O Apocalipse Para Leigos - Você Pode Entender a Profecia Bíblica

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O Apocalipse para leigos

O Apocalipse para leigos

 — v

 — você

ocê

 pod

 podee

entender a profecia bíblica — 

entender a profecia bíblica — 

Kenneth L. Gentry Jr., Th.D.

Kenneth L. Gentry Jr., Th.D.

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Dedicado a

Dedicado a

Steve Hill

Steve Hill

 — fiel

 — fiel servo de Cri

servo de Cristo,

sto,

meu bom amigo.

meu bom amigo.

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Sumário

Sumário

Prefácio à

Prefácio à

segu

segu

nda edição

nda edição

Prefácio

Prefácio

Abreviatu

Abreviatu

ras

ras

de

de

escritos

escritos

ant

ant

igos

igos

1. Expectat

1. Expectat

iva

iva

e i

e i

n

n

terpretação

terpretação

A expectativa de João

A expectativa de João

A interpretação de João

A interpretação de João

A confirmação de João

A confirmação de João

Conclusão

Conclusão

2. Tema e fluxo literário

2. Tema e fluxo literário

Tema literário

Tema literário

Fluxo temático do julgamento

Fluxo temático do julgamento

Conclusão

Conclusão

3. A besta e sua fúria

3. A besta e sua fúria

Introdução

Introdução

O tempo da besta

O tempo da besta

A

A

locali

locali

zação da besta

zação da besta

A autoridade da besta

A autoridade da besta

A cronologia da besta

A cronologia da besta

O caráter da bes

O caráter da bes

ta

ta

O número da besta

O número da besta

A ação da besta

A ação da besta

A ressu

A ressu

rreiç

rreiç

ão da

ão da

besta

besta

Conclusão

Conclusão

4. A meretriz e a noiva

4. A meretriz e a noiva

O tema do Apocalipse

O tema do Apocalipse

A grande cidade

A grande cidade

A questão da proeminência histórica

A questão da proeminência histórica

O sangue dos santos

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Conclusão

Conclusão

5. Julgamentos principais e seus significados

5. Julgamentos principais e seus significados

A queda das montanhas e esconderijos nas cavernas

A queda das montanhas e esconderijos nas cavernas

O sang

O sang

u

u

e cor

e cor

rendo e os freios

rendo e os freios

dos caval

dos caval

os

os

Conclusão

Conclusão

6. O m

6. O m

ilênio e as

ilênio e as

ressurreições

ressurreições

O reino milenar De Cristo

O reino milenar De Cristo

Os mil anos

Os mil anos

A prisão de Satanás

A prisão de Satanás

O reino de Cris

O reino de Cris

to

to

As du

As du

as ress

as ress

urreições

urreições

7. A n

7. A n

ova cri

ova cri

ação e

ação e

a igreja

a igreja

A nova criação declarada

A nova criação declarada

A descrição da

A descrição da

nova n

nova n

oiva

oiva

A au

A au

sência

sência

de templo

de templo

Conclusão

Conclusão

Conclusão

Conclusão

Princípios básicos

Princípios básicos

Personag

Personag

ens e ações

ens e ações

principais

principais

Concordância

Concordância

do Novo

do Novo

T

T

estamen

estamen

to

to

Bibliografia

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Prefácio à segunda

Prefácio à segunda edi

edição

ção

Sou grato pela recepção entusiasmada da primeira edição de

Sou grato pela recepção entusiasmada da primeira edição de

O Apocalipse para leigos

O Apocalipse para leigos

. Também

. Também

agradeço a disposição da American Vision de publicar esta nova edição. Neste novo prefácio,

agradeço a disposição da American Vision de publicar esta nova edição. Neste novo prefácio,

apresentarei um

apresentarei uma breve

a breve explicação da

explicação da nnecessida

ecessidade da nova versão.

de da nova versão.

