Neolithic art in the Region of the Republic of Macedonia

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3 Andrej Šemrov,

Peter Turk (ur. / eds.)

Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia

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Neolitskata umetnost на

територијата na Република

Makedonijа

Neolithic art in the

Region of the Republic of

Macedonia

Ljubljana 2009

Andrej Šemrov, Peter Turk (ur. / eds.)

Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia

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За izlo`baта The Exhibition

Мери Аницин – Пејоска Meri Anicin – Pejoska

Neolitskata umetnost na Makedonijа Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiшa Zdravkovski

Dragiša Zdravkovski

Каталог на предмети / Catalogue of objects

Formi na kerami~ki sadovi / Forms of pottery

Antropomorfna plastika / Anthropomorphic sculpture

Zoomorfna plastika / Zoomorphic sculpture

Kultni жrtvenici / Cult altars Печати / Stamps

Dragiшa Zdravkovski Dragiša Zdravkovski

Elena Stojanova Kanzurova Elena Stojanova Kanzurova

9 15 35 53 57 131 185 205 233 Содржина Index

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За izlo`baта

The Exhibition

Мери Аницин – Пејоска

Meri Anicin – Pejoska

За изложбата The Exhibition Мери Аницин - Пејоска

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Ni pretstavuva osobenа ~est i zadovolstvo da ja prifatime pokanata na na{ite kolegi i prijateli od Narodniot muzej na Slovenija, od Qubqana, za nastapot na na{ata izlo`ba “Neolitskata umetnost na Makedonijа”. Ovaa aktivnost ja potvrduva na{ata dolgogodi{na sorabotka, bazirana, pred se, na individualni kolegijalni odnosi, koi vo kontinuitet gi gradat i odrжuvaat instituciona-lnite i me|udржavniте relacii, bez ogled na aktueinstituciona-lnite politi~ki promeni.

U{te pove}e, postavkata na ovaa na{a izlo`ba ja na-glasuva na{ata zalo`ba za prodlabo~uvawe na ovie relacii i intenzivirawe na na{ata sorabotka. Vo toj kontekst, posebno go cenime naporot na Narodniot muzej na Slovenija za vonredniot termin кој{to ni go ovozmo`i za prezenti-rawe na del od bogatoto arheolo{ko bogatstvo na Makedonija, tokmu za vreme na pretsedatelstvuvaweto na Slovenija so Evropskata unija, i so toa silno gi podржa na{ite napori za za~uvuvawe na na{iot nacionalen i kulturen identitet, koj be{e zagrozen od apsurdnite pritisoci, kako rezultat на aktuelnata konstelacija na politi~ka mo}.

Osobeno zadovolstvo mi e {to vo ovaa prilika pr-ezentirame zna~aen del od bogatata neolitska kultura od Makedonija, kako svedo{tvo na dlabokite koreni i kontinu-itetot na na{eto kulturno `iveewe.

Ovaa izlo`ba na мakedonskiot neolit, ne samo {to pridonesuva za dooblikuvawe na slikata za `ivotot vo ne-olitot vo Evropa, tuku, so komparacija so ostanatite zemji, }e ovozmo`i da se razotkrie vistinata za `ivotot vo zorata na civilizacijata.

Vo taa smisla, sakam da ja poso~am poznatata izreka na velikanot od makedonskata istorija, Goce Del~ev : “Jas go gledam svetot kako pole za kulturen natprevar me|u nar-odite”.

Мери Аницин – Пејоска

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It was our great pleasure and honour to accept the invitation of our colleagues and friends from the National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana for the loan of our exhibition "The Neolithic Art from Macedonia". This event reaffirms our long-lasting cooperation based, above all, on strong personal relations, which have been cherished and maintained for many years, thus fostering and continuing the institutional cooperation, regardless of the actual political changes. Moreover, the displaying of this exhibition emphasizes our determination for enhancing these relations and establishing more extensive cooperation. In that sense, we highly appreciate the initiative of the National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana for making efforts to schedule this presentation of part of the Macedonian archaeological heritage precisely during the Slovenian presidency with the European Union, thus supporting strongly our efforts for preserving our national and cultural identity, which has been threatened by the absurd pressures from the position of the current constellation of political power.

I would like to reiterate my pleasure for the occasion of presenting a significant part of the abundant Neolithic culture in Macedonia as testimony of the continuity and the deep roots of our cultural existence. This presentation of the Macedonian Neolithic could contribute to elucidating the still incomplete picture of the Neolithic in Europe, so that the truth would be revealed about the life at the dawn of the civilization by joining and comparison of the accomplishments and observations obtained in other countries. In that spirit, I would like to point out the renowned sentence of our great historic figure Goce Delcev: “I see the world as a field for cultural understanding between peoples”.

Meri Anicin Pejoska

Director of the Museum of Macedonia

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Неолитската уметност на

територијата нa Република

Mакедонија

Neolithic Art in the Republic

of Macedonia

Dragiшa Zdravkovski

Dragiša Zdravkovski

Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia

Драгиша Здравковски Dragiša Zdravkovski

Словенeчки и македонски археолози на ископувањето во Анзабегово (мај 1960.)

Archaeological excavations of Slovenian and Macedonian archaeologists at Anzabegovo (May 1960).

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Voved

Izlo`bata „Neolitska umetnost vo Republika Makedonija” prezentira mal del od artefaktite {to se nao|aat vo muzeite. Neolitot sè u{te е malku istra`en period od preistoriskoto minato. Rezultatite so koi denes raspolaga arheolo{kata nauka uka`uvaat na negovoto golemo zna~ewe. Izborot na predmetite e napraven so cel na publikata da se prezentira edna pocelosna slika za po~etocite na civilizacijata vo Republika Makedonija. Poslednata izlo`ba Prazgodovina Makedonii vo Narodniot muzej vo Qubqana bila vo 1979 godina. Izlo`bata ja posvetuvame na prof. Josip Koro{ec, prviot istra`uva~ na lokalitetot Anzabegovo.

Prirodno - geografski osvrt

Republika Makedonija se nao|a vo centralniot del na Bal-kanskiot Poluostrov, na negovata prirodna transverzala, Vardarsko-moravskata dolina, koja go povrzuva Egejot so Panonija. Geografskata mestopolo`ba ja odreduva i nejzi-nata uloga niz istorijata, od neolit do denes.

„Makedonija go zazema centralniot del na Balkanskiot Poluostrov, pome|u Egejskoto More na jug do [ar Planina na sever. Dinarskite planini na zapad i Rodopskite Пlanini na istok. Makedonija, so ogled na nejzinata geografska polo`ba, nao|aj}i se na glavnite pati{ta, odigrala zna~ajna uloga vo razvojot na Evropa. Situirana na rabot na dvete zna~ajni kulturi, egejsko-anadolskata i srednoevrop-skata, sozdavala specifi~na vnatrebalkanska kultura, koja gi prifa}ala i nadvore{nite vlijanija. Najstarite izvori {to se odnesuvaat na `ivotot vo Makedonija poteknuvaat od raniot neolit, najmladata epoha na kamenoto vreme,

peri-odot na primitivno zemjodelstvo i sto~arstvo…”1.

„Vo istoriska smisla, Makedonija e region na Balkanskiot Poluostrov, denes podelen pome|u Republika Makedonija, Grcija i Bugarija. Nejzinite granici, od istok, se rekata Mesta (Nestos) vo Bugarija i zapadnite padini na Rodop-skite Planini, od sever - venecot na planinite [iroka, Skopska Crna Gora i [ar Planina, od zapad - planinata Korab i Ohridsko i Prespansko Ezero, od jugozapad - nata Pindos, a od jug rekata Bistrica (Haliakmon),

plani-nata Olimp i Solunskiot Zaliv so poluostrovot Halkidik”2.

Definicijata na poimot Makedonija, vo geografsko-isto-riska smisla, se teritoriite me|u rekite Vardar i

Bistri-ca (Aksios i Haliakmon) i nivnite pritoki3.

Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија Драгиша Здравковски

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18 Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија 19 Pravec na neolitizacija Tetovo Ohrid Bitola Prilep Veles Štip Skopje Thessaloniki

Teritorijata na Republika Makedonija gi opfa}a oblastite okolu rekata Vardar i nejzinite pritoki. Rekite Vardar i Strumica, preku Struma, gi nosat vodite vo Egejskoto More. Rekata Crn Drim istekuva od Ohridskoto Ezero i se vleva vo Jadranskoto More. Morfologijata na Republika Makedonija se sredno visoki planini i kotlini, so re~ni dolini me|u niv. Najgolemi kotlini se Pelagonija, Polog, Skopsko-ku-manovskata kotlina, dolinata na rekata Bregalnica so Ov~e Pole, Povardarjeto i Strumi~koto Pole. Tie se me|usebno prirodno povrzani, so lesna komunikacija. Poniskite delovi od kotlinite, vo minatoto bile ispolneti so

mo~uri{ta, isu{eni vo HH vek. Ohridskoto, Prespanskoto i Dojranskoto Ezero se najgolemite prirodni ezera.

