by W. Nassau Lees pnd the
Mawlawis Khadin Husain and Abdul Hay, Calcutta 1859, later it was
published at Bul7ak 1291, and Cairo 1307,1308,1318 4 and 1948-
The commentaries on this work are variOU35; some of them have
6 been published
Cf. Zamakhshar"ll', op. cit.,
3- Ibn KhalliOn, op. cit., Vol--59 p. 168.
4. Brockelmann, Op- cit-, vol- 4, p. 1205-
5. The detailed commentaries on this work have been mentioned by II; jI
Khalfa; in his Kashf al-Zun; n, Leipzig 1835-58, Vol- 5, PP- 155-157,
6. Two commentaries by al-Jurjani and al-Iskandari were printed
.- 19 -
The above work was published by J. B. Broch, Christiania 1859,
1879, with glosses and appendices by Mawlawi Muhammad YalIkub Rasburi,
Delhi 1891, by Hamzah Fathallgh, Alexandria 1291, Ca7iTO 1323 with
Shawahid commentary by Muhammad Badr al-Din Abý FirEs al-NaOZnj al-
Several commentaries -, jjj: jq'_.: ýwritten on the work3; some of
them have been printed4.
3- al-Umýdhaj f" al-nahW5
This work was autographed by Broch, Christiania
Tehran 1269, Tabriz 1275, Cairo 1289 and Stambul 1299
commentaries on this work have been mentioned
best known of them were written
Bul3k 1269, in a Persian MajZPa 1279, on. the margin of the
main work, Kazan 1901, and another two commentaries'are al-Fairgdhaj
fi ShaTh al-Anm7udhaj by Muha=ad cIsg 'Askar, Cairo 1289, and tUmdat
1. Ibn Khallikan, op. cit., loc. cit.
2. Bxockelmanno OP. cit.,
4, P. 1206.
commentaxies on this work are mentioned by Hajil
Rhalfaain op. cit., vol. 6,, PP. 37-40-
The best known commentary by Ibn Ya5i'sh was printed by Go Jahn,
Leipzig 1882, and Cairo (n. d. ).
Ibn Khallikan, op. cit., loc. cit.
Brockelmann, op. cit.,
- 20 -
al-S; rl by Ibiahlm b. Savad al-Khususi, Bulak 1312
al-Muhgj3t wa mptammim maham arVa*b al-h-Wt fl
al-ahaji wa al-gh3z
Tne work was edited by Dr. Bahijah I al-Hasan! and published by
University of Baghd9d, Baghd3d 1973-
Mar-'ala fl' kalimat
This work also was edited by Dr. Bah1jah al-HasanI7 and published
by Majmý al-$ilml
6- al-V53iq f! gharib al-hadith5
It was published for the first
time in Haiderabad 1324
it was edited by 'All al-Bij3W71 and Muhammad Ab5 al-Fadl Ibrah-im,
published by Iir ihyg-lal-kutub al-'Arabiyya, Cairo 1945.
7- al-Mustaqsa fi amthal al-r'Arab
- The work was published by Majlis dalirat al-malarif, Haiderabad,
Brockelmarn, op. cit., loc. cit.
2o Ygqýt, op. dit-, vol. 7s P. 151; but Ibn Khallikan, op. cit.,
vol- 5t P. 168 mentions al-Muhajat bi al-masalil al-nahwiyya.
3- Cf. Majalla Maimagal-1, ilm"I al-rIraqi, Baghdad 19679 vol. 15, p. 1210
but '-'. ZaiCanpTZrIkh al-adab al-vArabl, vol- 3, P. 50 mentions
Ris3la Al kalimat al-shah3da.
4- See MaJalla Majmac al-cilm! al-vIraq_i, vol. 15, p. 121.
5- Y5qýt, OP- cit-, vol. 7, P- 150, but Ibn Xhallik3n,
loc. cit. mentions al-P33iq fl-tafs1ral-Had"Eth.
o]2. cit., loc. cit.
A selection from it entitled Zubdat al-amthal was made by Ibrahim
al-Gallipoli in 999 with Persian commentary and Turkish glosses
Kit3b al-mufmad wa al-mulall-a-f
It was edited by-Dr. Bahijah al-Hasani, published by Majmalý al-
Asas al-Bal; gha
The above work was published in Cairo 1299, Lucknow 13115 9
10 - Alýjab al-tujub sharh lgmiyyat al-ýArsb 6
This work was published with a commentary by Mub7arak in Istanbul
(JaZlib) 1300, 'Cairo 1'324,1328
, Damascus 1966, with notes by Abdul
Kitab al-amkina wa al-j b3l wa ai-miyah
It was published by'M. Salverda De Grave (auspice T. G. Juy-nboll),
1.13mockelmarm, op. cit., loc. cit.