Depois de cinco anos de intensa pesquisa e escrita, acabo de completar o rascunho do me

Depois de cinco anos de intensa pesquisa e escrita, acabo de completar o rascunho do me

comentário de 1500 páginas sobre o Apocalipse. Pelo fato de eu ter trabalhado todos os versículos do

comentário de 1500 páginas sobre o Apocalipse. Pelo fato de eu ter trabalhado todos os versículos do

Apocalipse com profundidade, descobri alguns elementos de minha compreensão anterior que

Apocalipse com profundidade, descobri alguns elementos de minha compreensão anterior que

precisavam de correção. De forma específica, fiz algumas mudanças importantes na minha compreensão

precisavam de correção. De forma específica, fiz algumas mudanças importantes na minha compreensão

de Apocalipse 20, o grande capítulo em torno do qual o debate milenar se concentra. Assim, corrigi o

de Apocalipse 20, o grande capítulo em torno do qual o debate milenar se concentra. Assim, corrigi o

capítulo 6 da primeira edição: “O milênio e a nova criação”.

capítulo 6 da primeira edição: “O milênio e a nova criação”.

Dada a necessidade de trazer mais material para o debate de Apocalipse 20, decidi transformar o

Dada a necessidade de trazer mais material para o debate de Apocalipse 20, decidi transformar o

capítulo 6 da primeira edição em dois capítulos. Assim, nesta edição, o capítulo 6 é agora intitulado: “O

capítulo 6 da primeira edição em dois capítulos. Assim, nesta edição, o capítulo 6 é agora intitulado: “O

m

milênio e as

ilênio e as ressurreições”

ressurreições”, e o ca

, e o capítu

pítulo 7 a

lo 7 agora se cham

gora se chama: “A n

a: “A nova cri

ova criação e

ação e a igreja”.

a igreja”.

Nenhuma das minhas convicções preteristas foi alterada por essas mudanças. Na verdade, elas

Nenhuma das minhas convicções preteristas foi alterada por essas mudanças. Na verdade, elas

foram fortalecidas. Caso você tenha lido a primeira edição do meu livro, espero que você considere as

foram fortalecidas. Caso você tenha lido a primeira edição do meu livro, espero que você considere as

m

mudan

udanças

ças encont

encontrada

radas a

s aqui úteis.

qui úteis.

 ― K

 ― Keen

nn

neeth L

th L. Ge

. Gen

ntry Jr

try Jr., Th

., Th. D.

. D.

 Dia do

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Prefácio

Prefácio

Ambrose Bierce definiu o vocábulo “apocalipse” em

Ambrose Bierce definiu o vocábulo “apocalipse” em

The Devil’s Dictionary

The Devil’s Dictionary

[[

 Dicionári

 Dicionário

o do

do diabo

diabo

]]

como um “livro famoso em que João ocultou todo o seu conhecimento. A revelação é feita pelos

como um “livro famoso em que João ocultou todo o seu conhecimento. A revelação é feita pelos

comentaristas que nada sabem”. O Apocalipse é tão difícil e requer tanto conhecimento técnico que um

comentaristas que nada sabem”. O Apocalipse é tão difícil e requer tanto conhecimento técnico que um

teólogo já reclamou que os comentários do Apocalipse muitas vezes são como um buraco negro, tão

teólogo já reclamou que os comentários do Apocalipse muitas vezes são como um buraco negro, tão

densos q

densos que nen

ue nenhu

hum

ma l

a luz lh

uz lhes

es pode

pode esca

escapar.

par.

U

Um

ma

a das

das gran

grandes

des ironias

ironias da

da Escritu

Escritura

ra é

é qu

que

e seu

seu livro

livro m

mais

ais difícil

difícil cham

chama-se

a-se “Apocalipse”

“Apocalipse”

[”revelação”, em grego]. “Revelar” significa “descobrir, abrir” — com vistas à compreensão. Como

[”revelação”, em grego]. “Revelar” significa “descobrir, abrir” — com vistas à compreensão. Como

pode um livro tão intrincado como esse ser chamado “revelação”? Se déssemos nome ao livro, em vez de

pode um livro tão intrincado como esse ser chamado “revelação”? Se déssemos nome ao livro, em vez de

chamá-lo “Revelação de Jesus Cristo”, poderíamos ser tentados a intitulá-lo “Mistério do apóstolo

chamá-lo “Revelação de Jesus Cristo”, poderíamos ser tentados a intitulá-lo “Mistério do apóstolo

João”. Na verdade, de tempos em tempos, o próprio João fica perplexo e confuso (Ap 7.13,14; 17.6,7;

João”. Na verdade, de tempos em tempos, o próprio João fica perplexo e confuso (Ap 7.13,14; 17.6,7;

19.10; 22.8,9).