Neolitskata kultura e dominantno zemjodelska civiliza-cija, zavisna od prirodnite i geomorfolo{kite uslovi na terenot. Pejza`ot vo Makedonija, vo VII - V-to iljadaletie пред Христа, e identi~en na celata teritorija. Terenite na Pelagonija, pokraj Crna Reka i nejziniot lak, se pokrieni so golemi mo~uri{ta, plitki ezera i bari obrasteni so trska, {evar i treva. Sli~ni se pejza`ite vo Polog, Skopsko i Strumi~ko. Ovie mo~uri{ta se prirodni akumulatori na toplinska energija, koi gi pravele zimite poblagi. Prirodnata baza za egzistencija na neolitskata civiliza-cija vo Makedonija e ista. Neolitskiot ~ovek bil orien-tiran kon prirodnite resursi. Mo~uri{tata obezbeduvale dovolno riba, {kolki, barski ptici i drugi `ivotni. Vo periodite koga `etvata bila siroma{na, tie ja nadopol-nuvale hranata. Neolitskiot ~ovek od okolinata se snab-duval so kamen, kremen i drvo. Na rabovite na kotlinite, okolu mo~uri{tata, gi gradel naselbite od tipot tumbi. Najpoznati arheolo{ki lokaliteti vo Pelagonija se Tumba s.Porodin, Velu{ka Tumba, Tumba s.Dobromiri, Tumba s.Mogila, Golemata i Malata Trnska Tumba, Vrbjanska ^uka s.Slavej i u{te 70 drugi. Vo Polog, i Skopsko-Kumanovsko najpoznati se lokalitetite: Tumba s.D. Pal~i{te, Tumba s.Sten~e, Tumba s.Brvenica, Tumba Maxari Skopje i drugi. Vtoriot tip naselbi se na re~nite terasi. Takvi se Barutni-ca s. Anzabegovo, Vr{nik s.Tarinci, Rug Bair s.Gorubinci, Alin Dol s.Nemawici, Slatina s.Zelenikovo, Cerje

s.Govrlevo, Mramori s.^a{ka i drugi. Vo Arheolo{kata kar-ta na Republika Makedonija se registrirani 200 neolitski lokaliteti.

Vo neolitot, klimata vo Makedonija bila vrne`liva, so blagi zimi. Toa, zaedno so prirodno-geografskite uslovi, mu ovozmo`ilo na neolitskiot ~ovek relativno miren i spokoen `ivot.

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Osnovni karakteristiki na neolitot vo Republika Makedonija

Vo arheolo{kata nauka, generalno, definirani se dve kulturni grupi koi egzistirale vo Makedonija: vo Pel-agonija Velu{ko-porodinskata, a vo Severna Makedonija, Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata. Pokraj niv, vo naukata se vovedeni i drugi, no tie ne se dovolno potvrdeni i valorizirani. Za da ja prezentirame i poka`eme umetnosta na neolitot, }e gi potencirame najmarkantnite artefakti koi se otkrieni vo najnovite arheolo{ki istra`uvawa. Ovie dve grupi imaat specifiki, no i mnogu zaedni~ki elementi. Sekoga{, koga toa }e bide neophodno, nekoi karakteristi~ni elementi }e gi potencirame kako specifika na ednata ili drugata grupa.

Granicata na Velu{ko-porodinskata i

Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa e interesna. Vo najstarata faza, vtorata grupa bila ograni~ena na edna teritorija, so centar vo Skopsko, Ov~e Pole, dolinite na sredna Bregalnica i Lakavica. Vo ovaa faza, Polog i delovi od Skopsko se di-rektno pod kulturno vlijanie na Velu{ko-porodinskata grupa. Vo sredniot neolit, Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kta grupa se pro{iruva na celiot Gornovardarski region, Kumanovsko Pole, dolinite i poliwata okolu rekite P~iwa, Kriva Reka, Bregalnica, Lakavica, Strumica i Vardar do Demir Kapija. Vo docniot neolit, teritorijata zna~ajno ne se namaluva, no se namaluvaat prirodnite resursi i doa|a do napu{tawe na nekoi naselbi i koncentracija na `ivotot samo na mal broj. Teritorijata na Velu{ko-porodinskata grupa se namaluva i taa se ograni~uva samo na Pelagonija. Neolitot vo Repub-lika Makedonija egzistiral i se razvival nad dve iljadi godini, niz tri fazi: star, sreden i docen neolit. Anzabegovo-vr{ni~ka kulturna grupa

Najstarite fazi na Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata kulturna grupa, Anza-Vr{nik I a-c, pripa|aat na stariot neolit, karakteristi~en so beloslikanite ornamenti na crvena osnova. Taa faza egzistira vo periodot me|u 6.300/6.100 - 5.800 god. pr.n.e. Glavna karakteristika na beloslikanata keramika se floralnite ornamenti i formiraniot flo-ralen stil vo umetnosta na grupata. Belite floralni orna-menti i „venec na plodorodieto”, odnosno maslina, se edni od najstarite artefakti od neolit. Ornament na maslinovo gran~e ima i sadot so forma na lejka od Anzabegovo. Ovoj sloj e konstatiran na pogolem broj lokaliteti: Velu{ka

Tumba7, Tumba Pal~i{te8, Tumba Sten~e, ^ubuk ~e{ma9,

Cerje-Govrlevo10 i drugi. Keramikata od najstariot sloj vo

Neolitizacija na Republika Makedonija

Neolitskata kultura vo Republika Makedonija, reprezenti-rana vo Velu{ko-porodinskata i Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata kulturna grupa pripa|a na Balkanko-anadolskiot kulturen kompleks. Taa nastanala vrz {irokata kulturna baza od procesot na primarnata neolitizacija, so dominantno u~estvo na monohromnata polirana i slikanata keramika. Toj proces se odvival vo periodot od 6.400 do 6.100 god. pr.n.e. Dosega{nite istra`uvawa na neolitot vo Make-donija ne otkrija postoewe na predkerami~ki arheolo{ki tragi. Ovie grupi se rezultat na migracija od jug, odnosno od Tesalija. Pravecot na dvi`ewe na nositelite e preku Egejska Makedonija do Pelagonija. Tuka za najstari naselbi se smetaat Golemata Trnska Tumba i Pe{terica. Ponatamu, neolitot se {iri na sever, preku Pe{terica, kon dolinata na rekata Babuna i Azot kon Skopskata kotlina. Vo Skop-sko, najstara naselba e Govrlevo od kade grupata se {iri po celata kotlina i na istok vo Ov~e Pole, na sever kon Ku-manovsko Пole, a preku Pre{evskata vododelnica na sever, po dolinata na Morava. Od Ov~e Pole na istok, po dolinata na Bregalnica, se {iri kon Sredna Struma. Po dolinata na rekata Lakavica, odi na jug kon Strumi~ko Pole. Vo Polog grupata e rezultat na direktnite kontakti so Pelagonija, bidej}i formite na keramikata i ukrasuvaweto na najstar-iot sloj od Tumba Sten~e se identi~ni so Velu{ko-porodin-skata grupa. Vo ovaa najrana faza kontaktite na naselbite od Polog so Pelagonija se evidentni i realni. No, vo slednata etapa, vo sredniot neolit, naselbite od Polog, direktno, hronolo{ki i kulturno, komuniciraat so istovremenite od Skopsko.

Hronolo{ki ramki i datirawe

Vo arheolo{kite istra`uvawa se sobrani primeroci od materijal na koj e izvr{eno analiza so radioaktiven jaglen S-14 i termoluminiscencija. Spored rezultatite, Anza-begovo I e datirano vo period od 6.100 do 5.800 god. pr.n.e Anzabegovo II - 5.800; Anzabegovo III - 5.300 i Anzabegovo IV, vo

periodot od 5.200 do 5.000 god. pr.n.e.4

Analiziraniot materijal od vtoriot i tretiot sloj na

Govr-levo, gi dadoa datite 5.800 i 5.300 godini pr.n.e5.

Najnovi datumi se od eneolitskata naselba Pilavo vo s.Buril~evo, za postarata faza 4.540-4.330, a za pomladata 3.750 god. pr.n.e.6

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Anzabegovo, spored op{tite karakteristiki na formite i ornamentikata, ima vidlivi vrski so Anadolija. Vrskite so Tesalija, fazite na naselbite od Protosesklo, Presesklo i klasi~no Sesklo se poevidentni. Vo ponatamo{nata ev-olucija, vo tekot na celiot sreden neolit, grupata Anza-begovo -Vr{nik se razviva na ovaa avtohtona baza na teri-torija koja e mnogu namalena, no so evidentni sli~nosti i razliki so severnata Star~eva~ka grupa. Vo Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa lajt-motiv ili konstanta e lentata so floralni ornamenti (vegetativni), {to otsustvuva vo takva forma vo Star~evo, iako postoi i ponatamu evoluira, kako

spiraloid ili girlandoid stil11. Vo Star~evo primaren e

konstruktivno-geometriskiot stil, koj spored D.Srejovi} vle~e direktni koreni od graviranite vise~ki triagol-nici na koskite i skiptarite od Lepenski Vir.