2. Ibn Qutlubugha, op. cit., loc. cit., but Ygqýt, Vol, P- 151 mentions al-Mufrad wa al-muTakka_b__fi al-tArabi37a.
3- Cf. Muialla Majmagal-tilml al-tlriql, Vol- 15, P- 100- 4- Ibn Khallik3n, op. cit., loc. cit.
5- BTockelmann, op. cit., loc'.
cit. 6. Ygq5t, op. cit., loc.
cit.. 7. Brockelmam, op. cit. loc.
- 22 -
12 - Atwaq al-dhahab fl al-mawagiz
According to C. Barbier de Meynard, the
al-NasPih al-sighar , by which name it is m,
the phrase mentioned could be found in Atwaq
This work was translated, and published;
above woTk also known as
entioned in al-Kashsli5f3;
Atwaq al-dhahab, (Samach
scharis Goldene Halsbander als Keujahrsgeschenk arabisch und deutsch
von J. V. Hammer, Vienna 1835), translated by H. L. Fleischer, Leipzig
1835, by G. Weil, Stuttgart 1863, translated and edited by C. Barbier
de Meynard, Paris 1876. Printed. in Beirut 1314, Istanbul with Turkish
in 1286, Beirut
and Cairo 1321 with commentary
al-adab by Mirza Yýsuf Khan Asix5.
13 - Nawabigh al-kalim
This work has been edited and illustrated by H. A. Schultensq Leiden
sententiamum arabicarum cum scholiis
H. A. Schultens);
Les Pensees de
Z,, text arabe,
par C. Barbier
de Meynard, in J. A. ser., vii.,
of. de Goege, in Z. D, M. G., 569 sqq.;
in Cairo 1287,1305
13067 and Cairo 1960 - 1961.
1. Ygqýt, op. cit., Joe. cit.
2, Brockelmann, op. cit., Vol- 4t p. 1207.
3- Zamakhsharil, al-Keshsh-af, vol. 1, P- 368.
Zamakhsharl', Kit9b atwaq al-dhahab fl al-mawa? iz wa al-khitab,
Paris 1876, P. 176.
rockelmann, op. cit.,
Zamakhshax"l, al-Kashsh-af, vol. 1, p. 297; but YgqZt, op. cit'.,
loc. cit., mentions al-Kalim al-naw7a-bigh f! al-mawaciz.
- 23 -
The commentaries on this work are various
14 - Mýcjaddimat al-adab
This work was edited by J. G. Sipaphansalar and 'published in Leipzig
given by*Abý j4US*t*,
is another volume of this work in HS form which is preserved in Dgr
al-Kutub al-Misriyya, under majmat al-lugha, no. 272 and 58 4. It was also
edited by Mohammad Kazem Emam and published in Tehran 1963 - 1965-
15 - KhasPis al-fasharatal-kir3m al-baTaTa5
It was edited by Dr. Bah-ijah al-Hasan'll, and published in Baghd5d
16 - al-QistZs
al-mustaq! m_fl' film al-ýar;
The above work was edited by Dr. Bahijah al-HaSanl and published
in Baghdad 1969 8
Brookelmann, op. cit., Joe. cit.
2. Ibn Khallik9n, op. cit., loc. cit.; but Y; qýt, op. cit., loc. cit.,
states Muqaddimat al-adab f! al-lugha.
3- Brockeimann, op. cit. loc. cit.
4- Cf. AbU 14-usg, al-Bal; ghat al-qurGniyya fi tafsl'r al-Zamakhshari,
Cairo (nd,. ), P. 47.
5. Brockelmann, oj2. cit.,
6. cf. ýasani
, Khasg3is al.! asharat al-kirgm al-barara li
al-Zamakhsharl, salsila kutub al-turath, Baghdad 1968, rio. 10.
7- Ibn Khallik9n, o_p. cit., loc. cit.
- 24 -
17 al-Durar al-dPir al-muntakhab Ci kinayat wa
istV; r; t wa tashbih3t al-gArab 1
This work was edited by Dr. Bgh-ijah al-Hasan'l, and published in
Baghdad 1968 2
18 - Maq; mýt f! al-mawa-ciz3
The work was published in Cairo 1313,1325-
It was translated
0. Rescher, Beitrý'ge zux Maqamenliteratur,
This work is also known as al-Nas; lih al-kibaT4.