19.10; 22.8,9).

U

Um

ma

a das

das surpresa

surpresas

s constant

constantes

es da

da experiê

experiência

ncia pastora

pastoral l é

é o

o profun

profundo

do interesse

interesse do

do novo

novo convertido

convertido

em estudar o Apocalipse. A fascinação com seus mistérios não se limita aos bem preparados em estudos

em estudar o Apocalipse. A fascinação com seus mistérios não se limita aos bem preparados em estudos

cristãos, prontos para as coisas mais profundas de Deus. Essa curiosidade percorre todo o caminho de

cristãos, prontos para as coisas mais profundas de Deus. Essa curiosidade percorre todo o caminho de

volta até os crentes mais novos em Cristo.

volta até os crentes mais novos em Cristo.

U

Um

ma

a das

das grandes

grandes dece

decepçõe

pções

s do

do exegeta

exegeta cri

cristão

stão séri

sério

o consiste

consiste na

na quase

quase inu

inutili

tilidade

dade da

da

proliferação de literatura sobre o Apocalipse. Quando combinamos a natureza misteriosa do Apocalipse

proliferação de literatura sobre o Apocalipse. Quando combinamos a natureza misteriosa do Apocalipse

com a fascin

com a fascinação

ação cont

contínu

ínua por

a por ele,

ele, o mercado está pronto para gerar

o mercado está pronto para gerar todo tipo de

todo tipo de supost

supostos “es

os “especial

pecialistas

istas

em profecias” para atender à demanda. Em vez de nutrir-se com o puro leite da Palavra, não raro o novo

em profecias” para atender à demanda. Em vez de nutrir-se com o puro leite da Palavra, não raro o novo

cristão é alimentado com um milk-shake de interpretações confusas sobre o Apocalipse.

cristão é alimentado com um milk-shake de interpretações confusas sobre o Apocalipse.

Neste

Neste pequen

pequeno

o estu

estudo,

do, você

você descobrir

descobrirá

á as

as chaves

chaves absolut

absolutam

ament

ente

e essenciais

essenciais para

para destravar

destravar aa

mensagem de João, os marcos necessários para seguir seu sinuoso caminho, e as identificações

mensagem de João, os marcos necessários para seguir seu sinuoso caminho, e as identificações

requeridas para discernir suas figuras principais e seus papéis. Não oferecerei uma exposição completa

requeridas para discernir suas figuras principais e seus papéis. Não oferecerei uma exposição completa

do texto; em vez disso, eu me concentrarei nas chaves necessárias para abrir seu significado.

do texto; em vez disso, eu me concentrarei nas chaves necessárias para abrir seu significado.[1]

[1]

  Espero

  Espero

que este texto introdutório ajude-o a entender o significado fundamental e a força propulsora geral do

que este texto introdutório ajude-o a entender o significado fundamental e a força propulsora geral do

Apocalipse, poi

(29)

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Abreviaturas de escritos antigos

Abreviaturas de escritos antigos

Asc. Is.

Asc. Is.

 A

 Ascensi

scension of Isai

on of Isaiah

ah

[[

 A

 Ascensão de I

scensão de Isaías

saías

]]

1 Clem

1 Clem

1 Clement

1 Clement

[[

1 Clemente

1 Clemente

]]

Sib.

Sib. Or

Or..

Sibylline Oracles

Sibylline Oracles

 [

 [

Oráculo

Oráculos s

s sibilinos

ibilinos

]]

Dião Cássio

Dião Cássio

 Rom. H

 Rom. Hist.

ist.