Neolitskata kultura vo Republika Makedonija, najgolem procut do`iveala vo periodot na sredniot ili razvien neolit. Toj se karakterizira po crvenata fina keramika so temnite braon ornamenti na crvena osnova. Taa trae me|u 5.800 i 5.300 god. pr.n.e. (Anzabegovo- Vr{nik II-III). Konstatiran e vo razvienite fazi na site lokaliteti: Anzabegovo, Tumba Maxari, Zelenikovo, Govrlevo, Rug

Bair, Vr{nik12, Mramori13. Vo Velu{ko-porodinskata

kulturna grupa e mnogu retka braon slikana keramika. Karakteristi~na e pojavata na spiralata so braon/tem-nokafeava boja na pehari so mala prstenesta noga. Isto taka, karakteristi~ni se kafeavo slikanite vertikalni alternirani debeli i tenki linii, ~estopati so vertika-lni spirali me|u niv. Floravertika-lniot stil vo ukrasuvaweto na keramikata prodol`uva so novi estetski invencii. Kako moden trend na vremeto (Anzabegovo-Vr{nik III) se pojavuva i noviot konstruktivno-geometriski stil, donesen od sever, kako star~evski element. Umetni~kite pretstavi na kultot na Golemata majka dominiraat vo kultnata plastika. Krajot na sredniot/razvien neolit vo Makedonija, zavr{uva

so pojavata na t.n. „vin~anska” docnoneolitska keramika14.

Stratigrafskite podatoci ovozmo`uvaat determinirawe na posledniot sloj od Anzabegovo-Vr{nik IV, kako doc-noneolitski. Negovite glavni karakteristiki se crnata mazneta i kanelirana keramika, bikonusna profilacija, drжalkite so jadec. Stratigrafski, ovaa keramika se nao|a vo sloj {to e mnogu podlo`en na devastirawe. Naodite vo Anzabegovo, Rug Bair i Alin Dol vo Ov~e Pole i posledniot sloj, definiran kako Zelenikovo II, posledniot sloj od Tum-ba Pal~i{te i Govrlevo, pripa|a na Anzabegovo-Vr{nik

IV, odnosno na docniot neolit. Toj e sinhron so soodvetnata

Vin~a-Tordo{ I faza na sever. Istovremeno, ovie elementi se karakteristi~ni i za kulturata Paradimi vo Severna Najpoznati neolitski naoŕali{ta

• Dolno Palčište Zubovce • • Stenče • Dolno Sedlarce • Govrlevo • Zelenikovo • Madžari•

Mrševci• Dolno Konjare

• Rug Bair

• Mamutčevo Barutnica Anzabegovo

• Čaška • Radin dol • Pešterica • Vrbjani • Vršnik • Damjan • Angelci Crničani • • Mogila • Đorev Rid • Porodin Velušina • Karamani • • Trn • Ustie ◎ Skopje Драгиша Здравковски Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија

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prodol`uvaat ornamentite od sredniot neolit: to~ki, polumese~inki, triagolnici, razvle~eni agli. Kultnata plastika vo Velu{ko -porodinskata grupa e

raznovidna. Antropomorfnata plastika e bogata i raznovid-na. Neolitskiot umetnik sekoga{ go predizvikuvalo

~ove~koto telo. Toa, naj~esto, se `enski statuetki od stolbov-iden i kru{kest tip. Prvite se mnogu ednostavni, so kosa, nos i primarni i sekundarni seksualni karakteristiki. Ko-sata e svitkana vo kok. Vtorite se so naglasena steatopigija, malo telo i ~esto {ematizirana glava ili bez nea. Naj~esto se vo polusvitkana polo`ba, so racete na stomakot i mal plasti~en disk na pubusot.

Zoomorfnata plastika se pretstavi na govedo/bik, elen, ovca i drugo. Nekoga{ toa se stilizirani skulpturi bez detali ili realisti~no prika`ani, so golema plasti~nost. Inter-esni se `rtvenicite so elenski protomi i eden primerok so pretstava na `elka. Zadnite noze se izvajani, so po dve mali zadebeluvawa, plasti~no prika`ani, kako da se spu{teni, odnosno asociraat na debela ko`a, sobrana i nate`nata. Recipientot ima zaoblena forma, so izrazeno vovle~en venec. Glavite se na visoki vratovi so grklan, mali usti i ro`esti zadebeluvawa na zadniot del. Tie se prika`ani kako da izniknuvaat od recipientot, odnosno kako da se istegnu-vaat. Pome|u glavite se nao|a mala pe~ka. Sli~na pe~ka ima `rtvenikot, osnova na ku}a, od Tumba Porodin. Ovoj detaq dozvoluva, so golema sigurnost, da pomislime deka ovie dva `rtvenika, najdeni vo ista ku}a, gi izrabotil eden majstor. Drug primerok na `elka e od Vrbjanska ^uka. Vo Pelagonija se najdeni i ubavo izvajani glavi od eleni so rogovi i kozo-rozi.

Osobeno interesni se i modelite na ku}i so pokriv na dve vodi i antropomorfen cilinder na pokrivot, kako oxak, od tipot na Golemata majka. Isto taka, modelite-`rtvenici bez pokriv, samo so triagolno prika`ani bo~ni yidovi, so otvori postaveni na visoki nazabeni postamenti (dali se raboti za palafiti?). Ova uka`uva na faktot deka neolit-skiot ~ovek od Pelagonija neguval golem kult kon ku}ata i doma{noto ogni{te. Osnovi na ku}i ima i vo Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa. Model na stilizirana ku}a, sli~na so modelite od Pelagonija, e modelot -`rtvenikot od Vr{nik,

isto taka, od docen neolit18.

Floralen stil vo slikanata keramika

Fenomenot na floralnite ornamenti vo ukrasuvaweto na kerami~kite sadovi i nivnite formi, definiran kako Grcija. Isto~no od planinata Pangej, Dramskoto Pole do

Termajskiot Zaliv se formira docnoneolitskata kultur-nata grupa Topolnica-Akropotamos.

Velu{ko-porodinska kulturna grupa

Grupata egzistirala niz ~etiri interni fazi I-IV, vo peri-odot od krajot na VII do krajot na V–ot milennium pr.n.e., koga docniot neolit potpolno zgasnuva. Identi~no kako i vo Severna Makedonija, i vo Pelagonija dominiraat naselbite od tipot tumbi. Naselbite na re~ni terasi se malubrojni:

Pe{terica15, Vlaku vo s.@ivojno i Bela Crkva kaj s.Brod16.

Ku}ite se gradeni na potpolno identi~en na~in od pleter, cepeni gredi i ponekoga{ na podot imalo supstrukcija od kolci, kako izolacija od vlagata. Modelite na ku}ite iz-raboteni od keramika najdobro gi ilustriraat objektite za `iveewe. Vo Tumba Porodin e otkriena edna trapezoidna ku} a od docniot neolit. Grupata egzistirala vo Pelagonija, vo priroden ambient i uslovi potpolno identi~ni so pejza`ot okolu naselbite od Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa.

Velu{ko-пorodinskata grupa e postara od

Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata i se razvivala pod direktno vlijanie na raniot neolit od Tesalija. Pelagonija imala izvonredni uslovi za zemjodelstvo i sto~arstvo i grupata egzistirala spokojno, vo relativna blagostojba. Keramikata na grupata poka`uva edinstvo vo site fazi i generalno gi ima istite karakteris-tiki. Vo stariot neolit dominira crvenata gruba barbotin-keramika so повлекувања od prsti, arkadniot-organiziran barbotin, plasti~ni lenti so vtisnuvawa od prsti, kaj go-lemite sadovi-pitosi ili grnci, ~inii i crepni. Impreso-tehnikata e na sadovi so pomali dimenzii. Toa se ukrasi so vdlabnatinki, otpe~atoci od nokti, {tipnuvawa vo vid na `iten klas i zrna p~enica, prisutni i vo keramikata na

grupata17 Anzabegovo-Vr{nik. Ubavata keramika e

monohrom-na ili slikamonohrom-na. Toa se ~inii so polutop~esta forma, ~inii so profiliran vrat, amfori, kapaci, pehar na prazna mala konusna noga. Keramikata e so dobra faktura, dobro mazneta, so visok sjaj. Ornamentite se aglesti, pravilni triagolni-ci, klepsidri, skalesti lenti slikani so bela boja.

Vo sredniot neolit prodol`uvaat grubite sadovi, dekorira-ni so neorgadekorira-niziran barbotin i impreso-ubodi. Se pojavuva finata keramika so boja na cveklo (vinski talog) slikana so bela boja, ornamenti vo forma na bukvata „Z”, sigmi, skal-esti lenti i sl.

Vo docniot neolit prodol`uva da egzistira grubata kerami-ka, a sè pove}e dominira sivata i kafeavata boja. Kaj finata

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rombovi, e na statuetkata od Usta na Drim vo Struga. Vo eneolitot, na steatopignite figurini, rombovite ve}e se sekundarni ili tercijalni ornamenti. Tie se dale~no eho na floralniot stil vo umetnosta vo Makedonija. Mo`ebi e preterano ako se ka`e deka toj e del od folklorot i e nositel na zaedni~kite kulturni i umetni~ki elementi na grupata, koi go obedinuvaat „etnosot” {to egzistiral na teritorija na Severna Makedonija i Pelagonija, vo periodot me|u 6.300 i 4.200 god. pr.n.e.