19 - Sharh al-maqýmgt
It was published on the margin of al-Maqama , Cairo edition 1313,
20 - Sharh abyat kitab Sibawaih
The M of this work is preserved in Ahmad 37, Istanbul. Dr.
Bahijah states that the work is being edited by Dr. 4Abdull7ah Darwish 8
1. -Brockelmann, Geschichte'der-Arabischen
suPPl- 1, P- 511.
See 14aialla Majmat al-tilml
1968, vol. 16.
Brockelmann, al-Zamakhsharil in Encylopaedia of Islam, vol- 4p
- 25 -
- Nukt al-j'crib fi- gharib al-itT9b (fi gharlib, al QuT35n)-l
Dr. Bahijah also mentions that the above work is being edited by
Mr. , Abdull7ah DarwIsh
22 - Rabirt al-abr; r3
This work was edited by Dr. Bahijah al-Hasan! for the degree of
Ph. D., Cambxidge4.
23 - Kit; b nuzhat ol-mutalannis
wa nuzhat al-
The M of this work is preserved in the Ayb Sofia q no. 4331
24 - Mlw-an al-shitj
The above work remains in MS form which is preserved in DFr al-
kutub al-Masriyya, no, 529 (adab). The M consists of 120 folios, in
clear naskhi writing.
25 - Ru)ýs al-masglil
The work which is pTesented in this thesis.
Ygqýt, op. cit.,
2. See Majalla YajmaO al-film-i al-11raqi, vol. 15, P- 94-
3- Ibn Qutlubugha, op. cit. ', loc. cit.; but Ygqýt, op. cit., loc.
cit., mentions Rabl$ al-abrgr f3i al-adab va al-muh5dar; t.
4- Cf. Paterson, Index to theses Vol. 15, p. 23.
5- Brookelmann, op. cit., loc. cit.; but Yaq; t, op. cit., loc. cit.
- 26 -
26 - al-minhgj fl al-us9l
Brockelmann states that the above work is in Lundb
27 - Mukhtasar al-muw-afaqa baina ahl al-bait
This work remains in MS form which is preserved in the Library
of Ahmad Timor4.
28 - al-Qasidat al-batudiyya.
is Preserved in Berlin
29 - MasPil al-Ghaz;,,:, 7
The work also is preserved in Berlin
30 - al-Kashf fl al-qir; '; t9
The above work is preserved in Medina, Maktaba Rib9t Sayyid
1, Ibn Khallik3n, op. cit., loc. cit.; but Brockelmann, Geschichte
der Arabischen Litteratur, supp. 1, P. 513t mentions el-Ifinhaj fi
us; 1 al-din.
Brockelmann, op. cit.,
Ygqýt, ot- cit.,
of Islam, vol,
4, p. 1207.
AbU MýsE, OP- cit-,
9. Brockelmann, Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur, EUPP1- 1, P- 511-
- 27 -
31 - Jawahir al-lugha
32 - al-Am; 11:
33 - Hashiya falg al-mufassal
34 - Kit; b al-ainas7
35 - Kitab mutashabih Casm3l al-=wgt9-
36. - al-Ra'Jid fl tilm al-farglid
1. Yaqut, op. cit., loc. cit.
2* Abý 115s3t OP. cit., P. 49-
Ibn Q41abughajj2p, cit.,
but Ibn khallik9n,
Vol- 5, p. 169, states
f, kul fan;
YgqUt, 013. cit.,
cite mentions al-Amall
Ab5 Musa, OP- cit-,
Ygqýt, op. cit.,
Vol. 15, P. 94-
YgqUt, op. cit.,
8. AbU I§sg, OP* cite, P. 49.
9. YaqUt, op. cit., loc. cit. '
10. Abý MUsg, OP- cit-, P- 57.
11. YZqUt, op. cit., loc. cit.
- 28 -
37 - Sarnimal--farabiyya Unknown 2.
38 - Mulljam al-hudUd3
39 - 191lat al-nashid
40 -D-I: wan rasali17
41 - Biwan khitab
Unknown 10 .
42 -ý Diwan al-tamthil
1. Ygq5t, op. cit., loc. cit.
2, AbU IlUsE, op. cit., loc. cit.
AbU Mýs3, oj2. cit.,
5.. Y; qýt, o12. cit.,
6. AbU M5s3, OP. cit., P. 50.
7. YaqUt, op. cit., loc. cit.
8. Abu Mus;, op. cit-9 P. 56.
g. Ygqýt, op. cit., loc. cit.
10. AbU ISs3, op. cit., loc. cit.
11. Yzq5t, ED. cit., loc. cit.