 Roman H

 Roman Histor

istoryy

 [

 [

 Históri

 História rom

a romana

ana

]]

Josefo

Josefo

g. Ap.

g. Ap.

 A

 Against Apion

gainst Apion

[[

Contra Apião

Contra Apião

]]

nt.

nt.

Jewish Antiquities

Jewish Antiquities

 [

 [

 A

 Antiguidade

ntiguidades judaic

s judaicas

as

]]

W

War

ar

Jewis

Jewish W

h War

ar

 [

 [

Guerra dos judeus

Guerra dos judeus

]]

Juvenal

Juvenal

Sat.

Sat.

Satires

Satires

 [

 [

Sátiras

Sátiras

]]

Fílon

Fílon

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1. Expectativa e interpretação

1. Expectativa e interpretação

Neste capítulo apresentarei duas questões vitais e fundamentais para o entendimento adequado do

Neste capítulo apresentarei duas questões vitais e fundamentais para o entendimento adequado do

Apocalipse. No próximo capítulo, focarei no tema exposto por João, e então traçarei em pinceladas

Apocalipse. No próximo capítulo, focarei no tema exposto por João, e então traçarei em pinceladas

amplas como seu tema se desdobra no Apocalipse. Por conseguinte, os dois primeiros capítulos têm o

amplas como seu tema se desdobra no Apocalipse. Por conseguinte, os dois primeiros capítulos têm o

objetivo de p

objetivo de prover as

rover as ferram

ferrament

entas bási

as básicas para

cas para o m

o manejo do Apocalipse.

anejo do Apocalipse.

As duas questões tão cruciais para captar a intenção de João são: 1)

As duas questões tão cruciais para captar a intenção de João são: 1) a afirmação de sua

a afirmação de sua

expect

expectativa sobre

ativa sobre

quando

quando

suas profecias transcorrerão; e 2)

suas profecias transcorrerão; e 2) oo

método declarado

método declarado

relativo a

relativo a

como

como

as suas

as suas

profecias devem ser interpretadas. Como veremos, essas matérias são essenciais para “manejar bem”

profecias devem ser interpretadas. Como veremos, essas matérias são essenciais para “manejar bem”

essa porção da Palavra da verdade (2Tm 2.15). Embora elas possam surpreendê-lo, insto você a

essa porção da Palavra da verdade (2Tm 2.15). Embora elas possam surpreendê-lo, insto você a

exam

examinar as Escr

inar as Escritu

ituras pa

ras para ver

ra ver se as

se as coisas

coisas são assi

são assim

m (At 17.1

(At 17.11).

1).

Surpreendentemente, as duas matérias encontram-se no capítulo inicial de João. Elas não estão

Surpreendentemente, as duas matérias encontram-se no capítulo inicial de João. Elas não estão

escondidas atrás de todo o drama fantástico no centro do palco, perdidas sob o brilho de imagens

escondidas atrás de todo o drama fantástico no centro do palco, perdidas sob o brilho de imagens

aterradoras. Infelizmente, no entanto, o entusiasta moderno do Apocalipse tende a passar rápido por elas

aterradoras. Infelizmente, no entanto, o entusiasta moderno do Apocalipse tende a passar rápido por elas

no desejo de “chegar logo à boa parte” dos capítulos posteriores. Porém, tão logo essas duas questões

no desejo de “chegar logo à boa parte” dos capítulos posteriores. Porém, tão logo essas duas questões

sejam consideradas com cuidado, elas simplificarão e revolucionarão seu entendimento do livro, que

sejam consideradas com cuidado, elas simplificarão e revolucionarão seu entendimento do livro, que

ent

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A

A

EXPECTATIVA

EXPECTATIVA DE

DE

 J

 J

OÃO

O

Antes de eu anunciar a expectativa de João, elaborarei meu argumento para dá-lo a conhecer em seguida.

Antes de eu anunciar a expectativa de João, elaborarei meu argumento para dá-lo a conhecer em seguida.