Kultot na Golemata majka

Najmarkantna pojava vo neolitot na Makedonija se `rtve-nicite od tipot Golemata majka. Najstara forma na praid-ejata za Golemata majka e `rtvenikot od Tumba Sten~e. Napraven e od eden ~etvrtest postament-ku}a, so po dva ~etiriagolni i dva otvori vo forma na bukvata „M”, post-aveni na sprotivnite strani. Toj zboruva za starite koreni na po~ituvawe na kultot na Golemata majka u{te od stariot, vo kontinuitet niz celiot sreden neolit i za povrzanosta me|u Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata i Velu{ko-porodinskata kul-turna grupa.

Prv celosno so~uvan e otkrien vo ku}a 1 vo 1981 god. vo Tumba

Maxari19. Ovoj primerok, so svoite impresivni dimenzii

od 0,39 m visina, klasi~nata smirena poza na izniknuvawe od ku}ata i, voedno, bdeewe nad nejziniot mir i ogni{te, ja pravi ovaa terakotna pretstava ekskluzivna.

Filosofskata ideja za praroditelkata, od koja zapo~nuva sè, e prika`ana kako eden cilinder so osnovnite antropo-morfni karakteristiki: o~i, nos, ~esto nema usta, retko prika`ani gradi i papok, race so belezici {to cvrsto stojat na ku}ata-odnosno ja drжat (prika`ana kako nepravil-na kockesta forma), so razni formi nepravil-na otvori za prozorci. Nekoi primeroci, na dnoto na osnovata na ku}ata, imaat dupka koja vertikalno komunicira so otvorot vo sredinata na cilinderot. Mo`ebi toa e komunikacijata na zemjata i neboto. Primerokot od Cerje, Govrlevo, e vo poodminat graviditet. Eden primerok od Tumba Maxari, visok 31,5 sm. nema race, no ku}ata e osobeno markantna vo odnos na cilin-derot i liceto. Zatoa ni se ~ini deka kaj ovoj primerok do-minira ku}ata nad antroposot. Na ova asociraat i pove}eto otvori na yidovite. Klasi~en primerok e od Tumba Porodin, so model na ku}a. Takvi se modelite od Dobromiri, Velu{ka Tumba i dr. Posebno ubav e primerokot od Tumba Maxari so umetni~ki izvajana kosa, spletena vo dvojna pletenka i fat-ena so igla. Na ~eloto se naslikani ne`ni krkmi so crvfat-ena boja, nosot e mal, o~ite-samo vre`ani. Umetnikot mnogu floralen stil, bil zabele`an u{te vo prvite istra`uvawa

vo 1960 god. na Anzabegovo od Josip Koro{ec. Podocne`nite istra`uvawa samo ja potvrdija ovaa teza. Nie go akcenti-rame kako mnogu va`en element na Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata kulturna grupa. Od najstarite fazi, pa niz sredniot ne-olit i vo docniot nene-olit, ornamentot na venec od lisja e prisuten vo celiot korpus na keramografijata. Toj stil e „folklorniot fenomen", imanenten na lu|eto vo ram-kite na grupata Anzabegovo-Vr{nik. Zaedno so nego odi i lejkata (tikvata!), kako osnova i inspiracija za izrabotka na sadovite-amfori. Tie se najubavite i najimpresivnite formi na sadovi koi se sretnuvaat na naselbite od na{ite grupi. Trite amfori najdeni vo ku}a 1 i 3 od Tumba Maxari se prvite artefakti na tloto na Makedonija, za koi so sig-urnost mo`e da se ka`e deka se izraboteni od eden majstor-kerami~ar. Nekoi od peharite od ku}a 1 vo Tumba Maxari, isto taka, se delo na negovata raka.

Vo slikanata keramika i keramikata so impreso-ornamen-ti, floralnite ornamenti se konstanta vo dekoracijata na Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata kulturna grupa, vo site fazi. Vo stariot neolit, toa se realisti~no naslikani mali listovi od maslinka, so bela boja. Postaveni se so svoite koreni vo dvojna niza, svrteni kon dnoto na sadot vo vertikalna niza. Venecot na plodorodnosta, ili girland, e slikan na am-fori i pehari, so kafeava boja, na crvena ili posvetla oker osnova.

Peharite se sadovi koi poteknuvaat od prosta polutop~esta forma so vovle~en venec, malku naglasen stomak i mala prstenesta noga. Vo po~etokot ne se dekorirani so slikawe. Ponatamu, taa se razviva vo yvon~esta forma, so blaga Y-profilacija, luksuzno dekorirana vrz engoba so vertikalni linii, triagolnici i sl. Kon krajot na sredniot neolit do-biva „barokna” Y-profilacija so zadebelen venec, odli~no izmazneta, do visok sjaj povr{ina, ukraseni so spirali ili vertikalni linii, vise~ki triagolnici ili kombinacii od dvete. Vo docniot neolit ovaa forma na sadovi dobiva ostra Y-profilacija, so turban-kaneluri na ramoto i siva sjajna metalna boja, postaveni na povisoka prazna noga. Venecot na plodorodnosta e naslikan na mnogu kerami~ki sadovi: na malata i golemite amfori od Tumba Maxari, peharot od Rug Bair, fragmenti od pehari od Anzabegovo, Tumba Mr{evci i drugi. Toj e omilen ornament niz celiot neolit. Se slika so namera da dominira, bidej}i e zatvoren i definiran mikrokosmos. Toa e apstrakna geometriska pretstava na floralnite elementi, slikani na kerami-kata. Neolitskata kultura go koristi i vo docniot neolit, koga doa|a negoviot kraj. Poslednata pretstava, vre`ani

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te{ko zabele`liva traga od crvena boja. Na prv pogled, samo formalno, mnogu potsetuva na podocne`nite kikladski idoli. Vo docniot neolit statuetkite se poisten~eni i se prika`ani i sekundarnite polovi karaktertistiki. Isto taka, toga{ sè po~esta e pojavata i na ma{kata pretstava. Formite se poizdol`eni, so naglaseni polovi karakteris-tiki i sivo pe~eni. Od figurinite mnogu ~esto se praveni samo glavi so osnovnite karakteristiki - nos, o~i i poneko-ga{ usta. Naj~esto frizurata e vnimatelno umetni~ki pretstavena.

Zoomorfnata plastika e raznovidna i tainstvena. Ne-olitskiot ~ovek, svrten kon obezbeduvaweto hrana, svojata blagosostojba ja dol`el na poljodelstvoto i na sto~arstvoto. Znaej}i go toa, neolitskiot ~ovek nekoi `ivotni ги

po~ituval i vo tekot na dolgite mileniumi od paleolitot i neolitot, sozdadeni se kultovi kon niv. Najgolem kult e sozdaden kon bikot. Eden primerok od Tumba Maxari e so ~ove~ki lik i potsetuva na anti~kite kentauri. Nekoi istra`uva~i smetaat deka vo recipientite se ~uvalo zrna

`ito za seme za slednata seidba20.

Od Tumba Maxari e kerami~ka pretstava na glava na oven

(bik)-bukranion21. So prirodni dimenzii, so inkrustrirana

bela posna boja (mo`ebi pepel?) vo nozdrite, so otvori vo koi bile vsadeni prirodni rogovi, taa zboruva za kultot kon ovenot-bikot. Kako i drugite vajarski dela, uka`uva na visokite umetni~ki i estetski dostreli na kerami~arite-vajari od Tumba. Bidej}i zadniot del e potpolno mazen, najverojatno bila aplicirana na fasadata na nekoja ku}a. Treta kategorija kultni predmeti se `rtvenicite, ~esto zastapeni na site arheolo{ki lokalitetite. Osnovnata forma na `rtvenik e masi~ka so recipient i postament na koj stoi. Toa mo`e da bide malo ~ini~e, so dnoto postaveno na masi~ka, so ~etiri noze, so razli~na viso~ina. Mo`e da bide i plitok recipient, vklopen vo masata, so blago pro-filiran venec. Postarite, po forma se triagolni, so vdlab-nat kru`en recipient. Ovoj tip `rtvenici ima vertikalni ~etiriagolni ili kru`ni noze, ~esto me|usebno povrzani so niza od vre`ani triagolnici. Nekoi primeroci imaat nazabeni arki, osobeno od Velu{ko-porodinskata grupa. Poseben tip `rtvenici se od tipot osnova na ku}a so ~etiriagolna forma, podlabok recipient i so plasti~no nazna~eno ogni{te. Zastapeni se niz celiot neolit. Na izlo`bata se prezentiraat dela na neolitskiot majstor-umetnik, so umetni~ki vrednosti koi dozvoluvaat likovno-stilski opredelbi. Vo ovoj mig naukata sistematizirala i definirala samo dva: floralnite ornamenti vo ukrasu-vnimanie posvetuval na frizurite, izvajani kako afro,

drugi samo naglaseni so vre`uvawe itn. Voop{to, frizur-ite zboruvaat za izvonredno bogatata moda na neolitskata `ena. Site poznati primeroci imaat razli~en tretman na o~ite. Primerokot od Tumba Pal~i{te se razlikuva od site poznati, kaj koi o~ite se samo vre`ani ili blago naglaseni. Ovoj primerok ima impresivni o~i. Zenicata e plasti~no izvajana, stavena vo ubavo bademesto oko, ~ii kapaci zavr{uvaat vo dolga plasti~na linija, koja ostava vpe~atok na linija od {minka. Nekoi primeroci imaat vre`ani o~i, nekoi podotvoreni, treti otvoreni, nekoi so spu{teni gorni kapaci. Ustata kaj nekoi e vre`ana poslabo, kaj drugi poizrazena, kaj eden primerok od Tumba Maxari taa e vo pla~. Na primerokot od Tumba Mogila, so izrazena gracil-nost i elegancija, ustata e sobrana i zaedno so srame`liviot pogled asocira „primo bachio”. Licata na cilindrite od Pelagonija imaat triagolna forma i asociraat na maski. Cilindrite se modelirani od nepre~istena zemja okolu drvo, od koe e ostanat otpe~atok vo pozitiv.