O Apocalipse, como a maioria das epístolas do Novo Testamento, é um escrito “peculiar”. Um

O Apocalipse, como a maioria das epístolas do Novo Testamento, é um escrito “peculiar”. Um

escrito peculiar lida de forma direta com a ocasião e as circunstâncias históricas do público originário.

escrito peculiar lida de forma direta com a ocasião e as circunstâncias históricas do público originário.

Por exemplo, em 1 Coríntios, Paulo orienta como a igreja de Corinto deve lidar com diversos problemas

Por exemplo, em 1 Coríntios, Paulo orienta como a igreja de Corinto deve lidar com diversos problemas

que tanto feriram essa comunidade. Quando ele escreve que alguém lá se relaciona sexualmente com a

que tanto feriram essa comunidade. Quando ele escreve que alguém lá se relaciona sexualmente com a

mulher do próprio pai (1Co 5.1), Paulo não está declarando um princípio universal prevalente em todas

mulher do próprio pai (1Co 5.1), Paulo não está declarando um princípio universal prevalente em todas

as igrejas. De fato, trata-se de uma ocorrência bem rara e particular dos coríntios. Entender a situação

as igrejas. De fato, trata-se de uma ocorrência bem rara e particular dos coríntios. Entender a situação

histórica do público originário de João é de importância fundamental para compreender a intenção

histórica do público originário de João é de importância fundamental para compreender a intenção

dele

dele

..

A relevância do público

A relevância do público

O primeiro passo pa

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 j jululgas, nem vingas, nem vingas gas o nosso sao nosso sangungue e dodos s quque e habihabitam stam sobobre re a a terra? terra? EntãoEntão, a , a cada cada um delum deles es foi dadfoi dada a umuma a vestivestidudura ra branca, e branca, e llheshes disseram que repousassem ainda por pouco tempo, até que também se completasse o número dos seus conservos e seus irmãos disseram que repousassem ainda por pouco tempo, até que também se completasse o número dos seus conservos e seus irmãos que iam ser mortos como igualmente eles foram. (Ap 6.9-11)

que iam ser mortos como igualmente eles foram. (Ap 6.9-11)

Assim, João não apenas escreve às igrejas do século I, mas a igrejas em circunstâncias terríveis. O que

Assim, João não apenas escreve às igrejas do século I, mas a igrejas em circunstâncias terríveis. O que

João e

João espera

spera dessas

dessas igrejas e

igrejas em sof

m sofrim

riment

ento enqu

o enquant

anto escr

o escreve o

eve o Apocalipse?

Apocalipse?

s igrejas instruídas

s igrejas instruídas

Quando João inicia sua carta às sete igrejas, ele declara com ênfase a intenção de que elas o entendam.

Quando João inicia sua carta às sete igrejas, ele declara com ênfase a intenção de que elas o entendam.

De fat

De fato, o versí

o, o versículo inicial (de

culo inicial (de onde se retirou o n

onde se retirou o nom

ome do l

e do livro)

ivro) diz:

diz:

 Revelaçã

 Revelaçã oo [ [apokalypsisapokalypsis] de Jesus Cristo, que Deus lhe deu para] de Jesus Cristo, que Deus lhe deu paramostrarmostrar aos aosseus servosseus servos […][…] que ele, enviando por intermédioque ele, enviando por intermédio

do seu anjo,

do seu anjo,notificounotificou ao seu servo João. (Ap 1.1) ao seu servo João. (Ap 1.1)

Ele expressamente afirma a pretensão de “revelar”, “mostrar”, “notificar” algo a elas — e não esconder

Ele expressamente afirma a pretensão de “revelar”, “mostrar”, “notificar” algo a elas — e não esconder

informações delas.

informações delas.

Assim,

Assim, dois

dois vers

versículos

ículos adi

adiante,

ante, ele

ele as

as instrui

instrui a

a ouvir

ouvir com

com enten

entendimen

dimento,

to, para

para que

que possa

possam

m

gu

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :
Outline : FílonFílon