Denes znaeme deka cilindrite i Golemata majka ne bile iz-rabotuvani „in usum mortuorum”, odnosno nemale funerarna funkcija. Za toa najdobro zboruva Golemata majka od Govr-levo, prika`ana so nabreknati gradi i poodminat gravid-itet. Najverojatno se povrzani so kultot na plodnosta. So svojata ednostavnost, posebno mesto ima eden primerok na glava na `ena, markantno izvajana, vo prirodna golemi-na. Liceto e ramno, so vre`ani i plasti~no izvedeni o~i i nos, ustata ja nema. Frizurata e so plasti~ni dlaboki brazdi - pletenki sobrani na ednata strana vo kok, otkriena na Tumba Maxari. Mo`ebi e del od nekoja monumentalna skulp-tura na Golemata majka?

Kultna plastika

Osobeno interesna kategorija vo neolitskata umetnost e an-tropomorfnata i zoomorfnata kultna plastika. Kaj prvata naj~esto se pretstavuva `enata. Vo srednoneolitskite fazi `enskite figurini se steatopigni (ili kru{kesti idoli, kako {to gi narekuvaat), izvajani od dve identi~ni polovi-ni, a potoa spoeni. Glavata obi~no nedostiga. Polovite organi se naglaseni so eden vre`an triagolnik. Vo Tumba Maxari e najden eden primerok, izvajan vo bel kamen, so na-glasena steatopigija, gradite se mali, vratot-tenok, racete-tordirani, a glavata nedostiga. Od ovoj lokalitet e i malata glava od belutrak, so naglasen nos. Prirodnata forma na kamenot e maksimalno iskoristena. Izrabotena e dobro, so golemo ~uvstvo za forma, so golem nos, a na ~eloto ima mala

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vaweto na keramikata i kultot na Golemata majka. Ovoj kult e ra{iren na celata teritorija na Makedonija. Na teritori-jata na Velu{ko-porodinskata grupa taa e osnovnoto veru-vawe od najstarite fazi. Zatoa vo skulpturata e tolku mar-kantno i ~esto izrabotuvana. Vakvi idoli ili `rtvenici na Kosovo i Pomoravje se javuvaat duri vo docniot neolit. Pritisnati od pomobilnite i povitalnite nositeli na metalot, nositelite na kulturata Vin~a, poleka se {irat na site strani, pa i na jug. Istovremeno, vo Severna Grcija se slu~uvaat sli~ni procesi, kako i vo Panonija. Tie se rezul-tat i pod vlijanie na golemite neolitski centri za opsidi-jan i sol od Anadolija. Taka, na nekoi naselbi na ostrovite se formiraat golemi trgovski emporiumi koi trguvaat so Grcija i Trakija. Takov e slu~ajot so Hios, Salijagos, Sever-nite Sporadi i dr. Tie kontakti postoele u{te od raniot neolit i nikoga{ ne prestanale. Po tie pati{ta se prene-suvaat i metalite. Glavnite ekonomski i kulturni vrski na naselbite od Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa, po~nuvaj}i od formiraweto, sekoga{ bila Pelagonija.

Vo neolitskata kultura i vo umetnosta vo Republika Make-donija, dominira kultot na Golemata majka. Toj gi spojuva dvete makedonski grupi i go izdvojuva neolitot na Make-donija od sosednite oblasti, osobeno Star~evo, dolinata na Struma i Nea Nikomedija (Sesklo- Dimini) i Va{temi-Podgorie. Umetni~ki i vajarski dela so vakva koncepcija i ekspresivnost se karakteristika samo za makedonskiot neolit. Vo Velu{ko-porodinskata grupa, kaj Golemata majka dominira ku}ata, zna~i semejstvoto, kako osnovna kletka na op{testveniot i ekonomskiot `ivot. Vo krugot na semejst-voto, koe `ivee na edno mesto, vo svoja ku}a-dom, se odviva `ivotot. Gri`ata za potomstvoto, nivnoto vospituvawe na osnovnite `ivotni normi, znaewa i iskustvo se crpat od toj izvor. Vo Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa dominira ~ovekot/ antroposot. Vo repertoarot na antropomorfnata plastika nema golemi razliki me|u dvete grupi. Vo zoomorfnata plastika vo Pelagonija dominira `elkata, bikot, elenot i dr. Vo Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata grupa `elkata i elenot otsustvuvat, a bikot i pticata se prisutni. Vo `rtvenicite, kultni masi~ki, zasega ne mo`e da se ka`e za nekoi golemi razliki.

Neolitskata umetnost od Republika Makedonija pretstavuva najvisok kulturen i socioekonomski fenomen vo mladoto kameno vreme na Centralen Balkan. Taa e formirana i `iveela na pitoma teritorija, koja mu dozvolila na ne-olitskiot ~ovek lesno da ja osvoi. Toj bil ispolnet od nea i od nejzinite prirodni manifestacii - plitki ezera i mo~uri{ta, niski ridovi obrasnati so pitomi {umi. Site izgrevi i zalezi na sonceto go ra|ale i go hranele ovoj

pe-jza`. Vo nego mirno i spokojno se odvival `ivotot so site ne-bidnini. Neolitskiot ~ovek ja sakal makedonskata zemja i dolgo `iveel na nea. Od ra|aweto bil vrzan za nea so cvrsta papo~na vrvca. Nikoga{ ne ja napu{til, ostanal na nea, prisuten e niz arheologijata do den-dene{en, nadgraduvj}i gi svoite `ivotni iskustva. Toj ostavil mnogubrojni tragi i informacii, koi ~estopati za nas se nerazbirlivi i nejas-ni. Na poleto na umetnosta ostanale sovr{eni kerami~ki sadovi koi i denes imaat moderni formi i `ivi ukrasi. Vo niv se za~etocite na nekakov vid poraki so razni {ari i crti~ki, naredeni vo odreden ritam i so nejasna simbolika i so nerazbirliva harmonija. Prou~uvaweto na ovaa etapa od ~ovekovata evolucija i po~etok, i razvoj na sedentarizmot e osnovata na civilizacijata. Koi se pri~inite za zamirawe na `ivotot na naselbite od docniot neolit, zasega e te{ko da se pretpostavi. Istoriski, neolitskata civilizacija ne mo`ela da go nad`ivee svojot ekstenziven na~in na stopanisuvawe. Otkritieto na metalot i dominiraweto na sto~areweto, kako osnovna ekonomska baza, gi diktira i kul-turnite dvi`ewa. Toa sistematski, od koren, gi menuva site socioekonomski odnosi vo op{testvoto. Mirniot `ivot na naselbite prestanuva, doa|aat novi populacii so drugi znaewa i iskustvo. Krajot ne se slu~il odedna{, tuku bil proces {to trael dolgo. Mo`ebi gasneweto na neolitskata zemjodelska civilizacija traela niz celiot docen neolit. Neolitskata umetnost sozdavana vo Velu{ko-porodinskata i Anzabegovo-vr{ni~kata kulturna grupa, vo periodot na ra-niot neolit, 6.300- 5.800 god. pr.n.e., potoa sredra-niot 5.800 -5.300 i docniot 5.300-4.200 god. pr.n.e. e najvisokata uni-verzalna kulturna manifestacija na teritorijata na Repub-lika Makedonija. Nejziniot specifi~en kulturen profil vo skulpturata, `rtvenicite i kultot kon Golemata majka, a vo slikanata keramika, floralniot stil, maslinovo gran~e, kako venec na plodorodieto, sè u{te se nau~en predizvik i enigma.

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32 Неолитската уметност на територијата нa Република Mакедонија

33

1.

I. Stawowy-Kawka, Historia Macedonii. Wroclaw-Warszawa-Krakow 2000, 5.

2.

A. Siemaszco, Sztuka ikony. Krakow 2000, 13.

3.

N.G.L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia, vol.1. Oxford 1972, 3.

4.

M. Gimbutas, Neolithic Macedonia. Los Angeles 1976, 29.

5

Informacijata e dobiena od M.Bilbija, za {to najsrde~no mu blagodarime.

6

Informacijata e dobiena od istra`uva~ot I.Koli{trkoska - Nas-teva, za {to srde~no blagodarame.

7 Simoska D.- Sanev V., Праисторија vо Cентраlnа Пеlаgонија, Битола, 1976, 31-33 8 Sarжoski S.-Zdravkovski D., Тумба Паl~иште, АP 28, Ljubljana 1987, 43 9 Zdravkovski D., 1993 Neolitska naselba „^ubuk ~e{ma”- s.Niku{tak, Kumanovo, Maced.acta archaeol.13, Skopje, 17-30

10

Bilbija M. Cerje-neolitsko naselje, AP 26, Ljubljana 1988, 35-36

11.

S. Dimitrijević, Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja, II Neolit. Sarajevo 1979, 246.

12

Gara{anin M., Problemi nеоlита и енеолита Cентралног Балкана у веzи са реzултатима истраживања у Македонији, Maced. acta archaeol. 10, 1989, 28-29

13

Jov~evska T. 1993, Ku}ata od horizont I vo neolitskata naselba Mramor kaj ^a{ka, Maced.acta archaeol. 13, Skopje, 31-41

14

D. Mitrevski, Prehistory in the Republic of Macedonia, The Balkans in prehistory, Athens 2001, 88

15

Kitanoski B., Simoska D., Todorovi} J. 1983 Naselbata Pe{terica i prob-lemot naraniot neolit vo Pelagonija, Maced.acta archaeol.6, Skopje, 9-20

16

Simoska D .- Sanev V. 1976, Praistorija vo Centralna Pelagonija, Bitola, 11

17 Ibid.13

18 Ibid.96

19

Sanev V.1981 Neolitsko svetili{te od Tumba vo s.Maxari, Skopje (folder od izlo`bata)

20

S. Vetnić, Starčevo altars from settlements in the Velika Morava River Basin, Glasnik srbskog arheološkog društva 15-16, 2001, 12

21

V. Sanev, Terakotna glava na oven od arheolo{kata zbirka na Muz-ejot na Makedonija, Maced.acta archaeol.15,Skopje 1999, 15-24

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35

Introduction

The exhibition “Neolithic art in the Republic of Macedonia” presents a small portion of artefacts found in museums. The Neolithic period is still one of the less explored periods of our prehistoric past. However, the results currently available to archaeologists demonstrate its enormous significance. The selection of exhibits was made with a view to presenting the audience with a more comprehensive image of the beginnings of civilization in the Republic of Macedonia. The last exhibition entitled Prazgodovina Makedonije (Prehistory of Macedonia) was

presented in the National Museum in Ljubljana back in 1979. We wish to dedicate this exhibition to Prof. Josip Korošec, the first explorer of the Anzabegovo site.

Natural and geographic features

The Republic of Macedonia is situated in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, in its natural direction, namely the Vardar and Morava valley that connects the Aegean and Pannonia. This geographic location has determined its role throughout history, since the Neolithic period up until today.

“Macedonia is spread in the Central part of the Balkan Peninsula, between the Aegean Sea in the south and Šar Mountain in the north, the Dinara Mountains in the west and the Rodopi in the east. Having in mind its geographic position, at the very crossroads of the most important routes, Macedonia played a significant role in the development of Europe. Situated at the edge of two important cultures, the Aegean-Anadolic and the Central European, it created a specific inner Balkan culture, accepting external influences as well. The oldest sources regarding life in Macedonia date back to the Early Neolithic period, the earliest era of the Late Stone Age, the period of

primitive agriculture and cattle-breeding...”1

“From a historical point of view, Macedonia is a region in the Balkan Peninsula, divided today among the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria. Its boundaries in the East are the river Mesta (Nestos) in Bulgaria and the western slopes of the Rodopi mountains, in the north the mountain chain of Široka, Skopska Crna Gora and Šar mountains, in the west the Korab mountain and the lakes of Ohrid and Prespa, Mount Pindos in the south-west, and its southern boundaries the river Bistrica (Haliakmon), Mount Olympus and the gulf of Thessaloniki with

the Halkidiki peninsula”.2 The definition of the term Macedonia

in a geographic and historical perspective would be the territory between the rivers Vardar and Bistrica (Aksios and Haliakmon), and their tributaries.3

Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski

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36 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 37 Directions of neolithization Tetovo Ohrid Bitola Prilep Veles Štip Skopje Thessaloniki

The territory of the Republic of Macedonia covers the areas around the river Vardar and its tributaries. The rivers Vardar and Strumica end in the Aegean Sea via the river Struma. The river Crn Drim flows from Ohrid Lake and out into the Adriatic Sea. As for the morphology of the Republic of Macedonia, it features medium-high mountains and ravines intersected by river valleys. The biggest valleys are Pelagonija, Polog, Skopje and Kumanovo, the Bregalnica river valley with Ovče Pole, Povardarje and the valley of Strumica. These are all interconnected, enabling easy communication. The lower parts of the valleys were actually swamps, which dried during the 20th century. The lakes of Ohrid, Prespa and Dojran are the biggest natural lakes.

Neolithic culture features a predominantly agricultural civilization, depending on the natural and geomorphologic conditions on the field. The landscape in Macedonia during the 7th-5th millennium BC was identical throughout the entire territory. The areas in Pelagonija, following the river Crna and its curves, were covered in large swamps, shallow lakes and marsh, weed and grass. The landscape in the region of Polog, Skopje and Strumica was similar. These swamps were natural accumulators of heat energy and thus made winters much milder. The natural base for the existence of the Neolithic civilization in Macedonia was identical. Neolithic man was oriented towards natural resources. The swamps provided enough fish, shells, birds and other animals, and in times of poor harvest, they provided food supplements. Neolithic man found stones, rocks and wood from his surroundings. The peripheral areas of the valleys and the areas around the swamps were the usual locations for the construction of so-called “tumba” (i.e. tumulus) settlements.

The most renowned archaeological sites in Pelagonia are the Porodin Tumba, Veluška Tumba, Dobromiri Tumba, Mogila Tumba, the Big and Small Trnska Tumba, Vrbjanska Čuka near the village of Slavej, and 70 others. In the area of Polog and the Skopje-Kumanovo region, the following sites are noted: Tumba Palčište, Tumba Stenče, Tumba Brvenica, and Tumba Madjari Skopje. The second type of settlement is situated on river terraces. Settlements of this type are Barutnica near the village of Anzabegovo, Vršnik v. Tarinci, Rug Bair v. Gorubinci, Alin Dol v. Nemanjici, Slatina v. Zelenikovo, Cerje v. Govrlevo, and Mramori v. Čaška. The archaeological map of the Republic of Macedonia features 200 registered Neolithic sites.

In the Neolithic period, the climate in Macedonia was

precipitatious with mild winters. This, along with the natural and geographic conditions, enabled Neolithic man to lead a relatively calm and tranquil life.

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38 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 39

Basis features of the Neolithic period in the Republic of Macedonia

The Neolithic period in the Republic of Macedonia existed and developed in a period of over two thousand years from the second half of the 7th millennium BC to the second half of the 5th millennium BC, in three phases, namely: Old, Middle and Late Neolithic. In general, archaeology defines two major cultural groups which existed in the Republic of Macedonia: the Velušina-Porodin in Pelagonija, and the Anzabegovo-Vršnik in Northern Macedonia. Science also mentions other groups besides the above stated, but their existence has still not been confirmed or valued. In order to present and demonstrate Neolithic art, we will emphasize the most remarkable artefacts discovered in the latest archaeological researches. These two groups have their own specificities, yet many common elements as well. Whenever necessary, some characteristic elements will be noted as a specificity of one group or the other.

The boundary of the Velušina-Porodin and the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group is an interesting one. In the oldest phase, the second group was limited to the territory whose centre was the Skopje region, Ovče Pole, the valleys of Bregalnica and rivers of Lakavica. In this phase, Polog and parts of the Skopje region were under the direct cultural influence of the Velušina-Porodin group. During the Middle Neolithic period, the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group began spreading throughout the entire Upper Vardar region, the Kumanovo region and the valleys and fields down the rivers Pčinja, Kriva Reka, Bregalnica, Lakavica, Strumica and Vardar up to Demir Kapija. The size of this territory was not reduced during the Late Neolithic period, but the natural resources were, which led to the abandonment of some settlements and concentration of life in a limited number of settlements. The territory of the Velušina-Porodin group was reduced and limited to Pelagonija only.

Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group

The oldest phases of the Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group, Anza-Vršnik I a-c, belong to the Old Neolithic period featuring white ornaments painted on a red background. This phase existed in the period between 6,300-6,100 and 5,800 BC. The main characteristic of white painted pottery is floral ornaments and the created floral style in the overall art of the group. White floral ornaments and the “wreath of fertility“, i.e. an olive tree, are the oldest Neolithic representations. Ornaments representing an olive branch are also featured on the gourd-shaped vessel discovered in Anzabegovo.

This stratum was revealed at many sites: Veluška Tumba,7

Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski

Neolithization of the Republic of Macedonia

Neolithic culture in the Republic of Macedonia, as represented in the Velušina-Porodin and Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group, belongs to the Balkan-Anatolian culture complex. It derived on a broad cultural basis from the process of primary neolithization through the predominant participation of monochrome polished and painted pottery. This process took place in the period from 6,400 to 6,100 BC. The research made thus far in the area of Neolithic in Macedonia has not discovered the existence of pre-pottery archaeological findings. These groups are a result of the migration from the south, i.e. from Thessaly. The direction of movement was through the Aegean part of Macedonia towards Pelagonia, and the oldest settlements of this kind are the Big Trnska Tumba and Pešterica. The Neolithic continues to spread north through Pešterica towards the Babuna river valley and Azot in the valley of Skopje. The oldest settlement in the Skopje region is Govrlevo, where the group starts to spread throughout the entire valley and towards the east in Ovče Pole, in the north towards the Kumanovo region, and via the Preshevo watershed up north to the Morava river valley. From Ovče Pole in the east down the Bregalnica river valley, the group spreads towards the Middle Struma region, and goes south down the river Lakavica towards the Strumica region. In Polog, the group is a result of the direct contacts with Pelagonia since the forms of pottery and decorations in the oldest layer of Tumba Stenče are identical with those from the Velušina-Porodin group. In this earliest phase, the contacts between Polog and Pelagonija are evident and real. But in the following phase, Middle Neolithic, the settlements in Polog established direct chronological and historical communication with their counterparts in the Skopje region.

Chronological framework and dates

During the archeological explorations, the findings assembled were analyzed with C-14 radioactive coal and thermoluminiscence. According to the results obtained, Anzabegovo I dates between 6,100 and 5,800 BC; Anzabegovo II 5,800; Anzabegovo III 5,300 and Anzabegovo IV from 5,200 to

5,000 BC.4

The analyzed materials from the second and third stratum of

Govrlevo can be qualified as dating back from 5,800 and 5,300 BC.5

The newest dates are those of the Eneolithic settlement of Pilavo in the village of Burilčevo, dating back to 4,540-4,330 BC for the

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40 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 41

Tumba Palčište,8 Tumba Stenče, Čubuk česma,9 Cerje-Govrlevo10

and others. The pottery from the oldest layer in Anzabegovo, according to the general features of forms and ornaments, demonstrates visible similarities with the Anatolian type. The connections with Thessaly, settlement phases from Protosesclo, Presesclo and Classical Sesclo, become more evident. Further in the evolution, during the entire Middle Neolithic period, the Anzabegovo ties with the Northern Starčevo group in Serbia. The leit-motive or the constant when it comes to the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group is the floral ornaments (vegetative), absent in this form in the Starčevo group, although persisting and evolving in the spiraloid or girlandoid style.11 In Starčevo, the primary

style is constructive and geometrical, whose origin, according to D. Srejović, can be directly derived from the engraved hanging triangles on the bones and sceptres from Lepenski Vir.

The biggest blossom of Neolithic culture in the Republic of Macedonia took place during the Middle or developed Neolithic. It is characterized with fine red pottery and dark brown ornaments on a red background. This phase lasts between 5,800 and 5,300 BC (Anzabegovo-Vršnik II-III). This was established in the developed phases at all sites: Anzabegovo, Tumba Madjari, Zelenikovo, Govrlevo, Rug Bair, Vršnik,12 and Mramori.13 In the

Velušina-Porodin group, brown painted pottery is very rare. What is also characteristic is the appearance of a brown or dark brown spiral on cups with a small ring – similar to a leg. Another distinguishable feature is the brown painted vertical and alternated thick and thin lines, often with vertical spirals between them. The floral style in pottery decoration continues with new aesthetic inventions. As a fashion trend of that period (Anzabegovo-Vršnik III), a new constructive geometric style appears, brought from the north as a Starchevo element. Artistic representations of the Magna Mater cult are predominant in cult sculpture.

The end of the middle/developed Neolithic period in Macedonia was marked by the appearance of the so-called “Vinča” Late Neolithic pottery.14 The stratigraphic data available determine

the last layer of Anzabegovo-Vršnik IV as Late Neolithic. Its major features are black polished and cannelured pottery, biconical profilation and handles. From a stratigraphic point of view, this pottery was found in a layer, which is highly susceptible to destruction. The findings in Anzabegovo, Rug Bair and Alin Dol in Ovče Pole and the last layer defined as Zelenikovo II, as well as the last layer in Tumba Palčište and Govrlevo, also belong to Anzabegovo-Vršnik IV, i.e. to the Late Neolithic period. This corresponds to the Vinča-Tordoš I phase in the North. At the same time, these elements are characteristic for the Paradimi culture in Northern Greece. East of Mount Pangei and Drama field up to the gulf of Thermai, a late Neolithic cultural group was formed under the name of Topolnica-Akropothamos.

Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia

The most important neolithic sites • Dolno Palčište Zubovce • • Stenče • Dolno Sedlarce • Govrlevo • Zelenikovo • Madjari•

Mrševci• Dolno Konjare

• Rug Bair

• Mamutčevo Barutnica Anzabegovo

• Čaška • Radin dol • Pešterica • Vrbjani • Vršnik • Damjan • Angelci Crničani • • Mogila • Gjorev Rid • Porodin Velušina • Karamani • • Trn • Ustie ◎ Skopje

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42 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 43

Cult sculpture in the Velušina-Porodin group is diverse. Anthropomorphic sculpture is also rich and diverse. The Neolithic artist was always intrigued by the human body. The most common presentations are those of female sculptures of the pillar-like and steatopygic type. The first ones are very simple, with hair, nose and primary and secondary sexual features. The hair is gathered in a bun. The second type features an emphasized steatopygia, small body and often a schematized or no head. The most frequent position is half bent, with arms placed on the belly and a small plastic disc on the pubis.

Zoomorphic sculpture features presentations of an ox or bull, deer, sheep and other animal. Sometimes these are mere stylized sculptures without any details, on the one hand, or realistically presented ones with great plasticity, on the other. What is also interesting are the sacrificial altars with deer protoma and one sample representing a turtle. The two back legs are sculpted with two small thickenings presented plastically as being lowered, i.e. reminiscent of layers of thick and layered skin. The recipient has a curved form with an accentuated in-drawn wreath. The heads have tall necks with a throat, small mouths and thickenings on the back side. These are presented as if emerging or stretching out from the recipient. A small furnace is placed between the heads. A similar furnace is found in the altar foundation of a house in Tumba Porodin. This particular detail allows us to assume with great certainty that these two altars, discovered in the same house, were in fact made by one and the same person. Another sample of a turtle is the one found in Vrbjanska Čuka. Well sculpted heads of dears with horns and an ibex were also discovered in Pelagonija.

What is of particular interest are the models of houses featuring a two feet roof with anthropomorphic cylinders on top (used as chimneys) of the Great Mother type, as are the altars without roofs, only with triangular lateral walls set upon tall serrated pedestals (are these in fact palaphites?). The aforementioned points to the fact that Neolithic man from Pelagonija worshipped the house and household/fireplace. Such foundations of houses are also found in the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group. A model of a stylized house, similar to the Pelagonija models, is the altar from Vršnik, also dating back from the Late Neolithic.18

Floral style in painted pottery

The phenomenon of floral ornaments in the decoration of pottery vessels and their forms, defined as the floral style, was noticed in the very first excavations performed in 1960 in Anzabegovo by

Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski

Velušina-Porodin cultural group

This group existed in four internal phases I-IV, from the end of the 7th until the end of the 5th millennium BC, when Late Neolithic disappears completely. Just as in Northern Macedonia and in Pelagonija, settlements of the tumba type are most

common. Settlements on river terraces are fewer: Pešterica,15

Vlaku in the village of Živojno, and Bela Crkva near the village of

Brod.16 Houses were built in the exact same manner, with the use

of reed, beams and sometimes with a sub-construction of piles below the floor to serve as insulation from humidity. The mock houses made of pottery provide the best illustration for these residential facilities. A trapezoid house from the Late Neolithic period was discovered in Tumba Porodin. The group existed in Pelagonija, in natural surroundings and conditions completely identical to the landscape around the settlements from the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group.

The Velušina-Porodin group is older than the Anzabegovo-Vršnik one and was developed under the direct influence of the Early Neolithic period in Thessaly. Pelagonija offered excellent conditions for agriculture and cattle-breeding, enabling the group to exist in relative well-being. The pottery manufactured by the group demonstrates unity in all phases and generally shows the same features. The Old Neolithic period features the predominance of rough red barbotine pottery with finger traces, arcade (organized barbotine, plastic stripes with fingerprints in larger vessels) pythos, pots, plates and cups. The Impresso technique is used in small-sized vessels. These are mainly ornaments with impressions, nail prints, pitches in the form of a wheat ear and wheat grains, also present in

Anzabegovo-Vršnik group pottery.17 Fine pottery is either monochrome or

painted. These are bowls with semi-globular, profiled neck vessels, amphorae, covers, and cups with small conical legs. The facture of the pottery is good, being well polished and shiny. The ornaments are angular with triangles, clepsydrae, and cascade stripes painted in white.

The Middle Neolithic period continues to feature rough vessels decorated with unorganized barbotine and impresso pricks. Fine pottery in crimson red also appears, painted with white coloured ornaments in the form of the letter “Z”, sigmas, and cascade stripes.

During the Late Neolithic rough pottery continues to exist, with the predominance of grey and brown. Fine pottery features ornaments from the Middle Neolithic: dots, crescents, triangles, and elongated angles.

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44 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 45

art of Macedonia. It would perhaps be exaggerated to say that it is part of the folklore and is the bearer of common cultural and artistic elements of the group, which reunites the “ethnos” that existed on the territory of Northern Macedonia and Pelagonija in the period between 6,300 and 4,200 BC.

The Great Mother Cult

The most astonishing phenomenon in the Neolithic period in Macedonia are the altars of the Great Mother type. The oldest form of primaeval idea for the Great Mother is the altar discovered in Tumba Stenče. It is made from a rectangular pedestal – a house, with 2 rectangular openings and 2 openings in the form of the letter M, set on opposite sides. It speaks of the ancient cult of the Great Mother, beginning from the Old Neolithic, throughout the entire Middle Neolithic and the connection between the Anzabegovo-Vršnik and Velušina-Porodin cultural group.

The first entirely preserved one was discovered in house 1 in 1981

in Tumba Madjari.19 This sample, with its impressive dimensions

of 0.39m in height, classic calm pose of emerging from the house and at the same time protecting its peace and household, makes this terracotta presentation exclusive.

The philosophical idea for the primaeval mother, from whom everything begins, is presented as a cylinder with basic

anthropomorphic features: Eyes, nose, often without a mouth, rarely presented with breasts and a belly-button, hands with bracelets firmly placed upon the house as if holding it (presented in an irregular cubic shape), with various forms of window openings. On the bottom of the foundation of the house, some samples have a hole vertically communicating with the opening in the middle of the cylinder. This might be a communication between the Earth and the Sky. The sample from Cerje-Govrlevo is in advanced gravidity. One of the samples from Tumba

Madjari is 31.5 cm tall, without hands, but the house is especially prominent as opposed to the cylinder and face. Therefore we believe that in this sample the house dominates the anthropos. This is also implied by the greater number of openings in the walls. A classic example of this kind is from Tumba Porodin with a model of a house. Such are the models from Dobromiri and Veluška Tumba, for example. Especially remarkable is the sample from Tumba Madjari, with the artistically sculpted hair styled in double braids and gathered with a hairpin. Gentle bangs are painted in red on the forehead; the nose is small, whereas the eyes are presented with a simple incision. The artist paid particular attention to hairstyles – some of them are in the

Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski

Josip Korošec. Later excavations only confirmed this hypothesis. We wish to emphasize this as a very important element of the Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group. Beginning from the earliest phases, throughout the Middle Neolithic, and up to the Late Neolithic, the ornament representing a wreath of leaves is present in the entire ceramographic corpus. This style is in fact the folklore phenomenon imminent to the people within the Anzabegovo-Vršnik group. This goes along with the gourd (pumpkin) as a basis and inspiration for the manufacture of vessels – amphorae. These are the most beautiful and impressive forms of vessel found in the settlements of our groups. The three amphorae discovered in houses 1 and 3 in Tumba Madjari are the first artefacts on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia for which it can be said with great certainty that they were in fact made by one master. Some of the cups from house 1 in Tumba Madjari were also the work of this craftsman.

When it comes to painted pottery and impresso decorated pottery, floral ornaments are constantly present in all phases of the Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group. In the Old Neolithic, these are realistically painted white olive leaves. They are placed with their roots in a double row, facing the bottom of the vessel in a vertical row. The fertility wreath or garland is painted in brown over a red or light ochre background on amphorae and cups.

Cups are vessels deriving from a simple semi-globular shape with an indrawn wreath, slightly accentuated belly and a small ring-like leg. At the beginning, they were not decorated with painting. They further developed into bell-shaped vessels with a soft S profile luxuriously decorated over an enrobe with vertical lines and triangles. By the end of the Middle Neolithic period, it acquires a baroque-like S profile with a thickened wreath and well polished gloss finish decorated with spirals and vertical lines, hanging triangles or combinations of the two. In the late Neolithic period, this shape of vessel acquires a sharp S profile, with turban cannelures on the shoulder and a shiny grey metallic colour, placed upon a taller hollow leg.

The garland is painted on many pottery vessels: the small and big amphora from Tumba Madjari, the cup from Rug Bair, fragments from cups found in Anzabegovo, Tumba Mrševci, etc. It is the favourite ornament throughout the entire Neolithic and is painted with the intention to dominate, since it represents a closed and defined micro-universe. It is an abstract geometric representation of floral elements painted on pottery. Its usage is present in the Neolithic culture, and the Late Neolithic period marks its end. The last presentation of engraved rhombuses is featured on the figurine from the river Drim estuary in Struga. In the Eneolithic, the steatopygic figurines have secondary rhombuses or tertiary ornaments. These are the distant echoes of the floral style in the

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46 Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia 47

At first sight, just formally, it is very much reminiscent of the later Cycladic idols. In the Late Neolithic, the figurines are thinner and feature secondary sexual characteristics as well. The appearance of male presentations is much more frequent in this period. The shapes are elongated and have emphasized sexual characteristics, with grey baking. Very often, the figurines were only presented as heads with the basic features – nose, eyes and sometimes a mouth. The hairstyle is often very carefully and artistically presented.

The zoomorphic sculpture is diverse and intriguing. Neolithic man was focused on providing food, and thus owed his well-being to agriculture and cattle-breeding. With this in mind, Neolithic man respected certain animals and created cults dedicated to them throughout the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras. The biggest cult created was that of the bull. One sample discovered in Tumba Madjari has a human face and is reminiscent of ancient centaurs. Some researchers believe that the recipients were used

for storing wheat and seeds for the next sowing.20

A ceramic depiction of a ram (bull) head – bukranion – was

discovered in Tumba Madjari.21 With its natural size, incrusted

white lean paint (perhaps ash?) in the nostrils, and openings intended for incorporating natural horns, it speaks of the cult of the ram or bull. Just as the other sculptures, it points to the high artistic and aesthetic achievements of pottery makers and sculptors from Tumba. Since the back side is completely smooth, it was probably applied to the facade of a house.

The third category of cult objects are altars, often present at all archaeological sites. The basic form of an altar is a table with a recipient and a pedestal. It can be a small plate with the bottom set upon a table with four legs of different height. It can also be a shallow recipient incorporated in the table, with a slightly profiled wreath. The older ones are triangular with a hollowed round recipient. These types of altars have vertical rectangular or round legs, often interconnected with a set of encarved triangles. Some samples have serrated arcs, especially those of the Velušina-Porodin group.

A special type of altar represents a foundation of a house with a rectangular shape, a deeper recipient and a plastically defined fireplace. These are present throughout the Neolithic. The exhibition presents the works of Neolithic masters whose artistic values enable their artistic and stylistic classification. At present, science has systematized and identified only two: Floral ornaments in the decoration of pottery and the Great Mother cult. This cult is spread on the entire territory of Macedonia. It has been a fundamental belief on the territory of the

Velušina-Neolithic Art in the Republic of Macedonia Dragiša Zdravkovski

African style, some are only marked by incisions, etc. In general, hairstyles speak of the extraordinary rich fashion of the Neolithic woman. All known samples demonstrate different treatment of the eyes. Thus, the sample from Tumba Palčište differs from all the other known samples whose eyes are either incised or slightly accentuated. This particular sample has impressive eyes. The iris is plastically sculpted and placed in a beautiful almond-like eye whose eyelids finish with a long plastic line, leaving the impression of make-up. Some samples have incised eyes, others half-open, some wide open, and others with lowered upper eyelids. In certain samples, the mouth is flippingly incised, whereas in others it is more emphasized – in one sample found in Tumba Madjari, it expresses crying. The Tumba Mogila sample features a particular grace and elegance – the mouth is closed, and along with the shy look it is reminiscent of a “primo baccio”. The faces featured on Pelagonija cylinders have a triangular shape reminiscent of masks. The cylinders are shaped from unrefined earth around wood, whose remains are visible in the positive aspect.

Today we know that the cylinders and the Great Mother were not made in usum mortuorum, i.e. did not have a funerary function. This is best proven by the Great Mother from Govrlevo, presented with full breasts and an advanced stage of gravidity. They were most probably related to the cult of fertility.

Thanks to its simplicity, a special place may be given to the head of a woman, remarkably sculpted in its natural size. The face is flat, with incised and plastically shaped eyes and nose, and no mouth. The hairstyle features deep plastic tailings or braids gathered on one side in a bun, discovered in Tumba Madjari. Is this perhaps part of a monumental Great Mother sculpture?

Cult sculpture

One of the particularly interesting categories in Neolithic art is anthropomorphic and zoomorphic cult sculpture. The most common representations in the first category are those of a woman. In the middle Neolithic stage, female figurines are steatopygic (or pear-like idols, as they are often called), sculpted from two identical halves, which are merged afterwards. The head is usually missing. The groins are emphasized with a single incised triangle. In Tumba Madjari, a sample sculpted in white stone with an emphasized steatopygia, small breasts, thin neck and torsive arms, the head is missing. The small white stone head with an accentuated nose was also discovered at the same site. The natural shape of the stone was used to the maximum. The figurine is well sculpted, with an excellent sense of shape, a large nose and a small, barely visible trace of red on the forehead.

Figure

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References

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